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Educational   Charters 
and   Documents 

598  to   1909 


aonUon:   FETTER  LANE,  E.G. 

C  F.  CLAY,  Manager 

CUmfaurBb:   loo,  PRINCES  STREET 

Bftlin:   A.  ASHER  AND  CO. 

ILtipjifl:   F.  A.  BROCKHAUS 

l^ttogork:   G.  P.  PUTNAM'S  SONS 

JSombag  anti  Calcutta:  MACMILLAN  AND  CO.,  Ltu. 

All  ■>  tgflts   rcSe)  V(d 

Educational    Charters 
and    Documents 

598    to    1909 


formerly   Fellow  of  All  Souls  College,  Oxford 

Cambridge : 

at   the   University    Press 
191  I 

Cambridge : 

i'KINTED    BY   JOHN    CLAY,    Xf.A. 



Dunwich(?)  and  Canterbury  Schools.     631 

Teaching  of  Archbishop  Theodore.     668 

Song  Schools  at    Canterbury,  York   and   Rochester.     63 j 


Some  pupils  of  Theodore  and  Hadrian.     693-709 

Aldhelm's  Studies,     c.  680 

Alcuin  on  York  School.     732-786  .... 

Grammar,  Song  and  Writing  Schools  separated.     796 
Alcuin  on   Hexham  School,     c.   797      .... 
Canon   Law   orders   bishops  to  provide  Grammar  Schools 


State  of  Education  in   England.     871-893   . 

Education  of  .A.lfred  and  his  children  according  to  Asser 

c.   looi 

King  Edgars   Educational  Canons,     c.  960 
Educational  Canons  of  994  (?)       ..... 
Abbot  Aelfric's  Colloquy  edited  by  Aelfric   Baia 
Aelfric's  English-Latin   Grammar  .... 

King    Canute    founds     Public    Schools    and     E.xhibitions 

c.    1020     ......... 

A   Scholar's   Rank.      1029-60  ..... 

Waltham   Holy  Cross  School.      1060   1 177   . 
Warwick  School  A'w/.   Edward  the  Confessor     . 
Dunwich   .School  granted  to  Eye   Priory.      1076- 1083 
Lanfranc's  Constitutions,     c.    1075         .... 

Pontefract   School.      1075-1087      ..... 

Hastings   Grammar  and  Song  Schools  before    1090    . 
York  School.      1075    1090       ...... 

Salisbury  School  in  the   Institution  of  St  Osmund.      1091 
Christ  Church  (Hants)   School,      iioo  .... 

Gloucester  .School,     c.    1  100 

Beverle\'  Grammar-Schoolmaster  in  love.     c.    1  100 




Table  of  Contents 

St  Albans  and  Dunstable  Schools,     c.    iicx? 

St  Paul's  School,     c.   1 1 1 1 

Thetford  School  restored  to  secular  government,     c.   1114 
London  Schools  in  Thonias-a-Becket's  boyhood.     11 18 
Appointment  of  Master  of  St  Paul's  School,     c.   1125 
Warwick  School  contested  between  two  Collegiate  Churches 


Monopoly  of  St  Paul's  School  enforced  by  excommunica- 
tion,    c.   1138 

Huntingdon  School  granted  to  Huntingdon  Priory.     11 27 
Dunstable  School  granted  to  Dunstable  Priory.     1131 
Reading  School  placed  under  Reading  Abbey  between  1125 

and   1 1 39 

Gloucester  School  granted  to  Llanthony  Abbey.     11 37 

Synod  of  Westminster  forbids  hiring  out  Schools.     1138 

Endowment  of  Salisbury  School.     11 39 

Bristol  School  under  the  Kalendars'  Gild.     c.    1141    . 

The  Origin  of  Oxford  University,     c.   1 133-11 50 

Grant  of  Derby  School  to  Darley  Abbey  confirmed,    c.  115 

Grant    to    Derby    School   of    School    and    Boarding-house 

c.   1 160 

Winchester  School  dispute  appealed  to  Pope.     c.   11 59 
Bedford  .School  transferred  from  secular  to  regular  Canons 

c.    1160     . 
.Alexander  Neckham's  education  at  St  Albans  School  and 

Paris  University.     1167-1173  .... 

Pope   Alexander    111    forbids    fees   for   licences    to    teach 

1 1 60- 1 172 
Exhibitioner  at   Xurthampton   -School.      1176-8    . 
The  Lateran  Council  orders  Cathedral  .Schools  to  be  free 


Exhibitions  of  Durham  Schoolboys  in  the  Cathedral  Priory 

-Almonry.      1190   1230      ...... 

York  School  separately  endowed.      1180   i  191 
Bury  St  Edmunds  School  endowed.      11  So- 1198 
St  Albans  and  Dunstable  Schools,     c.    11  S3 
Royal   Exhibitioners  at  Oxford,     c.    1200 
-Mathematics  at  Oxford,     c.    1200  .         -         .  . 

Table  of  Contents 

Council  of  London  forbids  fees  for  licences  to  teach,     i: 

Priests'  Schools  in  Council  of  Westminster.     I200 

A  Royal  Exhibitioner  at  Winchester.     1205 

Secession  of  Oxford  scholars  to  Cambridge  and  Reading, 


All  Cathedrals  to  keep  Grammar  and  Theological  schools 


University  students  excused  from   residence  on  benefices 


Beneficed  clergy  ordered  to  attend  schools.     1219-1225 
Cambridge  University  first  mentioned.      1231 
Marlborough  Schoolmaster  acts  as  judge  in   ecclesiastical 

case.     1232      ........ 

Northampton  Vicar  ordered  to  attend  Northampton  School 


University  scholars  at  Northampton  and  Salisbury.      1238. 
Newark    Grammar    School   and    Chancellor    of    Southwell 

Minster.     1238 

Grammar   and    Logic    Schools    connected    with    Southwell 

Minster.     1248 

Northampton  University  encouraged  and  suppressed.     1261- 


The   earliest   University   College  in   England  at   Salisbury 

1262  ......... 

Jurisdiction  over   University  scholars  at  Salisbury.      1278 
Foundation  of  Merton  College  at  Maiden,  Surrey.      1264 
Re-foundation  of  Merton  College  at  Oxford.      1274    . 
Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes.      13th  century 
Oxford  Curriculum  for  B.A.  degree.      1267  .         . 

Foundation  of  Gloucester  College,  Oxford,  for  Benedictine 

monks.      1 275-- 1287  ...... 

Rights  of  Grammar-Schoolmaster,  and  Chancellor  of  Cam 

bridge,  and  Archdeacon  of  Ely.      1276 
Merton  College  Grammar  School  accounts.      1277-1310 
Foundation    of  Peterhoiise,    the   first    Cambridge    College 


Norwich  Schoolmaster  appointed  by  Archbishop  of  Canter- 

burv.      1288 



Table  of  Contents 

of    excommunication 


Canterbury    Schoolmaster's     power 


Holy-water-carrying,  a  form  of  school  exhibition 

Limited  monopoly  of  Nottingham  School.      1289 

(lilbertine  College  at  Stamford.     1303 

Monopoly  of  Lincoln  Song  School.     1305   . 

Canterbury  Schoolmaster  appointed  by  Archbishop.     1306 

St   Alary-le-Bow  Schoolmaster  appointed  by  the  Dean  of 
Arches.     1309  ........ 

St  Albans  School  Statutes.     1309 

Canterbury    Schoolmaster's   jurisdiction    exercised.      131 1- 


Council  of  Vienne  orders  teaching  of  Hebrew,  Greek,  Arabic 

and  Chaldee.     131 1         ....... 

Manumission  of  an  Oxford  M.-A.     131 2 

Right  of  Beverley  choristers  to  free  admission  to  Grammar 

School.     1312 

Warwick  Grammar  and  Song  School  Statutes.     1316  (?)    . 
Assertion  of  priority  of  Oxford  to  Paris  University.     1317- 


Six  Lincolnshire  (irammar  Schools.     1329 
Secession  from  Oxford  University  to  Stamford.      1334-5   • 
Papal  Statutes  for  education  of  Benedictine  monks.      1335 
Creation  of  Bachelors  in  Beverley  Grammar  School.      1338 
St  Albans  Almonry  School  Statutes,     c.    1330 
Merton  Cirammar  School  accounts.     '347-1395 
Westminster  Almonry  School  accounts.      1 335-1 540  . 
liishop    of    Plxeter    attacks    the    teaching    of  the    classics 

1357  .... 

Kingston-on-Thames   Public  School.      1364 
Winchester  College  Foundation   Deed.      1382 
.A   Lollard  School  or  Conventicle.      1382      .         .         . 
Wotton-undcr-Edge    (irammar    .School     Foundation    deed 

English   schoolboys  begin  to  translate   Latin    into   English 

instead  of  French.      1327- 1349       .... 
(jrammar    and    Song    Schools   combined   at  Northallerton 














Table  of  Contents 


Chaucer's  Oxford  Scholar  and  Song  School.     1388    . 
Higham   Ferrers  Schoolmaster  also  Mayor.     1391 
New  College,  Oxford,  .Statutes.     1400 
Higham  Ferrers  Schoolmaster  appointed  by  King.     1400 
Lollard   keepers   of  .Schools    or   Conventicles  to  be  burnt 


.Stratford-on-Avon  Ciild  Grammar  School.     1402- 1482 
.Statute  of  Apprentices  not  to  apply  to  school.     1405-6 
Lincoln    City    or    Cathedral    Grammar    School    and    new 

Choristers'  Grammar  School.     1407-9 
Schoolmasters  not  to  teach  Sacraments.      1408  . 
.Supporters  of  Lollard  .Schools  or  Conventicles  to  be  arrested 


Cornhill  Grammar  School  royal  exhibitioner.      141 9  . 
Teaching   of   English    law,    French    and    Letter-writing   at 

Oxford.     1432  ....... 

Sevenoaks  Grammar  School  foundation.      1432  . 

God's    House,   Cambridge,   for  training    Grammar   School 

masters.      1439  ....... 

Eton  College  Foundation  Charter.     1440     . 

Eton  College  Monopoly  for  10  miles  round.     1446     . 

Cambridge   Grammar   School  absorbed  in   King's  College 


P^arthinghoe  Free  School  under  Mercers'  Company.      1443 
London  .Schools  increased.      1446-7      .... 
Appeal    to    Lords    and    Commons    for    O.xford    University 

Library.      1447-50   

Ipswich  Grammar  .School  fees.      1477- 1482 

Rotherham  Free  Schools  of  (Grammar,  Song  and  Writing 


Aldwincle  Spelling  and   Reading  School.      1489 
King's  Hall,   Cambridge,  Froe   Lectures.      1492   . 
Macclesfield    Free    (Grammar    .School   founded    by  ex-Lord 

Mayor.      1503  ........ 

I'riests  forbidden  to  teach  at   Hridgenorth.      1503 
Westminster  .Monks'  lack  of  learning.      1504 
Giggleswick  Grammar  .School  founded  with  Building  Lease 



Table  of  Contents 

Canterbury  Monks'  ignorance  of  grammar.     151 1 
Educational  Canons  of  Convocation.     1529 
Winchester  and  Eton  Time-tables.     1530    . 
Canterbury  Cathedral  Grammar  School  re-founded.     1541 
Educational  Injunctions  of  Edward  VI.     1547    . 
School  provisions  of  the  Chantries  Act.     1547    . 
Continuance  of  Chantry  Schools  in  Cornwall.      1548 
Sherborne  School  re-founded  as  Free  Grammar  School  of 

King  Edward  VI.     1550 

Cardinal  Pole's  Educational  Articles.     1558 

Queen  Elizabeth's  Educational  Injunctions.     1559 

Westminster  School  Statutes  on  re-foundation.     1560 

Recusant  Schoolmasters.     1580     ..... 

Bury  St  Edmunds  Schoolmaster  dismissed.     1581 

Penalties  for  unlicensed  schools.     1603-4     . 

Exeter  Cathedral  Grammar  School  monopoly  defended  by 

Bishop.     1624-5 

Hoole's  Grammar  School  Curriculum.      1637-1660 
Advancement    of    Education    during    Commonwealth    and 

Protectorate.      1643-1660 

Charity  School  Movement.     1699-1718 

Act  to  prevent  Dissenters  and   Non-jurors  from  teaching 


National  Schools  Trust  Deed.      1870- 1902 

British  Schools  Trust  Deed.     1 870-1902 

Bradford  Grammar  School  Scheme  made  by  Commissioners 

under  the  Endowed  Schools  Act   i86g.      1871 
Andover  Grammar  School.     Amending    Scheme  made  by 

Board  of  Education  under  the  Charitable  Trusts  Acts 

1853  to  1894.     1909 













This  book  aims  at  doing,  so  far  as  the  scantier  space  allows, 
for  the  educational  history  of  England  what  Bishop  Stubbs' 
Select  Charters  did  for  its  constitutional  history.  It  sets  out 
the  text  of  the  salient  documents  relating  to  the  origin  and 
development  of  educational  institutions. 

Educational  charters,  being  largely  both  legal  and  ecclesi- 
astical, tend  to  combine  the  prolixity  of  the  preacher  with  the 
verbosity  of  the  conveyancer.  Hence,  few  of  them  can  be 
presented  at  full  length.  As  the  chief  object  of  the  work  is  to 
show  the  origins  of  educational  institutions,  which  are  in  many 
cases  centuries  earlier  than  hitherto  supposed,  the  earlier  bulk 
much  more  largely  than  the  later  documents. 

In  nothing,  not  even  in  religion,  has  the  innate  conservatism 
of  the  human  race  been  more  marked  than  in  education.  It  is 
hardly  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  the  subjects  and  the  methods' 
of  education  remained  the  same  from  the  days  of  Quintilian  to 
the  days  of  Arnold,  from  the  first  century  to  the  mid-nineteenth 
century  of  the  Christian  era. 

The  history  of  English  education  begins  with  the  coming  of 
Christianity.  But  the  education  introduced  by  Augustine  of 
Canterbury  was  identical  in  means  and  methods  with  that  of 
.\ugustine  of  Hippo.  The  conversion  of  the  English  caused 
the  establishment  in  Canterbury  of  a  school  on  the  model  of 
the  Grammar  and  Rhetoric  Schools  of  Rome,  themselves  the 
reproduction  of  the  Grammar  and  Rhetoric  Schools  of  Alex- 
andria and  of  Athens. 

This  is  brought  home  to  us  by  the  first  document  in  the 
text,  an  extract  from  Bede's  Ecclesiastical  History.  It  relates 
how  in  a  year,  fixed  to  631,  Sigebert,  king  of  the  East 
English,  with  the  assistance  of  bishop  Eelix,  who  came  from 

Grammar  Schools  spread 

Canterbury,  provided  masters  and  ushers  after  the  Canterbury 
(or  Kentish)  fashion,  and  set  up  a  school  in  which  boys  might  be 
taught  grammar.  For  so  the  word  iittens,  commonly  translated 
letters,  a  translation  which  gives  an  erroneous  impression  either 
of  a  mere  ABC  school,  or  of  a  school  of  belles-lettres,  is 
properly  and  accurately  translated.  The  term  btdus  literarius, 
a  translation  of  the  Greek  grammar  school,  first  appears  in 
Plautus  c.  2IO  B.C.  Suetonius,  c.  120  a.d.,  specifically  states 
in  his  book.  On  Fa?noiis  Schoolmasters,  that  the  grammar 
masters  were  at  first  called  literati,  a  translation  of  the  Greek 
grammatici,  a  term  which  by  his  time  had  superseded  it.  At 
all  epochs  the  term  Indus  literarius  or  schola  literarum,  or 
literae  simply,  was  used  as  a  literary  equivalent  to  the  usual 
grammar  school  or  grammar,  and  at  all  epochs  too,  grammar 
meant  and  included,  not  merely  grammatical  learning,  but  the 
learning  to  speak  and  write  Latin  and  the  study  of  the  matter 
as  well  as  the  language  of  classical  authors,  especially  the  poets. 
Grammar  Schools  and  Rhetoric  Schools  were  spread  all 
over  the  Roman  Empire.  For  centuries  after  the  introduction 
of  Christianity,  eminent  Christians  like  St  Jerome  and  St 
Augustine,  the  latter  himself  a  schoolmaster,  were  bred  in 
pagan  literature,  and  under  heathen  teachers.  When  these 
schools,  which  from  the  days  of  the  Antonines  were  public 
schools,  gave  place  to  church  schools  is  not,  probably  cannot 
be,  precisely  ascertained,  (jregory  of  Tours  is  perhaps  the 
earliest  celebrity  who,  though  he  was  a  master  of  the  classical 
learning  of  the  age,  is  said  to  have  been  brought  up,  not  in  a 
public  school,  but  by  two  bishops,  c.  520.  Though  in  France 
the  bishops  appear  to  have  obtained  long  before  the  control 
of  the  schools,  a  letter  of  Pope  Gregory  {Ep.  xi.  54),  addressed 
to  Desiderius,  bishop  of  \'ienne  in  595.  is  probably  the  first 
actual  evidence  of  a  bishop  himself  teaching  school.  'As  we 
cannot  relate  without  shame  it  has  come  to  our  knowledge  that 
your  brotherhood  teaches  grammar  to  certain  persons,  which  we 
take  all  the  worse  as  it  converts  what  we  formerly  said  in  your  to  lamentation  and  woe,  since  the  praise  of  Christ  cannot 

from  Aiexufidria  and  Rome  xi 

lie  in  one  mouth  with  the  praise  of  Jupiter.  Consider  yourself 
what  a  crime  it  is  for  bishops  to  recite  what  would  be  improper 
in  a  religiously-minded  layman.'  These  words  are  an  adapta- 
tion of  a  phrase  of  St  Jerome.  They  refer  to  the  fact  that  the 
Grammar  Schools  still  brought  up  their  pupils  on  the  classical 
authors,  and  especially  to  the  famous  line  in  Virgil's  Eclogues, 
which  always  remained  one  of  the  chief  of  school  books, 
Ab  Jove principhwi  Musae,  Jovis  ovinia  plena.  This  letter  brings  v 
us  close  to  Canterbury  School,  for  it  was  a  letter  of  intro- 
duction of  Lawrence  the  priest  and  Mellitus  the  monk,  who 
were  returning  from  Rome  to  Canterbury  with  a  new  batch  of 
clerks  and  monks. 

As  Sigebert  was  assisted  by  bishop  Felix,  the  first  bishop  of 
East  Anglia,  and  his  see  was  at  Dunwich,  his  school  has  been 
rightly  inferred  to  have  been  in  the  same  place ;  and  Dunwich 
has  been  often  dubbed  in  consequence  the  cradle  of  English 
learning.  It  is  strange  that  the  fact  was  overlooked  that,  as 
Dunwich  took  its  masters  from  Canterbury,  the  earliest  English 
school  must  be  sought,  not  in  Dunwich,  but  in  Canterbury. 

Now  if  Canterbury  had  a  school  which  was  a  model  in  631, 
who  is  likely  to  have  founded  it  but  its  first  missionary  and 
archbishop,  Augustine  ?  We  know  that  in  the  next  century 
when  the  English  Winfrid  became,  under  the  name  of  Boniface, 
the  first  missionary  and  archbishop  of  the  Germans,  he  set  up 
schools  as  an  essential  part  of  a  missionary  establishment,  just 
as  missionaries  everywhere  do  to-day.  Wc  cannot  therefore  be 
wrong  in  asserting  that  the  Canterbury  School  was  founded  at 
or  about  the  same  time  as  the  church  of  Canterbury,  namely, 
in  598,  when  king  Ethelbert  was  baptized  and  'did  not  defer  ^ 
giving  his  teachers  a  settled  residence  in  his  metropolis  of 
Canterbury  with  such  possessions  as  were  necessary  for  their 
subsistence.'  Here  Augustine  lived  according  to  the  express 
directions  of  Pope  Gregory  not  like  a  monk  in  a  cloister,  but  as 
a  bishop  with  his  clerks,  preaching,  that  is,  and  teaching,  as  well 
as  praying  and  singing  the  services. 

This  brings  us  to  one  of  the  fundamental  facts  which  receives 

xii  Education  in  England 

continuous  illustration  in  our  documents,  that  in  England  from 

\]    the  first,  education  was  the  creature  of  religion,  the  school  was 

an    adjunct   of    the    church,    and   the   schoolmaster   was    an 

;  ecclesiastical  officer.     For  close  on  eleven  hundred  years,  from 

598  to  1670,  all  educational  institutions  were  under  exclusively 

ecclesiastical  control.     The  law  of  education  was  a  branch  of 

the  canon  law.     The  church  courts  had  exclusive  jurisdiction 

over  schools  and  universities  and  colleges,  and  until  1540  all 

,  schoolmasters  and  scholars  were  clerks,  or  clerics  or  clergy, 

and  in  orders,  though  not  necessarily  holy  orders. 

Our  next  document  shows  us  this  very  plainly.  Bede's 
account  of  the  coming  of  the  Greek  archbishop,  Theodore,  and 
his  colleague,  the  abbot  Hadrian,  in  668  and  of  the  archbishop's 
visitation  of  all  England  and  his  acceptance  as  Primate  by  all 
the  kingdoms  of  the  Heptarchy,  round  which  he  went  preaching 
and  teaching,  has  been  misinterpreted  into  an  account  of  the 
foundation  of  Canterbury  School  and  of  schools  elsewhere. 
What  it  does  show  is  that  the  introduction  of  Greek  in  addition 
to  Latin  gave  an  impetus  to  English  learning  which  made 
English  scholars  the  first  in  the  world,  and  conduced  to  the 
production  of  Bede,  himself  the  sanest  of  historians  for  800 
years.  Bede,  in  his  account  of  Paulinus,  the  apostle  of  the 
North,  shows  us  also  that  side  by  side  with  the  (Grammar 
School  arose  the  Song  School,  which  has  been  often  confused 
with  it,  but  was  from  the  beginning  quite  distinct,  and  though 
it  sometimes  encroached  on  the  sphere  of  the  Grammar  School, 
and  in  smaller  places  was  combined  with  it,  always  had  a 
different  function.  Canterbury  supplied  York  with  its  Song 
School  on  the  Roman,  i.e.  Gregorian,  model,  as  it  did  Dunwich 
with  its  Grammar  school  model.  Bede  vaunts  the  learning  of 
the  pupils  of  Theodore  and  Hadrian,  who  knew  Greek  and 
Latin  as  well  as  English. 

In  the  next  generation,  Aldhelm  appears  to  have  owed  his 
learning  to  Winchester,  not  to  Canterbury,  and  to  Irish  rather 
than  Roman  sources.  The  dates  and  facts  of  the  life  of  this 
scion  of  the  West  Saxon  royal  house  make  it  impossible  for  him 

under  Church  Control  xiii 

to  have  been  a  pupil,  as  sometimes  claimed,  of  abbot  Hadrian, 
while  his  Brito-Irish  teacher  Maidulf  seems  to  be  evolved  from 
Bede's  place-name  for  Malmesbury.  In  a  letter  to  his  former 
chief,  Haeddi,  bishop  of  Winchester,  excusing  himself  from  a 
visit  to  join  in  the  Christmas  dances,  Aldhelm  sets  out  a  mar- 
vellous programme  of  studies.  It  includes  Roman  law,  prosody, 
even  to  the  niceties  of  brachy-  and  hypercatalectics,  astronomy, 
and  the  most  laborious  of  all  studies,  arithmetic,  in  which,  '  by 
the  special  grace  of  Ood,'  he  has  at  last  understood  '  the  most 
difficult  of  all  things,  fractions.'  Leaping  a  generation  and 
passing  from  Wessex  to  Northumbria,  we  come  to  Alcuin's  poem 
'  On  the  Bishops  and  Saints  of  the  Church  of  York,'  one  of  the 
most  illuminating  documents  in  the  history  of  education.  A 
false  monastic  educational  genealogy  has  been  concocted, 
making  Bede  the  pupil  of  archbishop  Theodore,  archbishop 
Egbert  of  York  of  Bede,  Alcuin  of  Egbert,  and  Rabanus 
Maurus  and  a  host  of  Franco-German  monks  of  Alcuin. 
Alcuin's  own  poem  snaps  the  chain  at  the  second  link.  Egbert 
was  not  a  pupil  of  Bede,  of  whom  he  was  the  superior  and 
patron,  and  was  a  secular,  not  a  monk.  Nor  was  Egbert  the 
master  of  Alcuin,  but  of  Ethelbert  or  Albert,  who  succeeded 
him  in  the  archbishopric.  Albert  was  also  emphatically  a 
secular  and  no  monk,  and  a  teacher  so  famous  that  foreign 
potentates  tried  in  vain  to  lure  him  away  from  England  as 
Alcuin  was  afterwards  lured  by  Charlemagne.  He  it  was  who 
was  Alcuin's  master. 

The  truth  is  that,  except  for  perhaps  a  century  and  a  half 
in  Ireland  and  such  scattered  parts  of  England  and  France 
as  in  the  7th  and  8th  centuries  fell  under  Irish  influence, 
the  monasteries  were  never  schools  nor  the  monks  educators, 
except  of  their  own  younger  brethren.  Their  own  rules  forbade 
them  to  be  so.  Bede  particularly  mentions  that  when,  c.  648, 
the  little  English  boys  and  some  older  were  taught  by  .Scots 
(i.e.  Irish)  it  was  tht;  regular,  i.e.  monkish,  discipline  they  learnt. 
The  Cathedral  and  Collegiate  churches,  in  which  schools  were 
an   essential  and  important  part  of  the  foundation,  were  the 

xiv  York  School  under  Alcuin 

centres  of  education.  The  clerks,  later  called  canons,  who 
taught  the  schools,  were  the  educators  and  promoters  of 
education.  Alcuin's  poem  shows  us  that  at  York  the  curriculum 
was  encyclopaedic.  Grammar  and  rhetoric  came  first,  but 
were  followed  by  law,  music,  mathematics  comprising  astronomy, 
arithmetic  and  geometry ;  the  science  of  the  calendar ;  and  finally 
theology.  It  was  a  boarding  school.  '  Whatever  youths  he  saw  of 
conspicuous  intelligence  he  joined  to  himself,  he  taught,  he  fed, 
he  loved.'  Architecture  also  seems  to  have  been  included,  as, 
with  his  two  favourite  pupils,  of  whom  Alcuin  was  one,  Albert 
built  a  new  cathedral  with  30  side-altars  and  chapels  round  it. 
When  Albert  died  the  mastership  of  the  school  was  separated 
from  the  archbishopric,  Eanbald  taking  the  latter,  while  Alcuin 
succeeded  to  the  'school,  the  master's  chair  and  the  books,'  a 
catalogue  of  which  is  given.  In  it  the  grammarians  vie  with 
the  theologians  in  number,  while  the  classical  authors,  Virgil, 
Lucan,  Statius,  Cicero,  Pliny,  Aristotle,  are  rivalled  by  the 
Christian  poets  Sedulius  and  Juvencus,  and  others.  It  is 
pleasing  to  note  that  Bede  and  Aldhelm  were  already  numbered 
among  the  classics,  ^^'hen  .Alcuin  went  over  to  teach  the 
Palace  School  of  Charlemagne,  his  letters  show  him  still  inter- 
ested in  the  promotion  of  English  education  at  Lichfield  under 
Offa,  at  Canterbury,  and  at  Hexham,  as  well  as  in  his  own  old 
school  at  York.  In  the  last  he  recommends  a  division  of 
labour,  the  separation  of  the  Song  and  Writing  School  from 
the  Crammar  School,  under  different  masters.  \\'e  last  see 
him  about  the  year  804  when  retired  to  become  abbot  of  Tours 
sending  for  some  of  his  books  at  York  to  scatter  the  perfumes 
of  English  learning  on  the  banks  of  the  Loire. 

A  canon  of  Pope  Eugenius  made  in  826  enforced  as  law 
what  was  already  established  by  custom,  the  duty  of  bishops  to 
act  as  inspectors  of  schools  with  the  Pope  as  President  of  a 
European  Board  of  Education. 

Our  next  document,  if  it  is  to  be  taken  literally,  shows  a  sad 
falling  off  in  iMigland  since  the  days  of  Alcuin.  In  the  preface 
to  his  translation  of  Pope  Gregory  the  Great's  Pastoral  Care, 

Alf^^ed  the  Great  xv 

Alfred  the  Great  draws  a  depressing  contrast  between  '  the 
good  old  days '  when  foreigners  came  to  England  in  search  of 
education  and  learning,  and  his  own  day  when  England  had  to 
get  learning  from  abroad.  We  cannot  but  think  that  he  is 
guilty  of  rhetorical  exaggeration  when  he  says  that  he  could 
not  recall  anyone  south  of  the  Thames  who  could  understand 
the  services  in  English.  However,  he  ends  his  preface  with 
the  hope  that  if  peace  is  preserved,  every  English  freeman's 
son  will  learn  to  read  English,  while  those  who  wish  to  con- 
tinue in  learning,  and  go  to  the  higher  ranks  or  orders,  will 
also  learn  Latin.  If  the  canons  of  Edgar  imputed  to  the  year 
960  are  to  be  trusted  as  to  date  and  to  being  a  true  represen- 
tation of  the  state  of  England  at  the  time  and  are  not  merely 
repetition  of  old  canons,  this  hope  had  been  more  than 

Not  only  suspect  but  self-convicted  as  to  its  real  date  and  au- 
thenticity is  the  Life  of  Alfred  purporting  to  be  by  Asser.  In 
it  two  miracles  are  recorded  in  regard  to  the  education  of  Alfred. 
The  first  enabled  him  to  read  Saxon  as  a  little  boy  at  his 
mother's  knee,  pleased  at  a  pretty  picture-book,  by  the  simple 
process  of  taking  the  book  out  of  the  room  to  a  master,  getting 
him  to  read  it  aloud,  and  coming  back  able  to  read  it  to  his 
mother.  The  other  is  even  more  marvellous.  For  he  learnt  to 
construe  Latin,  we  are  told,  not  merely  in  a  single  day  but 
during  the  time  which  it  took  the  biographer  to  write  down  a 
single  Latin  passage  in  the  hero's  note-book.  The  first  miracle 
has  long  been  shown  to  be  impossible.  At  the  time  when  it 
is  said  to  have  occurred,  when  Alfred  was  12  years  old,  in  861 
or  862,  h(;  had  no  mother.  His  stepmother,  a  Prankish  girl, 
Judith,  had  been  married  to  Alfred's  father  in  855,  when 
she  was  13  years  old.  In  859,  when  Alfred's  father  died, 
she  married  Alfred's  brother,  who  is  depicted  as  looking  at  the 
pretty  picture-book  with  him.  No  earlier  date  can  be  assigned 
for  the  incident,  as  Alfred  was  sent  to  Rome  in  S53,  when 
four  years  old.  The  other  miracle  is  self-contradicted.  For 
while  chapter  22  represents  Alfred  as  'illiterate,' i.e.  ignorant  of 

xvi  The  Pseucio-Asser  on  Alfred 

I^tin  only  to  his  T2th  year  or  more,  chapter  25  says  that  'to  the 
present  day,'  i.e.  887,  and,  '  I  believe  to  the  day  of  his  death,* 
he  insatiably  desired  to  learn  Latin  but  never  did,  and  chapter 
87  relates  the  miraculous  learning  in  a  day.  All  three  accounts 
cannot  be  true.  Probably  none  are  true,  and  Alfred  began 
Latin  as  a  little  boy  at  Rome.  These  and  other  contradictions 
have  been  sought  to  be  explained  as  being  due  to  the  Life 
being  an  unfinished  draft.  Such  a  defence  is  a  plea  of  guilty. 
The  only  MS.  of  Asser  ever  known  is  admitted  to  have  been 
written  about  100  years  after  Alfred's  death.  That  a  hagio- 
grapher  should  have  written  three  different  versions  of  his 
hero's  education  and  learning  in  a  draft  romance  is  a  rational 
explanation.  That  a  contemporary  should  do  so  of  the  hero 
with  whom  he  lived  in  daily  intercourse,  speaking  of  things 
within  his  own  knowledge,  is  merely  impossible. 

While  therefore  we  cannot  consider  Asser's  Life  as  evidence 
of  the  state  of  education  in  the  9th  century  it  is  highly  inter- 
esting as  evidence  of  what  an  early  nth  century  writer  thought 
possible.  It  shows  at  all  events  that  English  mothers  of  the 
nth  century  taught  their  children,  even  royal  children,  to  read 
English  poetry,  and  that  it  was  customary  for  English  kings  and 
nobles  to  send  their  sons  to  the  Grammar  .School  with  ordinary 
freemen,  to  learn  Latin  and  fit  them  for  judicial  business,  or  for 
clerical  work  in  the  modern  as  well  as  the  medieval  sense. 

The  two  school-books  of  Aelfric,  the  Colloquy  and  the 
Grammar^  show  that  Alfred's  ideal  was  realized  in  the  nth 
century.  It  is  now  well  established  that  Aelfric  is  not  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury  of  that  name,  but  a  scholar  and  clerk 
of  Winchester,  who  became  abbot  of  Evesham,  and  devoted 
himself  as  a  sort  of  medieval  Bohn  to  the  translation  of  Latin 
works  into  English.  The  Colloquy  is  fixed  to  the  year  995. 
If  it  really  represents  ICnglish  schools  at  the  time  it  shows 
an  amazing  diffusion  of  education  among  all  classes,  boys  in  all 
the  different  occupations,  ploughboy,  gamekeeper,  hawker, 
baker,  smith,  merchant,  learning  Latin  of  a  secular  master  side 
by  side  with  a  young  monk.      It  may  be  that  it  is  only  a  trans- 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  and  Grammar        xvii 

lation  of  some  older  Latin  original  of  the  days  of  the  Roman 
Public  School.  The  opening  sentences,  which  assume  the 
incessant  use  of  flogging  as  a  means  of  instilling  learning  into 
the  youthful  mind,  are  characteristic  proof  of  the  Rule  of  the 
Rod  which  prevailed  in  all  schools  from  the  date  of  the  Mimes 
of  Herondas  at  Alexandria,  c.  B.C.  270,  to  the  days  of  Totu 
Broivti's  Schooldays,  a.d.  1850. 

Aelfric's  Grammar,  however,  proves  the  existence  of  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  learning  and  demand  for  education.  It  is 
taken  chiefly  from  the  Ars  Major  of  Priscian,  a  great  work  in 
18  books,  by  a  Constantinople  Grammar  Schoolmaster  at  the 
beginning  of  the  6th  century.  That  book  was  itself  chiefly  a 
translation — the  extant  MSS.  of  which  descend  from  one  made 
in  526-7 — from  the  Greek  of  Apollonius  of  Alexandria,  written 
three  centuries  before.  Aelfric's  Grammar  postulates  a  previous 
acquaintance  with  Donatus,  whose  Ars  Minor  or  Short  Treatise 
on  the  Parts  of  Speech,  was  written  by  Aelius  Donatus,  a  school- 
master at  Rome,  in  the  latter  half  of  the  4th  century.  Donatus 
was  the  teacher  of  Hieronymus  (St  Jerome)  who  preserves  his 
famous  mot,  'Pereant  qui  ante  nos  nostra  dixerunt.'  A  '  Donat ' 
became  a  term  for  a  first  text-book  in  any  subject,  and  a 
knowledge  of  '  old  Donatus '  was  demanded  by  William  of 
VVykeham  as  a  condition  precedent  to  admission  to  his  college 
at  Winchester. 

It  is  remarkable  that  Aelfric's  Gramviar  assumes  not  only 
that  boys  are  learning  Datin  but  girls  also,  his  example  to 
illustrate  that  the  gerundive  in  -do  does  not  vary  in  gender, 
being  '  ipsa  monialis  vigilat  docendo  puellas,'  '  the  nun  is 
awake  teaching  maiden-children,'  and  'a  man  and  a  woman  are 
taught  by  reading.'  Now  it  is  certain  from  the  letters  of 
Boniface  of  Mainz  to  the  friends  he  left  behind  in  England 
that  princesses  and  high-born  abbesses  and  nuns  were  educated. 
Several  of  them  send  him  Latin  verses  of  their  own  composi- 
tion for  correction,  and  he  asks  them  in  return  for  learned 
books  and  discusses  points  of  scholarship  with  them.  It  is 
almost  equally  certain  that  after  the  Conquest  this  had  ceased. 

xviii     Canute  and  Harold  as  School- Founders 

Whereas  the  monks  were  addressed  in  Latin  the  nuns  were 
invariably  addressed  in  the  vernacular.  Even  as  late  as  the 
13th  century,  when  archbishop  Peckham  wrote  to  rebuke  the 
nuns  of  Godstow  for  their  familiarity  with  Oxford  under- 
graduates, he  wrote  in  French ;  and  from  the  reign  of  Henry  VI 
onwards  nuns  were  addressed  not  in  Latin  but  English. 

It  is  interesting  to  see  the  Danish  conqueror,  Canute, 
depicted  by  an  i  ith  century  chronicler  going  about  as  a  sort  of 
Charity  Commissioner,  settling  educational  endowments  in  the 
chief  centres  of  population  and  establishing  exhibitions,  not 
only  for  freemen,  but  freedmen's  sons.  The  curious  document 
called  '  Ranks,'  attributed  to  Canute's  time,  lends  some  credit 
to  this  account,  as  scholars  are  especially  mentioned  as  receiving 
worship  {zveor/hscipe),  or  honour,  according  to  their  proficiency. 

The  two  last  of  our  documents  referring  to  pre-Conquest 
times  bear  witness  at  least  to  the  existence  of  flourishing 
(irammar  Schools  attached  to  two  great  collegiate  churches  of 
secular  canons. 

The  last  of  the  English  kings,  more  Dane  than  English, 
Harold,  when  he  was  still  only  earl,  enlarged  the  church  of  the 
Holy  Cross  of  Waltham  into  a  college  for  a  dean  and  1 2  canons. 
The  dean  was  English,  but  the  second  dignitary  of  the  church, 
the  schoolmaster,  Master  Athelard,  was  sought  for  abroad,  not 
in  Normandy  or  France,  but  in  the  Teutonic  lands,  a  native  of 
Liege.  The  reason  for  this  was,  perhaps,  rather  a  reactionary 
one,  namely,  that  the  Teutonic  churches  still  combined  the 
grammar  school  and  singing  school  in  one,  and  that  the 
discipline  was  severe.  The  'Child  Master,'  one  of  the  canons, 
was  sent  to  Hastings  under  the  banner  of  the  founder,  and 
brought  back  his  body  to  burial  at  ^Valtham.  An  interesting 
account  of  the  school  in  c.  11 00  is  given  by  one  of  the  last 
of  the  secular  canons,  who  were  turned  out  by  Henry  II  about 
1 170  for  the  crime  of  luxury,  that  is  marriage,  when  he  con- 
verted the  church  into  a  priory  of  regular  canons  in  vicarious 
atonement  for  the  death  of  Thomas  a  Becket. 

The  school  attached  to  the  collegiate  church  in  Warwick 

Warwick  and  York  Schools,   1065-1090     xix 

Castle,  which  we  may  fairly  attribute  to  the  foundation  of 
Ethelfleda,  lady  of  the  Mercians,  daughter  of  Alfred,  appears 
in  a  writ  of  Henry  I,  confirming  to  the  original  mother  church 
of  All  Saints  '  the  school  of  Warwick  as  it  was  in  the  days  of 
King  Edward,'  the  Confessor,  against  the  Norman  earl  who 
sought  to  transfer  it  to  the  rival  church  of  St  Mary's.  The 
dispute  was  eventually  settled  by  a  union  of  the  two  churches, 
the  school  of  All  Saints'  being  transferred  from  the  castle  to 
St  Mary's  in  the  town  in  11 23. 

The  Norman  Conquest  had  little  direct  effect  on  the  schools, 
though  it  no  doubt  at  first  cut  off  the  supply  of  scholars,  and 
substituted  French  for  English  as  the  vernacular  into  which 
Latin  was  translated,  and  made  all  the  Old  English  translations 
and  school-books  obsolete.  The  cathedrals  and  collegiate 
churches  which  kept  the  schools,  remained.  At  York,  which 
had  suffered  most  from  Norman  fury,  the  first  Norman  arch- 
bishop, Thomas  of  Bayeux,  appointed  in  1072,  though  he  found 
the  whole  place  depopulated  and  ravaged,  yet  found  '  of  the  seven 
canons  (for  there  were  no  more)  only  three  among  the  ruins  of 
the  burnt  city  and  cathedral ;  the  rest  being  dead  or  fled  through 
fear.'  He  re-roofed  the  church,  collected  and  restored  the 
canons,  and  increased  their  number,  placing  them  under  a 
Provost.  '  But  a  few  years  later,'  about  1090,  he  substituted  a 
Dean  for  a  Provost  and  established  a  treasurer  and  precentor; 
'the  school-master  (Magister  Scolaruni)  he  had  already  es- 
tablished.' As  it  is  in  the  highest  degree  improbable  that  the 
school  had  ever  ceased  except  during  William's  devastation, 
this  must  mean  that  he  had  restored  the  master,  as  the  second 
person  in  the  church.  The  new  constitution  of  four  principal 
persons  or  dignitaries,  dean  or  provost,  precentor,  schoolmaster, 
or,  as  he  was  later  called,  chancellor,  treasurer  or  sacrist,  in 
which  the  schoolmaster  sank  to  the  third  place,  became  the 
normal  one  in  all  the  English  cathedrals,  which  had  not  passed 
into  monkish  control,  and  of  the  ancient  collegiate  churches 
like  Beverley.  It  appears  most  clearly  in  the  Institution  of 
St    Osmund,    or    foundation    statutes    of    the    first    bishop    of 

XX  The  Cathedral  Schools 

Salisbury.  While  the  precentor  ruled  the  choir  in  singing,  and 
the  treasurer  presided  over  its  lights  and  ornaments,  the 
chancellor  presided  over  the  teaching  of  the  school  and  the  cor- 
rection of  the  books  ; — the  reading  presumably,  not  the  singing 
books.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  chief  of  the  school  {archiscola)  to 
hear  and  determine  the  lessons,  carry  the  seal,  and  compose 
letters  and  deeds  and  mark  the  readers  on  the  table  (the  orders 
of  the  day),  while  the  precentor  marks  the  singers  on  the  table. 
The  use  of  the  word  'chancellor'  suggests  that  the  Institution  is 
not  in  its  original  state  but  brought  up  to  date  in  the  late  12th 
or  beginning  of  the  13th  century.  For,  in  a  later  document  of 
the  reign  of  Stephen,  we  find  the  schoolmaster  of  Salisbury  still 
called  by  that  name.  At  York,  the  schoolmaster  was  still 
so  called  at  the  end  of  the  12th  century,  as  he  was  also  at 
St  Paul's  until  the  year  1205. 

At  St  Paul's  we  see  the  schoolmaster  given  an  official 
residence  and  the  duties  of  librarian  as  well  as  schoolmaster  in 
a  document  of  about  11 11.  A  later  document,  of  about  11 27, 
giving  the  appointment  and  further  endowment  of  his  successor, 
has  the  interest  attaching  to  its  being  the  oldest  appointment  of  an 
English  schoolmaster  actually  extant.  A  similar  interest  attaches 
to  the  writ  in  which  Henry  of  Elois,  bishop  of  Winchester,  as 
acting  bishop  of  London,  from  1138  to  1140,  threatens  the 
thunders  of  the  church  by  excommunication  to  put  down  rival 
masters,  and  enforces  the  monopoly  of  teaching  and  granting 
licences  to  teach  of  the  schoolmaster  of  St  Paul's.  Twenty 
years  later,  the  same  bishop  was  concerned  in  a  similar  contest 
for  monopoly  at  Winchester.  An  appeal  was  taken  to  the  famous 
John  of  Salisbury  as  'Official'  of  Canterbury  and  was  sent  on 
by  him  to  the  Pope.  The  requirement  of  a  licence  from  the 
Ordinary  (i.e.  generally  the  bishop)  before  any  kind  of  teaching 
could  be  given  prevailed  down  to  1670,  and  for  grammar  still 
prevails,  except  in  cases  in  which  schemes  made  under  the 
Endowed  Schools  Act,  1869,  have  deprived  him  of  his  power. 

At  Canterbury,  the  new  Norman  archbishop,  Lanfranc,  no 
Norman  but  an  Italian,  had  himself  been  a  schoolmaster  before 

Lanfrancs  Constitutions  xxi 

he  became  an  abbot,  and  was  one  of  the  greatest  doctors  of  the 
age.  He,  too,  published  new  constitutions  for  his  cathedral, 
but  as  it  was  in  the  hands  of  monks,  the  Constitutions  of 
Lanfranc  are  purely  monastic.  Though  boys  are  mentioned, 
they  are  only  the  oblates,  or  boys  'offered'  as  infants  or  little 
children  on  the  altar  and  sworn  to  monkhood  when  old  enough. 
An  elderly  monk  was  assigned  as  a  master  to  every  two  oblates, 
who  were  carefully  kept  from  contact  with  the  monks  and  each 
other.  The  only  reference  to  instruction  is  contained  in  the 
direction  that  they  should  read  a  little  when  they  first  go  in  the 
cloister  in  the  morning.  They  seem  to  have  been  taught  little 
but  the  Rule  of  the  order.  The  same  applies  to  the  novices, 
brought  in  from  the  world  at  a  later  age.  The  School  of 
Canterbury,  the  (kammar  School,  was  outside  the  monastery 
and  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  monks,  and  does  not  therefore 
appear  at  all  in  these  Constitutions.  It  remained,  as  was  the 
case  in  all  the  monastic  cathedrals,  under  the  exclusive  and 
immediate  control  of  the  archbishop  or  bishop,  who  himself 
appointed  the  master,  as  may  be  seen  from  examples  given  at 
Canterbury,  Worcester  and  Norwich  ;  which  could  be  extended 
to  Winchester,  Carlisle  and  Ely,  and  elsewhere. 

At  the  end  of  the  nth  and  the  beginning  of  the  12th 
century,  a  movement  towards  monasticism  took  place,  which 
threatened  to  extrude  the  secular  clergy  altogether  from  the 
cathedrals  and  collegiate  churches  in  favour  of  monks.  Opinion 
was  not  all  one  way.  Some  bishops,  like  Walkelin  of  Winchester, 
and  many  laymen  were  in  favour  of  the  secular  clergy.  There 
was  at  first  a  certain  movement  for  the  establishment  of  new 
collegiate  churches  or  the  consolidation  of  old  ones,  especially 
in  the  castles.  Thus  we  find  Ilbert  of  Lacy  founding  the 
collegiate  church  of  St  Clement  in  Pontefract  castle,  and 
confirming  or  giving  to  it  the  school  of  Kirby- Pontefract, 
c.  1075  ;  while  at  the  other  end  of  the  kingdom,  Robert,  count 
of  Eu,  in  founding  the  collegiatt;  church  of  St  Mary  in  the 
castle  of  Hastings,  or  perhaps  dividing  into  separate  prebends 
what  had  been  a  college  of  clerks  living  on  common  estates, 
made  one  canon  cx-officio  master  of  the  Grammar  School,  and 

xxii     Schools  placed  under  Monastic  Control 

another  of  the  Song  School.  In  both  cases,  we  learn  of  this 
from  a  confirmation  by  their  grandsons. 

The  monastic  movement  appears  in  the  documents  which 
show  the  schools  already  transferred  to  the  control  of  the 
monastery,  as  at  St  Albans  where  we  hear  of  the  abbot  ap- 
pointing the  master  c.  iioo;  at  Thetford  in  1114  as  being 
re-transferred  from  monastic  to  secular  control ;  and  as  being 
transferred  from  secular  to  regular  control  at  Huntingdon  in 
1 127;  Dunstable,  1131  ;  Reading,^.  11 35;  Gloucester,^.  1137; 
Derby,  c.  1150;  Bedford,  c.  11 60.  These  are  only  isolated 
instances  of  what  was  going  on  all  over  the  country,  the  docu- 
ments relating  to  which  do  not  happen  to  have  been  preserved 
or  yet  produced. 

A  similar  movement,  which  proceeded  to  greater  lengths, 
was  going  on  in  the  transfer  of  hospitals  for  the  sick,  infirm  and 
poor.  The  movement  bid  fair  to  run  the  course  it  did  in  the 
(ireek  church  and  transfer  the  bishoprics,  and  all  higher  posts 
in  the  church  and  education  to  the  monks,  leaving  only  poor 
married  priests  to  do  the  isolated  work  of  the  parishes.  Two 
things  stayed  the  plague.  The  secular  clergy  gave  way  to  the 
monastic  furore  so  far  as  to  forswear  matrimony,  while  in  the 
sphere  of  education  the  rise  of  universities  restored  to  seculars 
a  corporate  organization.  In  England,  the  Council  of  11 50 
finally  accepted  the  principle  of  the  celibacy  of  the  secular 
clergy,  while  from  1130  onwards  Oxford  University  was  be- 
coming one  of  the  strongest  bodies  in  the  country. 

The  account  given  by  FitzStephen  in  his  Life  of  Becket 
of  the  schools  of  London  in  Becket's  boyhood,  where  the 
monopoly  of  the  schoolmaster  of  St  Paul's  and  his  two  colleagues 
was  broken  for  anyone  famous  in  philosophy,  and  the  rivalry  of 
the  schools  in  organized  debates  and  disputations  shows  that  a 
university  was  in  the  air  there  also.  In  modern  times  a 
university  tends  to  mean  a  corporate  body  with  the  power 
of  granting  degrees,  or  titles  of  honour  which  are  certificates 
of  proficiency,  attained  by  a  course  of  training  in  a  certain 
number  of  subjects  by  pupils  older  than  school-age.  The  word 
'university'  means  simply  a  corporation.    Just  as  corporation  has 

Universities  xxiii 

become  the  more  or  less  exclusive  term  for  a  municipal  cor- 
poration, and  company  for  a  trading  corporation,  so  university 
became  the  distinctive  term  for  an  educational  corporation 
of  teachers  and  pupils  in  the  higher  faculties.  Attempts  have 
been  made  by  a  (lerman  friar,  Denifle,  to  establish  that  a 
university  was  no  university  without  incorporation  by  the  Pope. 
But  this  is  to  fasten  the  ideas  and  the  laws  of  the  14th  on  the 
institutions  of  the  12th  century.  The  earliest  universities  were 
not  made  by  Pope  or  Prince,  Parliament  or  Privy  Council. 
They  grew.  They  were  voluntary  congregations  of  learners  to 
listen  to  popular  teachers  in  the  subjects  of  law,  physic  and 
divinity :  and  more  like  University  Extension  movements 
than  any  other  modern  institution.  The  Pope  was  introduced 
because  these  voluntary  congregations  of  clerics  wanted  to 
escape  from  the  interference  of  the  ordinary  clerical  authorities 
of  the  places  in  which  they  met.  The  real  name  of  the 
university  was  a  studium  generale  or  common  or  public  school. 
The  term  '  university '  was  not  used  till  more  than  a  century 
after  the  universities  were  established  ;  at  first  in  the  form  of 
'  university,'  i.e.  corporation,  '  of  scholars,'  or  '  masters  and 
scholars,'  in  1219  at  Paris,  in  1245  at  Oxford.  The  local  term 
'  University  of  Paris'  does  not  appear  before  1262,  nor  that  of 
'  University  of  Oxford '  before  1274. 

TheyV/i"  iibique  doceiidi,  or  right  of  a  master  in  one  university 
to  teach  anywhere  without  fresh  noviciate  or  licence,  was  only 
invented  and  fostered  in  Paris  in  1291,  and  was  only  asked  for 
Oxford,  in  a  document  here  printed,  in  1317.  Degrees  were 
then  already  becoming  titles  of  honour  rather  than  what  they 
were  at  first,  licences  to  teach.  The  'Origin  of  Oxford'  is  to  be 
found  in  the  contemporaneous  teaching  in  the  higher  faculties 
recorded  between  1130  and  1135,  of  Robert  the  Chicken, 
afterwards  chancellor  of  Rome,  in  divinity,  Robert  of  Cricklade. 
afterwards  prior  of  .St  Frideswide's,  now  Christ  C'hurch,  Oxford, 
in  arts,  and  Theobald  of  Ktampes,  who,  while  lecturing  to  from 
60  to  100  scholars,  was  consulted  by  the  archbishop  of  York  on 
points  of  canon  law.    The  civil  law  was  taken  up  in  i  149  when 

XX iv  The  Origin  of  Oxford 

Vacarius  came  from  Lombardy,  probably  from  Bologna 
University,  to  lecture  on  it.  We  may  infer  from  the  teachers 
named  the  existence  of  other  teachers  who  remain  unnamed. 

Want  of  space  has  kept  out  two  documents  on  which 
Dr  Rashdall  has  based  the  hypothesis  of  a  later  origin  of  Oxford 
in  a  migration  of  English  scholars  from  Paris  in  1 167.  As  these 
documents  contain  no  mention  of  Paris,  Oxford,  or  students, 
they  have  no  real  claim  to  inclusion.  Both  were  proclamations 
of  Henry  II,  one  forbidding  any  ecclesiastic,  regular  or  secular, 
from  going  between  England  and  France  without  a  passport, 
another  ordering  all  clerks  who -held  English  benefices  to  return 
to  them  without  delay  on  pain  of  deprivation.  Both  were 
aimed  at  Becket,  the  first  to  prevent  adherents  joining  him 
in  his  exile  in  France,  the  second  to  deprive  him  of  the 
assistance  of  the  Italian  and  French  clerks  beneficed  in 
England.  University  students  were  not  as  a  rule  beneficed. 
As  Dr  Rashdall  himself  in  a  note  does  'not  assert  that  the 
connexion  of  the  migration,'  which  itself  is  not  even  shown  to 
have  existed,  'with  Oxford  is  direct  or  immediate,'  cadit 
quaestio.  It  is  more  historical  to  seek  the  origin  of  Oxford  in 
a  proved  congregation  of  masters  and  scholars  in  1 1 30-49 
than  in  a  hypothetical  migration  of  1167. 

That  the  university  was  in  full  bloom  in  1 189  is  admitted  on 
all  hands.  In  that  year  it  is  recorded  that  Gerald  of  Wales 
read  his  Irish  travels  at  Oxford  where  the  clergy  in  England 
chiefly  flourished  and  excelled  in  clerkship,  and  entertained  on 
three  successive  days  (i)  the  poor,  (2)  the  doctors  and  chief 
scholars,  and  (3)  the  rest  of  the  scholars,  knights  and  burgesses. 
So  that  while  St  Thomas  of  Canterbury  (Becket)  and  Alexander 
Neckham  went  to  the  University  of  Paris  and  the  Warrens  of 
St  Albans  to  that  of  Salerno,  St  Edmund  of  Abingdon,  who 
became  archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  1228,  was  purely  English 
bred,  being  a  boy  in  the  grammar  school  at  Oxford,  then  an 
M.A.,  and  before  he  passed  on  to  become  a  I). I),  was  student 
and  lecturer  in  mathematics  there.  Whether  the  royal  ex- 
hibitioners at  Oxford  in   1195  and  at  Northampton  in    11 75 

The  Origin  of  Cambridge  xxv 

were  university  students  or  grammar  school  boys  does  not 
appear.     The  one  at  Winchester  in  1205  must  be  the  latter. 

The  rise  of  the  universities,  chiefly  in  theological  studies, 
seems  to  have  inspired  the  bishops  to  attempt  something  of  the 
same  sort  each  in  his  own  cathedral,  and  we  find  the  Pope 
ordering  in  1179  a  chair  of  theology  to  be  established  at 
each  '  metropolis,'  or  archiepiscopal  see.  The  schoolmaster  at 
York  was  accordingly  specially  endowed  and  given  the  title  of 
chancellors.  1198,  and  the  same  thing  happened  at  St  Paul's 
in  1 198-1205. 

The  13th  century  witnessed  considerable  developments  of 
education,  especially  of  the  university  type. 

The  Council  of  Westminster  in  1200  renewed  the  pro- 
hibition of  the  Lateran  Council  of  11 79,  against  exacting  fees 
for  licences  to  teach,  and  revived  once  more  on  paper,  as 
Theodulph  of  Orleans  had  done  in  797,  the  old  canons  of 
the  6th  Council  of  Constantinople  in  692,  as  to  every  priest 
sending  his  relations  to  the  cathedral  schools  free  and  himself 
keeping  a  school  for  children  under  seven  in  his  own  house. 

The  next  decade  witnessed  the  establishment  of  Cambridge 
University  and  attempts  at  universities  at  Reading,  Salisbury 
and  Northampton.  In  1209  two  clerks,  i.e.  scholars,  at  Oxford, 
were  hung  for  the  murder  of  a  woman  by  their  chamber- 
fellow  who  had  run  away.  '  Whereon  3000  clerks ' — -the 
number  is  medieval — 'both  masters  and  scholars,  left  Oxford, 
so  that  not  one  of  the  whole  university  remained.  Some  of 
them  devoted  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  liberal  arts  at 
Cambridge,  others  at  Reading.' 

Whether  Cambridge  owed  its  origin  entirely  to  this  secession 
from  Oxford  may  be  doubted.  Probably  there  was  already 
a  tendency  for  scholars  to  congregate  there.  But  certain  it  is 
that  while  nothing  is  heard  of  its  schools  before  1209,  by  1231 
it  has  blossomed  into  a  university  with  a  chancellor  of  its  own. 
For  Henry  III  issued  to  the  sheriff  of  Cambridge  in  1231 
a  mandate  (addressed  in  almost  exactly  the  same  terms  to  the 
sheriff  of  Oxford)  directing  him  to  arrest  any  criminous  clerks 
who  would  not  submit  to  the  correction  of  the  chancellor  and 

xxvi  Schoolmaster- Lawyers 

masters,  and  put  them  in  prison  or  expel  them  from  the  town. 
At  the  same  time  the  mayor  and  bailiffs  were  ordered  to  let 
their  houses  to  scholars  at  reasonable  rents,  to  be  assessed  by 
two  masters  and  two  burgesses.  The  only  difference  observable 
between  the  elder  university  and  the  younger  is  that,  while  at 
Oxford  the  sheriff  is  to  arrest  on  the  direct  orders  of  the 
chancellor,  at  Cambridge  the  chancellor  has  to  inform  the 
bishop  of  Ely,  who  is  to  give  the  order  to  the  sheriff. 

The  importance  now  attached  to  proper  education  of  the 
clergy  is  shown  by  some  documents  selected  from  many  others 
in  the  bishop  of  Lincoln's  Register,  the  earliest  episcopal 
register  yet  published,  ordering  clerks  admitted  to  livings  to 
attend  schools,  sometimes  the  local  school  at  Northampton  or 
Lincoln,  sometimes  the  university.  .\  number  of  documents 
are  given  tending  to  show  the  ubiquity  of  schools,  often  through 
the  schoolmaster  being  employed  as  a  papal  delegate  to  act  as 
judge  in  some  local  ecclesiastical  case,  appealed  to  the  Pope. 
Thus  we  find  schools  at  Leicester,  Marlborough,  Newark  and 

In  1238  a  fight  at  Oxford  with  the  servants  of  the  Cardinal 
Legate  Otho  resulted  in  a  new  secession,  this  time  to  North- 
ampton and  Salisbury.  Some  twenty  years  later,  we  find  a 
university  at  Northampton  flourishing  on  secessions  from  Cam- 
bridge as  well  as  Oxford,  and,  encouraged  at  first  by  the  king, 
finally  forcibly  suppressed  in  1265. 

The  second  half  of  the  13th  century  marked  a  new  educa- 
tional development,  the  creation  of  university  colleges.  The 
social  impulse  which  made  scholars  join  their  forces  to  estab- 
lish hostels  under  principals  of  their  own  choosing,  led  the 
rich  and  charitable  to  do  tlie  same  by  endowments,  given  not 
to  corporations  existing  for  other  purposes,  like  hospitals,  as 
had  been  done  from  1 1 80,  but  to  bodies  of  scholars  and 
teachers  themselves.  The  university  college  was  only  a  col- 
legiate church  founded  ad  studetidum  et  oratidum  instead  of  ad 
orandum  et  studeudtim.  The  first  was  probably  the  far-famed 
college  of  the  Sorbonne  at  Paris,  which  afterwards  nearly 
devoured  the  university  itself,  founded  in   1256-7  by  Robert 

The  fij^st   University  Colleges,    1262-4     xxvii 

of  Sorbonne,  a  canon  of  Paris,  for  16  students  of  theology 
under  himself  as  principal.  The  word  college,  a  Roman  law 
term  for  a  gild  or  corporation,  was  not  used  in  the  foundation, 
and  indeed,  had  not  then  been  revived.  The  institution  was 
called  the  '  House  of  the  Scholars  of  Robert  of  Sorbonne.' 
Within  five  years  it  was  imitated  in  England.  But,  surprising 
as  it  may  seem,  and  the  fact  seems  to  have  been  wholly 
forgotten  until  brought  to  light  in  connection  with  the  history 
of  Winchester  College,  the  first  university  college  in  England 
was  not  at  Oxford  or  Cambridge,  but  at  Salisbury.  This  was 
the  '  House  of  the  Valley  Scholars  of  the  Blessed  Nicholas ' 
founded  near  the  hospital  of  St  Nicholas  by  Giles  of  Bridport, 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  in  1262. 

The  Valley  Scholars  were  a  religious  order  in  France 
founded  by  an  English  master  of  Paris  University  who  aban- 
doned logic  for  theology  and  life  about  town  for  monastic 
solitude.  It  very  soon,  however,  set  up  a  branch  monastery, 
which  was  practically  a  college,  for  members  of  the  Order 
at  Paris  itself.  The  Salisbury  College  does  not  seem  to  have 
had  any  connection  with  the  Order  except  in  its  name.  It  was 
for  secular  clerks,  a  warden,  two  chaplains,  and  20  poor,  needy, 
well-behaved  and  teachable  scholars  studying  Scripture  and 
the  liberal  arts.  Two  years  later,  in  1264,  Walter  of  Merton, 
ex-chancellor  of  England,  founded  the  '  House  of  the  Scholars 
of  Merton '  on  his  manor  of  Alaldon  near  Merton  in  Surrey, 
wath  a  warden  and  two  ministers  of  the  altar,  who  were  to  live 
there  and  manage  the  property  and  pay  the  proceeds  to 
20  scholars  living  in  the  schools  at  Oxford,  '  or  elsewhere 
where  a  university  may  chance  to  flourish.'  The  scholars 
were  in  the  first  place  to  be  chosen  from  his  own  relations, 
because  he  changed  the  succession  due  to  them  by  the  laws 
of  England  to  their  right  to  maintenance  in  the  house,  if 
capable  and  desirous  of  proficiency  in  learning. 

In  1269  a  second  university  college  at  Salisbury,  the  'House 
of  the  Scholars  of  St  Edmund,'  was  founded  by  bishop  de  la 
Wyle    for    13   students   in   theology,    and   a   new   church    was 

xxviii     Merton  College  Grainmar  School 

built  and  annexed  to  the  Provostry  of  the  college,  placed  by 
it.  Probably  influenced  by  this  example,  in  1274,  Merton, 
having  moved  his  whole  establishment  to  Oxford,  enlarged  the 
endowment,  annexed  St  John's  church  to  it,  and  made  it  in 
fact  a  collegiate  church  with  the  fellows  as  canons,  and  directed 
that  the  number  should  be  increased  as  the  revenues  grew. 
He  also  provided  for  a  grammar  school  attached,  with  a 
grammar  master  to  teach  13  boys  of  his  own  relations  or 
founder's  kin,  who  were  afterwards  to  be  elected  scholars.  He 
now  provided  an  elaborate  code  of  statutes  which  has  formed 
the  model  and  nucleus  of  all  subsequent  college  statutes. 

The  accounts  of  the  Merton  Grammar  School  boys  with 
their  master  of  Glomery,  a  term  which  is  a  corruption  of  the 
word  grammar,  and  was  hitherto  supposed  to  be  peculiar  to 
Cambridge,  and  tuition  fees  of  4^.  a  quarter,  are  the  earliest 
school  bills  extant.  Multiplying  the  value  of  money  by  40, 
even  13^'.  4*/.  a  term  was  not  an  expensive  education. 

In  1275  the  Benedictine  monks  followed  the  seculars' 
example  and  set  up  a  college  at  Oxford,  established  by  the  grant 
of  Gloucester,  now  Worcester,  College,  by  a  near  relation  of  the 
bishop  of  Worcester.  The  Cistercian  monks  were  also  provided 
with  a  college,  afterwards  known  as  Rewley  Abbey,  at  Oxford, 
in  1280.  Cambridge  was  not  far  behind.  In  1280  Hugh  of 
Balsham,  bishop  of  Ely,  turned  out  the  secular  brethren  of 
St  John's  Hospital  at  Cambridge  (now  St  John's  College),  and 
put  in  their  places  scholars  '  to  live  together  and  study  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge  according  to  the  rule  of  the  scholars 
of  Oxford  who  are  called  Merton's.'  But  the  remaining  brethren 
of  St  John's  were  regulars  of  the  order  of  Augustine,  and  it  was 
always  found  impossible  for  seculars  and  regulars  to  live  together 
in  harmony.  Quarrels  ensuing,  in  1285  the  bishop  moved  the 
scholars  to  some  hostels  or  inns  by  St  Peter's  church  at 
the  other  end  of  the  town  outside  Trumpington  gate,  which 
belonged  to  the  hospital,  and  annexed  the  church  to  the  inns. 
The  '  House  of  the  Scholars  of  the  Bishops  of  Ely  '  thus 
became  known,  and  is  still  known,  as   Peterhouse. 

Earliest  School  Statutes,    1267-1320       xxix 

The  university  curriculum  and  the  school  curriculum  of 
the  day  are  fully  set  out  in  the  Oxford  statutes  of  1267  for 
the  Bachelor's  degree  and  the  Grammar  Schools.  The  tri- 
angular contest  between  the  Chancellor  of  Cambridge,  the 
master  of  glomery  or  grammar,  and  the  archdeacon  of  Ely 
for  jurisdiction  over  various  kinds  of  scholars  in  1276  is 

The  opening  of  the  14th  century  is  characterized  by  a 
wealth  of  educational  documents.  This  is  due,  not  so  much 
to  new  educational  developments,  as  to  the  fact  that  the 
registers  of  bishops  and  ecclesiastical  bodies  now  began  to  be 
kept  in  book-form  instead  of  in  rolls,  and  so  were  less  easily 
lost.  As  in  the  12th  century  so  now,  the  established  grammar 
school  or  song  school,  as  the  case  might  be,  of  the  cathedral 
or  collegiate  church,  or  where  the  cathedral  was  monastic,  the 
school  of  the  bishop,  asserted  by  the  power  of  excommunica- 
tion its  right  to  an  unassailed  monopoly  of  teaching,  and  of 
payment  for  teaching,  in  a  given  area  of  their  jurisdiction. 
'I'he  schoolmaster  of  Canterbury  occupied  the  most  exalted 
position  in  this  regard,  being  able  himself  to  excommunicate 
the  offender  instead  of  as  at  most  places  having  to  invoke  his 
ecclesiastical  superiors  to  do  it  for  him.  This  position  was  that 
of  the  Chancellor  of  Oxford  University,  and  he  owed  it  no 
doubt  to  his  holding  office  direct  from  the  archbishop,  there 
being  no  chapter  to  which  the  government  of  the  school  was 
deputed,  just  as  the  Oxford  Chancellor  owed  his  to  a  similar 

The  collection  of  school  statutes  of  the  early  14th  century 
is  highly  illuminating.  At  St  Albans  we  find  a  body  of 
Bachelors  in  the  school,  who  apparently  got  their  degree  there, 
for  which  they  underwent  a  sort  of  examination,  having  to 
write  an  essay  in  prose  and  make  verses  on  a  given  theme, 
a  proverb  selected  by  the  master,  and  pay  fees  of  not  less  than 
6^.  in  the  shape  of  an  offering  on  the  Sunday  after  St  Nicholas' 
day,  6  Uec,  the  day  of  the  boy-bishop  ;  and  give  tlie  usual 
feast  or  drinking.     In  Beverley  grammar  school  also  Bachelors 

XXX     Schoolmaste}'  s  Power  of  Excommunication 

existed.  A  dispute  in  1338  as  to  the  fees  in  the  shape  of  gloves 
to  be  given  to  the  chapter  ofificials  on  the  occasion  was  settled 
by  the  chapter  deciding  that  the  custom  of  giving  a  pair  to 
each  of  eight  officials  headed  by  the  chapter  clerk  was  legally 
binding,  and  directing  that  it  should  be  enforced  by  excom- 
munication, if  necessary.  I'he  fact  that  at  St  Albans  anyone 
assaulting  the  schoolmaster  or  attempting  any  wrong  against 
him  was,  while  excommunicated,  (which  in  such  case  he  was  ipsa 
facto)  to  receive  salutary  discipline  in  the  school  from  all  the 
bachelors,  rather  points  to  the  derivation  of  their  name  from 
baculus,  a  club  or  stick  :  as  if,  like  the  prefects  at  Winchester, 
they  wielded  some  sort  of  \s-eapon  like  a  ground-ash,  used  for 
purposes  of  discipline.  The  ostiarius  in  this  school,  who  sat 
by  the  door  and  gave  leave  out  of  school,  seems  like  the 
ostiarius  at  Winchester  to  have  been  a  prefect  and  not  an 
usher  or  under-master,  as  he  had  to  take  delinquents  to 
the  vice-monitor  for  chastisement.  Vice-monitor  was  the 
title  of  the  under  master  at  Canterbury  and  in  the  Oxford 
grammar  schools.  The  statutes  made  for  the  grammar  and 
music  schools  of  Warwick  in  1316  show  that  already  the 
eternal  difficulty  of  preventing  a  lower  grade  school  from 
trying  to  trespass  on  the  province  of  a  higher  grade  school, 
especially  when  both  are  under  one  governing  body,  had  made 
itself  felt.  The  music  master  in  this  case  had  been  teaching 
the  Donatists,  that  is,  those  beginning  to  learn  grammar  in 
their  Donat,  or  Ars  minor  of  Donatus,  on  the  parts  of  speech. 
These  are  now  naturally  adjudged  to  belong  to  the  grammar 
school,  while  the  music  school  is  restricted  to  teaching  reading 
out  of  the  psalter,  which  was  a  natural  preliminary  to  singing 
it,  and  to  its  proper  work  of  playing  music  and  singing. 

In  the  university  sphere  the  early  14th  century  was  full 
of  life  and  progress.  The  Council  of  \'ienne  held  under 
Clement  V  in  131 1  paid  no  small  attention  to  education. 
One  of  its  most  important  efforts  was  the  direction  that 
at  the  papal  court,  and  at  the  universities  of  Paris,  Oxford, 
Bologna  and  Salamanca — they  are  named  in  this  order — two 

Oriental  Studies,    131 1-25  xxxi 

masters  should  be  established  in  each  of  the  languages  of 
Hebrew,  Greek,  Arabic  and  Chaldee,  and  to  translate  books 
from  those  languages  into  Latin.  The  expressed  object  was 
to  produce  learned  missionaries. 

The  pay  of  these  Professors  of  Oriental  languages  was  to  be 
provided  by  a  tax  on  religious  houses  and  the  clergy.  A  man- 
date of  the  bishop  of  Winchester  in  February,  1 321,  informs  us 
that  at  the  Parliament  held  in  1320  the  convocation  of  Canter- 
bury had  ordered  a  levy  of  a  farthing  in  the  pound  on  all 
ecclesiastical  possessions  for  the  pay  of  a  convert  teaching 
Hebrew  and  Greek  at  Oxford.  The  chamberlain  of  Worcester 
Cathedral  Priory  accounts  in  the  year  1321-2  for  \2d.  to  the 
'  master  of  the  Greeks  at  Oxford,'  and  at  Westminster  a 
receipt  is  extant  for  payment  in  1325  'for  the  expenses  of  the 
masters  lecturing  in  the  Hebrew,  Arabic  and  Chaldean  lan- 
guages in  the  university.'  A  genuine  effort  was  therefore 
made.  How  long  it  lasted  in  England  is  not  clear.  As  late 
as  1420  the  University  of  Paris  asked  Henry  V  of  England 
for  50  francs  for  a  converted  Jew,  Master  Paul  of  Good 
Faith  (de  Bonne  Foy,  and  de  Bona  Fide),  who  taught  Hebrew 

A  renewed  outburst  of  college  foundations  was  perhaps 
due  also  to  the  influence  of  the  (Council  of  Vienne.  The 
King's  Hall,  13 10  to  13 16,  and  Michael  House,  Cambridge, 
1324,  both  now  swallowed  up  in  Trinity  C'ollege  :  Oriel, 
Oxford,  1324;  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge,  1326,  the  first  in  which 
the  scholars  are  spoken  of  as  a  collegium  ;  Queen's,  Oxford, 
1340  ;  the  House  of  the  Scholars  of  Valence-Marie,  now 
prosaically  called  Pembroke  College,  Cambridge,  1347  ;  (ion- 
ville  Hall,  now  Gonville  and  Caius  College,  Cambridge,  i34cS  : 
the  College  of  the  Scholars  of  the  Holy  Trinity  of  Norwich,  i.e. 
Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge,  1350;  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cam- 
bridge, 1352,  form  a  series  of  educational  foundations  to  which 
no  parallel  can  be  found  again  before  the  Victorian  era. 

The  monasteries  took  a  new  educational  departure,  almost 
liy  accident.     The  great  extension  of  the  cult  of  the  ^'irgin  was 

xxxii         Almonry  Schools,    1320-1386 

accompanied  by  the  introduction  of  choristers  to  sing  the 
anthems  in  her  honour  in  the  Lady  Chapel.  'I'hese  choristers 
were  housed  in  the  almonry,  or  house  of  the  officer  called  the 
almoner,  the  distributor  of  the  alms  or  charity  of  the  monastery. 
As  this  took  the  form  of  an  indiscriminate  distribution  of  doles, 
chiefly  of  broken  meats  from  the  table  of  the  monks,  at  the 
outer  gate  of  the  monastery,  the  almonry  was  always  found  by 
this  gate.  The  first  use  of  the  almonry  for  boys  was  at 
Canterbury  in  1320,  where  the  ordinance  of  a  chantry  for  the 
soul  of  Edward  I  provided  that  '  no  scholar  shall  be  taken 
into  the  almonry  unless  he  can  read  and  sing  in  the  chapel 
and  is  10  years  old.'  At  first,  and  perhaps  always,  the  boys 
attended  the  ordinary  grammar  school,  where  there  was  one. 
For  though  we  find  in  1364  an  almonry  schoolmaster  who  left 
Canterbury  without  notice  to  go  to  the  '  public  school '  at 
Kingston,  he  is  said  to  have  been  pedagogue,  not  magister.  At 
York  in  1535  it  was  reported  that  the  50  almonry  boys  main- 
tained at  St  Mary's  Abbey,  York,  then  attended  the  cathedral, 
or  city  grammar  school.  At  St  Albans  it  is  specifically  stated 
that  the  almoner  paid  the  grammar  schoolmaster  for  teaching 
the  almonry  boys.  At  Westminster,  on  the  other  hand,  where, 
so  far  as  we  know,  there  was  no  public  grammar  school,  the 
almoner's  accounts  first  show  boys  in  the  almonry  in  a  pay- 
ment for  clothing  them  in  1355.  A  master  for  them  appears 
in  1367  and  he  is  first  called  grammar  master  and  school- 
master in  1386-7.  A  century  later,  when  there  were  24  boys,  a 
teacher  of  singing  boys  distinct  from  the  grammar  school  boys 
is  ranked  as  a  servant.  \\'hen  Henry  VIII  converted  the 
dissolved  abbey  into  a  cathedral,  the  two  sets  of  boys  were 
represented  by  the  grammar  scholars,  now  raised  to  40,  with 
a  master  and  usher,  and  the  choristers  fixed  at  10,  under 
a  song  master.  In  most  monasteries,  the  almonry  boys  as 
a  rule  did  not  exceed  13  in  number  and  were  often  less.  Hut 
the  almonries  provided  altogether  education  for  a  large  number, 
say  1500,  of  charity  boys,  who  would  not  otherwise  have 
enjoyed  the   bt.-nefits  of  the  grammar  schools. 

Monks  senl  to   Universities  xxxiii 

The  demonstration  of  Pope  Clement  in  favour  of  the 
reform  and  education  of  the  monks  was  renewed  by  Pope 
Benedict  XII  in  1335.  Elaborate  statutes  were  issued  for 
the  reform  of  the  Benedictine  monks,  followed  a  year  or  two 
later  by  identical  provisions,  mutatis  mutandis,  for  the  Augus- 
tinian  canons.  Every  monastery  was  to  keep  a  master  to 
teach  the  monks  '  the  primitive  sciences,'  which  are  explained 
as  being  'grammar,  logic  and  philosophy.'  This  master  might 
be  a  secular,  but  it  was  also  expressly  provided  that  .seculars 
should  not  be  admitted  to  be  taught  with  the  regulars.  It  was 
further  provided  that  one  out  of  every  20  monks,  or  5  per  cent., 
should  be  sent  on  to  the  universities,  half  to  learn  theology, 
half  to  learn  canon  law — which  latter  study  had  been  expressly 
forbidden  to  monks  by  Pope  Honorius  III  a  century  before. 
Though  stringent  penalties  were  enacted,  the  whole  southern 
province  in  England  did  not  manage  to  keep  60  monks  all 
told  at  Gloucester  College.  The  full  number  at  Durham 
College,  founded  by  bishop  Hatfield  in  1380,  was  only  eight. 
A  Benedictine  college  was  founded  at  Cambridge  in  1427,  but 
it  was  very  small.  The  monasteries  could  not  become  homes 
of  learning.  Perhaps  the  most  striking  evidence  of  their  lack 
of  it  is  the  foundation  of  Henry  VII  at  Westminster  in  1504 
for  sending  three  monks  to  Oxford,  to  become  B.D.  or  D.I)., 
so  as  to  be  fit  to  become  chantry  priests  to  pray  for  his  soul  in 
the  Lady  Chapel,  now  known  as  Henry  VH's  Chapel,  and  the 
complaint  of  archbishop  Warham  at  his  visitation  of  Canter- 
bury in  15 1 1  of  the  monks'  gross  ignorance  of  the  services 
and  the  absence  of  a  teacher  of  grammar. 

The  still  fluid  and  voluntary  character  of  universities 
received  a  striking  illustration  in  1334-5  in  the  secession  of 
the  northern  masters  and  scholars  after  assaults,  for  which  they 
could  obtain  no  redress  from  gown  or  town,  chancellor  or 
mayor,  to  Stamford.  After  appeals  and  counter-appeals,  the 
Stamford  schism  was  finally  suppressed  by  the  royal  order 
after  some  two  years'  troubled  existence  in  July  1335,  when 
17  M.A.'s,   I    Bachelor,  6  rectors  and  vicars  of  Stamford,  and 

xxxiv  The  Plague  and  Education 

14  students  were  driven  out  by  the  eschaetor.  That  so  small 
a  number  of  seceders  should  strike  terror  in  the  university  and 
leave  their  impress  for  200  years  in  an  oath  not  to  lecture 
or  attend  lectures  at  Stamford  may  give  pause  to  the  reckless 
assertions  made  as  to  the  numbers  attending  the  medieval 

The  Black  Death  of  1349,  followed  as  it  was  by  the  Secunda 
Pestis  of  1 36 1  and  a  third  plague  in  1367,  profoundly  affected 
the  universities  and  schools.  The  foundation  of  new  colleges 
was  absolutely  stopped.  None  were  founded  at  Cambridge 
between  1352,  when  Corpus  Christi  College  was  founded 
expressly  to  repair  the  ravages  created  by  the  Plague  of 
1349,  and  God's  House  in  1439.  -^^  Oxford  none  were 
founded  between  1340  and  1379.  The  flow  of  scholars 
was  seriously  diminished.  Perhaps  the  most  striking  testi- 
mony to  this  is  the  appointment  of  the  master  of  York 
grammar  school  in  1368,  when  the  chapter  departed  in  terms 
from  the  'ancient  custom  '  of  at  least  150  years,  of  appointing 
for  three  or  four  years  only,  and  '  on  account  of  the  rarity 
of  M.A.'s'  appointed  one  'until  he  obtains  an  ecclesiastical 
benefice.'  The  person  appointed  was  still  master  in  1380, 
when  he  was  admitted  a  freeman  of  the  city. 

It  was  therefore  no  rhetorical  phrase  repeating  an  obsolete 
formula,  but  sober  fact,  which  made  William  of  Wykeham 
give  as  a  reason  for  his  great  foundations,  'to  cure  the  common 
disease  of  the  clerical  army,  which  we  have  seen  grievously 
wounded  by  lack  of  clerks,  due  to  plagues,  wars  and  other 
miseries.'  Probably  from  the  time  he  became  bishop,  certainly 
from  1373,  Wykeham  maintained  a  boarding  grammar  school 
at  Winchester  for  70  boys,  and  the  same  number  in  the  higher 
faculties  at  Oxford,  except  in  1376-7,  when  his  revenues  were 
sequestrated.  In  1379  he  permanently  founded  '  Seint  Marie 
College  of  AVynchestre'  at  Oxford,  and  in  1382  'Seint  Marie 
College  by  Wynchestre.'  Statutes  were  given  to  each  at  the 
time,  but  the  final  edition  made  in  1400  is  alone  extant.  Both 
colleges  were  undoubtedly  modelled  on   Merton  College  and 

Foundatioti  of  Winchester  and  New  College  xxxv 

on  the  royal  college  of  Navarre  at  Paris,  founded  by  Joan, 
queen  of  France  and  Navarre,  in  1304,  for  70  scholars  in 
grammar,  arts  and  theology.     Both  models  were  improved  on. 

The  French  queen  had  assigned  separate  buildings  for  20 
grammar  scholars  within  the  precinct  of  the  college:  and  this 
was  then  perhaps  the  most  flourishing  part  of  the  establish- 
ment, being  crowded  with  paying  scholars  or  commoners,  who 
flooded  over  into  adjoining  houses.  Wykeham  made  his 
grammar  scholars  as  numerous  as  his  university  scholars,  and 
established  them  as  a  separate  college  with  separate  endow- 
ments, not  as  a  part  of  the  college,  though  under  its  visitatorial 
authority,  nor  even  at  Oxford,  but  at  Winchester,  where  he 
himself  had  been  at  school.  As  in  the  Navarre  College,  the 
grammar  scholars  were  to  be  promoted  in  their  turn  to  be 
artist  scholars  when  they  left  Winchester  for  Oxford.  The 
breath  of  the  Renaissance  is  already  felt  in  the  much  larger 
proportions  which  the  grammar  and  artist  scholars  bear  to  the 
theologians,  and  in  the  assignment  of  20  out  of  the  70 
fellowships  to  canon  and  civil  law,  two  to  astronomy  and 
two  to  medicine  ;  so  that  rather  more  than  a  third  of  the  whole 
number  of  fellows,  and  more  than  half  of  the  graduate  fellows, 
were  set  free  from  theology.  The  expressed  object  of  the  wholt- 
college,  however,  was  as  usual  declared  in  words  borrowed  from 
the  canon  law,  that  '  the  holy  scripture  or  page,  mother  and 
mistress  of  all  the  other  sciences,  may  spread  its  tents  more 
freely  and  more  than  the  rest.'  All  the  scholars  or  fellows, 
from  the  smallest  boy  at  Winchester  to  the  senior  doctor  of 
divinity  at  New  College,  were,  in  the  words  alike  of  Joan  of 
Navarre  and  William  of  Wykeham,  '  scholars  clerks,'  clerks 
who  studied  in  the  schools,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen  took  the 
clerical  tcjnsure.  The  elaborate,  not  to  say  wordy,  statutes  of 
New  College  superseded  the  statutes  of  Merton  as  the  model 
for  college  statutes  up  to  the  Reformation  ;  alike  at  Oxford 
and  Cambridge,  at  Eton  and  at  Rotherham.  Those  of  Eton 
and  King's  and  of  Magdalen,  Oxford,  are  indeed  mere 
transcripts,   mutatis  mutandis. 

The  earliest  chantry  grammar  school,  the  statutes  of  which 

xxxvi  Country  Grammar  Schools 

have  descended  to  us,  was  founded  two  years  later  than  Win- 
chester, in  1384,  by  a  woman,  Katharine  lady  Berkeley — the 
still  flourishing  school,  though  sadly  robbed  of  its  endowments, 
of  Wotton-under-Iidge.  Wotton  was,  however,  only  a  small 
country  town,  and  the  foundation  consisted  only  of  a  master 
and  two  'scholars  clerks.'  The  scholars  were  to  be  a  sort  of 
pupil-teachers  and  assist  in  teaching  all  'scholars  whatsoever, 
howsoever  and  whencesoever  coming  for  instruction  in  the  art 
of  grammar,  without  exacting,  claiming  or  taking  any  advantage 
or  gain  for  their  labour  by  way  of  stipend  or  salary '  other  than 
the  revenues  of  the  foundation. 

Apropos  of  the  position  of  these  country  grammar  school- 
masters, it  may  be  proved  that  it  was  by  no  means  a  low  one. 
The  master  of  Higham  Ferrers  school,  which  no  doubt 
educated,  before  he  went  to  Winchester,  archbishop  Chiche- 
ley,  who  incorporated  the  school  in  the  college  which  he 
founded  there  in  1425,  was  mayor  of  the  town  in  1391,  and 
used  to  alternate  in  office  with  Chicheley's  father.  An  ap- 
pointment of  one  of  his  successors  is  interesting,  as  being 
made  by  Henry  IV  as  duke  of  Lancaster,  and  therefore  lord  of 
Higham  Ferrers,  immediately  after  his  accession  to  the  throne, 
and  as  being  in  French,  instead  of  Latin.  This  is  rather 
remarkable  as  we  learn  from  Higden's  complaint  in  1327  that 
English  boys  had  to  translate  their  Latin  into  French,  while 
his  translator  in  1385,  a  fellow  of  Exeter  College,  tells  us  that 
since  the  first  death,  i.e.  1349,  John  Cornwall,  a  master  of 
grammar,  who  appears  in  the  accounts  of  Merton  College  as 
teaching  the  schoolboys  there,  made  the  boys  in  the  grammar 
school  construe  into  English  instead  of  French.  'So  that 
now,  A.D.  1385,  in  all  the  grammar  schools  children  leave 
French  and  construe  and  learn  in  English.' 

One  of  the  earliest  results  of  this  change  must  have  been 
Chaucer,  who,  being  a  Londoner's  son,  was,  we  may  suppose, 
bred  at  St  Paul's  School.  His  picture  of  the  '  litel  clergeon,' 
the  dericulus  or  young  clerk,  is  the  most  informing  document 
we  have  on  the  song  school  of  the  day.     For  such  and  not 

Fiftee7ith  Century  Develop77tents     xxxvii 

a  grammar  school,  as  the  last  learned  clerk  who  has  written 
on  it  (l)r  Carleton  Brown,  Chaucer  Society,  2nd  Series, 
No.  45)  tries  to  show,  was  the  'litel  scole '  that  stood  at  the 
end  of  the  Jewry,  in  'a  city  of  Asie,'  which  may  be  located 
as  London  or  Lincoln.  As  if  to  leave  no  doubt  about  the 
status  of  this  school,  Chaucer  tells  us  precisely  that  the 
'doctrine'  in  it  was  'to  sing  and  to  read.'  Even  the  elder 
boy  who  learnt  to  sing  the  antiphons  to  the  Virgin  could  not 
construe  them  ;  '  I  learn  song,  I  know  but  small  grammar.' 
Had  he  learnt  grammar  the  grammar  master  would  have  pro- 
tested, as  at  Warwick  and  Walden,  at  his  province  being 
trenched  upon. 

Equally  illuminating  on  the  real  relations  to  education  of 
the  secular  clerk  and  the  regular  orders  respectively  is  Chaucer's 
contrast  of  the  quiet  and  book-loving  clerk  of  Oxenford,  ever 
ready  both  to  learn  and  teach,  with  the  roystering  cloister- 
monk,  who  took  good  care  never  to  be  found  in  the  cloister 
and  regarded  reading  as  mere  madness,  and  with  the  fat  and 
wanton  friar,  who  lisped,  like  the  lady's  man  of  all  ages. 

Owing  to  the  contempt  poured  by  Erasmus,  Colet  and  other 
1 6th  century  writers  on  their  more  immediate  predecessors, 
which  has  been  accentuated  by  the  odium  theologiaivi  of  the 
Reformers  for  the  reactionaries  of  their  own  day,  the  15th 
century  has  commonly  been  decried  as  a  period  of  decadence. 
So  far  as  education  is  concerned,  our  documents  lend  no 
colour  to  this  view.  A  great  development  of  educational 
foundations  took  place,  alike  in  the  re-endowment  and  enlarge- 
ment of  old  schools  and  the  erection  of  new  schools  and 
colleges.  The  history  of  Stratford-on-Avon  Grammar  School, 
which,  from  being  the  school  in  which  Shakespeare  must  have 
acquired  his  little  Latin  and  less  Greek,  must  always  be  of 
abounding  interest,  is  typical.  The  accounts  of  the  Stratford 
Gild  show  it  growing  from  an  unendowed  fee-school,  carried 
on  in  a  deserted  house  down  in  the  'old  town"  under  John 
'  Scolemayster '  in  1402,  to  a  fnie  new  school  house,  still 
subsisting,  built  in  1420  in  the  new  residential  and  commercial 
L.  d 

xxxviii     Free   Grauimar  Schools,    1407-1502 

quarter  by  the  (}ild  Hall,  with  a  large  endowment  given  in 
1487.  The  chief  object  of  the  endowment  was  to  make  the 
school  free.  The  master  was  '  to  teach  grammar  freely  to  all 
scholars  coming  to  him  in  the  said  town,  taking  nothing  of  the 
scholars  for  their  teaching.' 

Throughout  the  century  a  similar  desire  to  spread  education, 
and  that  generally  free  education,  is  shown.  A  notable  in- 
stance appears  in  the  Statute  of  Apprentices  in  1406.  While 
the  unfortunate  labourers  on  the  land  were  forbidden  to  raise 
their  children  in  life  by  apprenticing  them  to  trades  and 
manufactures  in  the  towns  unless  they  owned  land  worth 
j[^\  a  year — not  less  than  ^^30  a  year  now — an  express 
exception  was  made,  that  any  man  or  woman  of  any  estate 
should  be  free  to  send  his  son  or  daughter  to  learn  literature, 
i.e.  Latin,  at  any  school  they  pleased.  In  1407  we  find  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  of  Lincoln  raising  their  choristers'  school 
into  a  separate  and  rival  school  from  the  old  cathedral  and 
City  Grammar  School,  undoubtedly  as  a  free  school,  whereas 
the  old  school  was  a  fee  school.  In  1432  William  Sevenoaks, 
later  corrupted  to  Snooks,  a  member  of  the  Grocers'  Company, 
and  citizen  of  London,  founded  a  Free  Grammar  School  at 
Sevenoaks,  with  the  remarkable  provision  that  the  master 
'  shall  by  no  means  be  in  holy  orders  {infra  sacros  ordines 
minime  coiisiitutus).'  Another  London  citizen,  a  member  of 
the  Mercers'  Company,  John  Abbot,  founded  a  school  for 
the  'little  ones'  {parzndi)  at  Farthinghoe  in  Northampton- 
shire and  made  the  Mercers'  Company  its  Governors  in  1443, 
67  years  before  the  supposed  advanced  Renaissance  and 
i6th  century  innovation  of  Dean  Colet  in  making  the  Mercers' 
Company  trustees  of  the  re-founded  St  I^xul's  School.  In 
1503  Sir  John  Percyvale,  Merchant  Taylor  and  Lord  Mayor, 
founded  his  Free  Grammar  School  at  Macclesfield  for  gentle- 
men's sons  and  other  good  men's  sons  thereabouts.  In  1502 
the  corporation  of  Bridgenorth  set  up  a  '  comyn '  or  public 
school  and  forbad  any  priest  to  keep  a  school,  save  one  child 
to  help  him  to  say  mass,  on  pain  of  the  formidable  fine  of  ;^i. 

The  Foundation  of  Eton  xxxix 

The  most  famous  of  all  schools,  St  Mary's  College  of  Eton 
by  Windsor,  the  royal  foundation  of  Henry  VI,  was  founded 
as  a  Free  Grammar  School.  The  charter  of  ii  Oct.  1440 
provided  for  25  poor  and  needy  scholars  to  learn  grammar, 
25  almsmen  and  a  master  or  informator  to  teach  the  scholars, 
*  and  all  others  whatsoever  and  whencesoever  of  our  realm  of 
England  coming  to  the  said  college,  the  rudiments  of 
grammar  gratis,  without  exacting  money  or  anything  else' 
As  Chicheley's  school-college  at  Higham  Ferrers,  founded 
1425,  had  no  organic  connection  with  his  University  College 
of  All  Souls,  founded  1434,  so  Eton  had  no  organic  con- 
nection with  the  other  royal  college  of  St  Nicholas  founded 
by  Henry  at  Cambridge  for  a  Provost  and  12  scholars. 
Subsequent  enlargements  assimilated  the  two  colleges  in  size 
and  relation  to  Winchester  and  New  College.  A  curious 
addition  was  the  royal  writ  purporting  to  give  Eton  a  monopoly 
of  grammar  school  education  for  10  miles  round. 

While  the  spirit  of  progress  was  on  the  whole  in  the 
ascendant,  the  spirit  of  reaction  was  in  power.  Under  arch- 
bishop Arundel,  a  fierce  persecutor  of  the  Lollards,  Con- 
vocation in  1408  forbad  any  Master  of  Arts  or  Cirammar  who 
taught  school  to  meddle  with  the  Catholic  faith  or  the 
sacraments  or  allow  the  scholars  to  dispute — the  usual  method 
of  teaching  anything — on  the  subject.  In  the  Statute  of 
Lollards  in  1414,  Parliament  gave  Justices  of  the  Peace  power 
to  enquire  into  and  arrest  teachers  of  Lollard  schools.  It  is 
doubtful  whether  by  schools  in  this  statute  real  schools  were 
meant  or  whether,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Jewish  'scolae,'  which 
were  synagogues,  the  word  is  not  used  as  a  synonym  for  con- 
venticle or  propagandist  meeting-house.  The  only  actual 
record  I  have  been  able  to  find  of  such  a  '  school '  is  at 
St  John  the  Baptist's  chapel  just  outside  Leicester,  which 
'school'  certainly  appears  to  mean  'conventicle.'  So  the  later 
charter  of  Eton  in  1443  protests  that  it  is  intended  for  'the 
extirpation  of  the  heresies  and  errors  which  perturb  the 
peace  of  Kingdom  and  Universities ' ;  while,  a  little  later,  the 


:1  The    Upper  Classes  at  Oxford 

members  had  to  swear  not  to  'favour  the  opinions,  damned 
errors  or  heresies  of  John  Wycklyfe,  Reginald  Peacock  or  any 
other  heretic,  as  long  as  he  lives  in  this  world,  under  pain 
of  perjury  and  expulsion  ipso  facto.^ 

An  extension  of  the  principle  of  free  education  to  a  college 
lectureship  is  to  be  seen  in  the  will  of  Robert  Bellamy,  fellow 
of  the  King's  Hall,  Cambridge,  in  1492.  This  precedent  was 
followed  in  the  establishment  of  University  Professorships  by 
the  Lady  Margaret,  mother  of  Henry  VH,  in  1504,  and  by 
Henry  VHI  in  the  next  generation. 

In  the  sphere  of  university  education  generally  the  i5tb 
century  was  a  progressive  age.  New  subjects  clamoured  for 
recognition.  At  Oxford  in  1432  we  find  that  there  were 
students  of  the  combined  subjects  of  English  law  and  the 
French  language,  the  latter  because  the  Law  Courts  and  the 
Law  Reports  still  clung  to  it.  The  University  gave  them  the 
cold  shoulder  by  relegating  them  to  the  state  of  '  cursory ' 
instead  of  '  ordinary '  lectures,  i.e.  afternoon  instead  of  the 
morning,  a  precedent  which  was  followed  in  the  old  schools,  as 
regards  'modern  subjects,'  down  to  1850.  Two  letters  of  the 
University  at  this  date  bear  their  striking  testimony  against 
those  who  assert  that  the  upper  classes  did  not  frequent  the 
University  and  that  the  schools  were  only  filled  with  children 
of  the  chorister  or  charity  boy  type.  For  as  in  writing  to  Lord 
Say,  whose  son,  or  near  relation,  ^^'illiam  Say,  was  at  Win- 
chester and  New  College,  Chancellor  of  Oxford,  and  Dean  of 
St  Paul's,  they  remind  him  that  his  family  frequented  Oxford, 
so  they  remind  the  Commons  that  '  many  of  your  own  issue 
and  also  kinsmen  have,  are  now,  and  shall  be  in  time  coming,'  ' 
advanced  with  the  ripe  fruit  of  'cunning'  in  our  mother,  the 

At  Cambridge,  a  (juite  new  development  took  place. 
William  Bingham,  a  London  parson,  asked  in  1439  for  a 
licence  to  found  the  first  Secondary  Training  College,  to  train 
masters  for  Cranmiar  .Schools.  He  gives  striking  evidence  of 
the  decay  of  the  unendowed  schools,  saying  that  in  going  from 

Elementary  Schools,   1460- 1490  xli 

Hampton — presumably  Hampton-on-Thames — ^to  Ripon  via 
Coventry  he  had  found  no  less  than  70  schools,  which  formerly  / 
flourished,  shut  up ;  which  he  attributes  to  the  lack  of  endow- 
ment for  grammar  at  the  University.  Obtaining  his  licence, 
he  duly  founded  God's  House.  The  progressive  spirit  of  the 
age  is  marked  in  the  reasons  assigned  in  the  charter  for  the 
importance  of  grammar.  It  is  no  longer  merely  the  necessary 
gateway  to  theology  but  it  gives  '  an  understanding  of  Latin 
necessary  for  dealing  with  the  laws  and  other  difficult  business 
of  the  realm  and  also  for  mutual  communication  and  con- 
versation with  strangers  and  foreigners.' 

The  15th  century  saw  also  a  considerable  development  of 
free  tuition  and  endowments  for  the  lower  branches  of  education. 
The  most  striking  example  of  this  is  the  College  of  Jesus  at 
Rotherham  near  Sheffield,  founded  by  Archbishop  Rotherham, 
an  ex-Chancellor,  and  one  of  the  first  scholars  of  King's  College, 
in  1480,  modelled  apparently  on  the  College  of  Acaster,  not 
far  from  York,  founded  by  Bishop  Stillingfleet,  an  exT^ord 
Chancellor,  about  1460.  Each  of  these  Colleges  consisted  of  a 
Provost  and  three  Fellows,  the  Provost  to  preach,  the  three 
Fellows  to  teach.  Two  were  to  be  masters  of  three  several 
Free  Schools,  the  usual  grammar  school,  and  song  school. 
The  third  school  '  to  teche  to  write  and  all  such  thing  as 
belonged  to  scrivener  craft,'  as  Stillingfleet  expressed  it,  or 
'the  art  of  writing  and  reckoning  (computandi),' as  Rotherham 
put  it,  was  a  novelty.  The  reason  for  it ;  viz.  because  that 
country  '  produced  many  youths  endowed  with  light  and 
sharpness  of  ability,  who  do  not  all  want  to  attain  the  dignity 
and  elevation  of  the  priesthood,  that  these  may  be  better  fitted 
for  the  mechanical  arts  and  other  concerns  of  this  world,'  is 
quite  in  the  Humanist  vein.  Of  an  even  more  elementary 
type  was  the  chantry  school  of  William  Chamber  of  Aldwincle 
in  Northamptonshire,  founded  8  Nov.  1489,  to  pray  for  his 
soul  and  for  teaching  gratis  six  boys  in  spelling  and  reading 
{syllabicacione  et  Icctura).  A  curious  attem[)t  to  combine  the 
grammar   and    elementarv    school    was    that    at    Newland    in 

xlii  The  Reformation 

Gloucestershire,  founded  by  Robert  Gryndour  c.  1480,  for  a 
priest  and  one  scholar,  a  pupil-teacher  under  him,  to  teach  in 
the  chantry  or  school-house  '  a  grammar  school  half-free,  that 
is  to  say,  to  take  of  scholars  learning  grammar  %d.  the  quarter 
and  of  others  learning  to  read  4^/.  the  quarter.'  A  similar 
tariff  was  imposed  at  Ipswich  in  1477.  i  he  grammarians 
were  charged  \od.^  while  '  psalterians '  were  charged  8^.  and 
'  primarians,'  those  learning  the  primer,  dd.  a  quarter. 

The  first  part  of  the  i6th  century  merely  carried  on  the 
movement  already  begun  for  the  development  of  free  education 
by  endowments.  But  a  rather  remarkable  origin  for  a  school 
is  that  of  Giggleswick  in  Yorkshire.  James  Carr  or  Ker, 
priest,  on  12  Nov.  1507,  obtained  from  Durham  Cathedral 
Priory  a  building  lease  for  79  years  of  half  an  acre  of  land  by 
the  church-garth  of  Giggleswick,  whereon  to  build  a  grammar 
school,  apparently  as  a  private  adventure  school.  Later  he 
seems  to  have  endowed  it  as  a  Chantry  of  the  Rood  with  school 
attached.  The  augmented  St  Paul's  School  rebuilt  by  Colet 
in  1508-10,  refounded  and  re-endowed  in  15 10-12,  with 
statutes  which  in  their  existing  form  were  given  in  15 18,  in 
which  for  the  first  time  Greek  is  mentioned  as  desirable, 
'  if  it  can  be  gotten,'  has  been  often  heralded  as  a  great 
advance  in  education.  But  in  truth  it  was  rather  reactionary, 
as  Colet  wanted  the  boys  to  obtain  the  'veray  Roman  tongue 
of  Tully '  by  studying  not  the  classics  but  Juvencus  and 
Sedulius  and  the  other  Low  Latin  Christian  poets  who  versified 
the  Gospels  and  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  whom  archbishop 
Albert  had  collected  for  York  school  over  700  years  before. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  his  picturesque  attack  on  what  he 
calls  '  blotterature  rather  than  literature '  is  crowded  out,  as 
well  as  bishop  Oldham's  statutes  for  Manchester  School  in 
1525  and  Wolsey's  striking  curriculum  of  1527  for  his 
ephemeral  college  at  Ipswich.  The  latter  shows  the  true 
Renaissance  spirit  in  its  insistency  on  classical  authors. 

The  beginning  of  the  revolution  called  the  Reformation  in 
the  Parliament  of  1529,  which  asserted  the  royal  supremacy 

The  New  Cathedral  Schools,    1540       xliii 

and  uniformity  in  matters  ecclesiastical,  was  accompanied  with 
a  similar  assertion  by  Convocation  in  matters  educational  by 
the  establishment  of  a  single  authorized  grammar  to  be  put 
forth  by  the  archbishop,  four  bishops  and  four  abbots. 

The  abolition  of  the  greater  monasteries  ten  years  later 
resulted  in  a  considerable  educational  development,  in  the 
foundation  of  13  grammar  schools  as  part  of  the 
cathedrals  '  of  the  new  foundation,'  in  which  after  600  years 
the  monks  who  had  turned  out  the  canons  were  now  in 
turn  turned  out  to  make  room  for  canons.  In  all  the  new 
cathedrals  established  in  1540,  including  Westminster  but 
excepting  Winchester,  '  because  of  that  noble  school  of 
Wykeham's  foundation,'  a  grammar  school  with  a  master  and 
usher,  paid  on  the  highest  scale  of  the  day,  was  included.  In 
all  except  Bristol,  Gloucester,  and  perhaps  Carlisle  and 
Norwich,  there  was  added  a  boarding-school  on  the  model  of 
Winchester  in  which  a  number  of  scholars,  varying  from  50 
at  Canterbury  and  40  at  Westminster  to  18  at  Durham,  were 
lodged,  boarded,  gowned  and  taught  at  the  expense  of  the 
cathedral  foundation.  A  song  school  under  a  separate  master 
for  choristers  varying  in  number  from  12  to  six  was  also 
established.  The  head  or  high  master,  archididascalus,  a 
new-fangled  phrase,  took  rank  and  pay  as  in  the  old  secular 
cathedrals  immediately  after  the  canons  and  before  the 
minor  canons  or  vicars  choral.  Besides  the  scholars  on  the 
foundation  the  schools  were  open  to  all  who  chose  to  come  to 
learn  grammar.  Though  none  of  these  schools  were  wholly 
new,  yet  Henry  VIII,  both  in  their  foundation  and  in  those  of 
other  collegiate  churches  and  schools,  erected  on  the  dis- 
solution of  other  monasteries  and  churches,  enlarged  and 
enriched  them,  so  that  they  greatly  advanced  education. 

The  first  Acts  of  Edward  \T  promised  distinctly  well  for 
education.  In  the  Injunctions  issued  in  1547  all  chantry 
priests  were  directed  to  exercise  themselves  in  teaching  youth. 
Thus  by  a  stroke  of  the  pen  all  the  chantries  were  on  pa])er 
converted   into   educational   endowments.     The   Act    for    the 

xliv  The  Chantries  Act,    1547 

dissolution  of  colleges,  chantries,  gilds  and  brotherhoods  of 
the  following  year,  1548,  promised  the  'change  and  amendment 
of  the  same  to  good  and  godly  uses  as  in  erecting  of  grammar 
schools,  and  the  further  augmenting  of  the  Universities.'  But 
while  it  abolished  them  all  at  one  fell  swoop  it  left  their 
'amendment'  to  a  separate  commission.  Also,  while  it  re- 
served grammar  schools  where  the  first  foundation  expressly 
provided  for  them,  it  ignored  those  the  endowments  of  which 
had  in  fact  been  applied  for  education,  and  struck  a  deadly 
blow  at  elementary  education  by  ignoring  the  Song  Schools. 
The  endowments  of  all  the  300  or  more  grammar  schools 
maintained  by  collegiate  churches  and  chantries  were  con- 
fiscated and  mostly  sold.  Interim  orders  continuing  the 
schoolmasters  at  a  pay  equivalent  to  their  net  receipts  from 
the  confiscated  endowments  were  made  pending  'further 
order,'  which  in  the  vast  majority  of  cases  never  came. 
In  the  distant  county  of  Cornwall,  where,  say  the  com- 
missioners, '  God  knows  the  people  be  very  ignoraunt,'  and 
therefore  the  more  in  need  of  schools,  six  schools  were 
continued,  the  endowment  of  that  of  ^^'eek  St  Mary,  a  boarding 
school  foundation  not  40  years  old,  being  transferred  to  and 
fused  with  that  of  Launceston.  In  no  single  case  in  this 
county  was  the  '  further  order '  ever  made.  The  lamentable 
result  is  shown  in  the  report  of  the  Endowed  Schools  Com- 
missioners in  1868,  when  only  Truro  was  really  a  (Grammar 
School,  and  that  has  since  collapsed. 

The  '  further  order '  came  only  where  local  pressure 
through  powerful  patrons  at  court  prevailed.  Three,  Berk- 
hani])stead,  St  Albans  and  Stamford,  were  at  once  refounded 
by  Act  of  Parliament.  A  Professor  of  English  History, 
Mr  A.  W.  Pollard,  cited  these  Acts  in  Eiii:^land  under  Protector 
Somerset  as  disposing  of  the  assertion  made  in  English  ScJiooIs 
at  the  Reformation  that  no  new  schools  were  founded  by 
Edward  VI.  ]5ut  unfortunately  the  Professor  hud  not  read 
the  Acts;  for  they  recited  at  length  the  previous  foundations 
in  the  case  of  Berkhampstead  and  Stamford.     St  Albans,  as 

Westminster  School  Statutes,    1560        xlv 

we  have  seen,  existed  at  least  as  early  as  iioo,  and  the  Act 
of  1549  in  that  case  did  not  refound  the  school  but  only 
granted  licence  to  Richard  Boreman,  the  ex-abbot,  to  found  it, 
and  it  was  not  actually  refounded  till  1553  under  a  new 
power  granted  by  letters  patent  to  the  corporation  of  St  Albans. 
Several  schools  were  refounded  by  letters  patent  as  part  of  the 
refoundation  as  municipal  corporations  of  some  of  the  dis- 
solved gilds,  as  at  Saffron  Walden  and  Morpeth-  The  earliest 
instance  of  the  typical  Edward  VI  Free  Grammar  School  under 
a  grant  to  a  body  of  Governors  created  ad  hoc  is  that  of  Sher- 
borne, Dorset,  on  13  May  1550.  The  endowment  granted 
consisted  of  two  whole  chantry  endowments  and  scraps  of 
three  others  scattered  about  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  first 
account  of  the  Governors  after  the  re-foundation  shows  the 
kind  of  loss  inflicted  on  the  schools,  which  were  deprived  of 
their  lands  and  confined  to  a  fixed  salary.  While  the  rents  of 
the  lands  granted  came  to  ^21.  ^s.  lod.  one-third  more  was 
received  in  fines  for  renewal  of  leases.  As  the  years  went  on 
the  fines  and  the  rents  grew  almost  every  year.  All  this 
increment  was  lost  to  those  schools  which  were  not  refounded. 
The  whole  number  of  refoundations  by  patent  of  Edward  VI 
seems  to  have  been  30. 

The  return  of  the  Catholics  to  power  meant  little  loss  to 
the  schools.  In  his  last  convocation  Cardinal  Pole  prescribed 
that  every  cathedral  church  should  maintain  60  scholars,  ^^'hen 
the  monks  were  restored  to  Westminster  Abbey  the  school 
was  allowed  to  remain.  Queen  Elizabeth  in  her  first  year 
revived  the  Injunctions  of  Edward  VI  for  the  maintenance  of 
scholars  by  the  well-beneficed  clergy.  I-]ut  there  is  no  evidence 
of  their  being  carried  out.  ^\'estminster  was  in  1560  restored 
as  a  collegiate  church  with  an  elaborate  code  of  statutes  in 
which  the  school  was  given  far  more  space  and  importance 
than  ever  before.  These  statutes  take  the  boys  through  the 
whole  day,  from  their  being  roused  by  the  cry  of  '  Surgite  ' 
'Get  up'  at  5  a.m.  to  their  prayers  on  going  to  bed  at  night, 
two  in  a  bed.     These  are  the  first  statutes  in  which  Hebrew  is 

xlvi  Bishops  poiver 

required  of  the  Head  Master  in  addition  to  Latin  and  Greek, 
a  requirement  after  this  frequently  found  in  school  statutes  to 
the  last  quarter  of  the  17th  century.  That  it  was  no  empty 
flourish  is  clear  from  the  evidence  by  Charles  Hoole  as  to  the 
proficiency  in  oriental  languages  at  Westminster  in  the  time  of 
Dr  Busby  a  century  afterwards.  They  are  also  the  first  and 
perhaps  the  only  school  statutes  to  prescribe  a  play.  As  we 
saw  at  St  Albans  in  iioo  the  production  of  a  play  was  already 
a  schoolmaster's  function.  Indeed  the  modern  drama  largely 
owed  its  origin  to  such  plays  and  to  the  Christmas  performances 
connected  with  the  ceremonial  of  the  Boy-Bishop.  But  this 
is  the  only  school  in  which  a  play  was  statutory,  and  so  the 
famous  Westminster  Play  was  preserved  for  us. 

In  1580  the  Papal  outburst  against  the  Queen  caused 
antiseptic  measures  to  be  taken  on  the  other  side.  We  find 
at  Bury  St  Edmunds  the  Lord  Treasurer  Burghley  himself 
ordering  the  Governors  to  turn  out  a  master  who  was  not 
'  of  so  good  choyce  '  for  '  soundness  in  religion  '  as  he  ought  to 
have  been.  Twenty  years  later,  the  Gunpowder  Plot  produced 
a  renewal  of  the  requirement  of  licence  from  the  Ordinary  for 
teaching  school  and  an  increase  of  the  penalties.  As  late  as 
1624  we  find  at  Exeter  the  bishop  able  to  stop  the  erection 
of  a  rival  to  the  ancient  Grammar  School  which  the  city 
wanted  to  set  up.  In  the  end  however  he  and  the  chapter 
were  defeated  and  letters  patent  obtained  for  establishing  a 
new  school  in  St  John's  Hospital,  which  eventually  swallowed 
up  the  old  one. 

A  large  number  of  new  schools  were  founded  in  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth,  many  of  them  oi)taining  the  title  of  '  Free 
Grammar  School  of  Queen  Elizabeth.'  But  the  endowments 
were  provided  not  by  her  but  by  private  founders,  many  of 
them  by  subscription.  In  the  latter  part  of  her  reign  a 
considerable  number  of  Elementary  Schools,  some  free,  some 
not,  were  founded,  such  as  that  at  Henley-in-Arden  in 
Warwickshire  by  George  Whately  of  Stratford-on-Avon  by 
deed  of  28  Sept.  1586,  for  instructing  in  reading,  writing  and 

Education  during  Conunomvealth        xlvii 

arithmetic,  30  children.  In  James  I's  reign  such  schools  were 
founded  in  increasing  numbers.  Nicholas  Latham,  rector  of 
Barnwell  in  Northamptonshire,  founded  no  less  than  four  such 
schools  by  one  deed  in  1620  for  teaching  children  to  read. 
Space  forbids  specimens. 

The  'Great  Rebellion'  and  its  child  the  Commonwealth 
so  far  from  being,  as  many  writers  on  school  and  educational 
history  have  supposed,  adverse  to  education  or  hostile  to 
schools  were  just  the  reverse. 

Even  while  the  struggle  was  still  going  on  the  Committee 
for  Plundered  Ministers  looked  after  schoolmasters.  Ihe 
care  taken  may  be  gauged  by  the  frequent  references  back  to 
the  local  committee  in  the  case  of  Canterbury.  At  Bury 
St  Edmunds  on  the  other  hand  the  master  was  dismissed 
for  '  malignancy '  displayed  in  action.  When  Deans  and 
Chapters  were  abolished  by  Act  of  Parliament  on  30  April 
1649,  an  express  clause  continued  'all  the  revenues... which 
before  i  Dec.  1641  had  been  or  ought  to  have  been  paid  for 
the  maintenance  of  any  Grammar  School  or  Scholars.'  The 
Trustees  in  whom  the  '  spiritual '  possessions — tithes  and  the 
like — of  the  chapters  were  vested  not  only  maintained  all  but 
augmented  many  of  the  Schools,  as  the  case  of  Salisbury 
shows.     Parliament  also  created  new  schools. 

Under  two  Acts  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel,  one  in 
the  four  Northern  Counties,  the  other  in  Wales,  passed  on 
I  jNIarch  and  2  Feb.  1650  respectively,  Commissions  were 
appointed  to  augment  livings  and  increase  education  out  of 
the  Crown  and  Cathedral  lands.  Numerous  new  schools  were 
created  under  these  Acts,  as  examples  of  which  those  for  Caren 
in  Wales  and  Sunderland  in  Durham  are  selected.  The  latter 
is  noticeable  for  being  a  new  departure,  the  first  attempt,  so 
far  as  is  known,  at  a  maritime  school  '  to  teach  children  to 
write  and  instruct  them  in  arithmetique  to  fitt  them  for  the  sea 
or  other  necessary  callings.'  The  famous  Mathematical  .School 
at  Christ's  Hospital,  and  at  Rochester  were  adaptations  of  this 
Parliamentary  innovation. 

xlviii       Development  of  Private  Schools 

The  year  1655  is  distinguished  for  the  first  endowed  school 
founded  for  girls  as  well  as  boys.  It  was  built  and  endowed 
by  deed  of  10  March  1654-5  of  Sir  PVancis  Nethersole, 
knight,  at  Polesworth  in  Warwickshire.  It  was  not  however  a 
mixed  school,  but  '  dual,'  the  building  being  divided,  the  boys 
under  a  master  learning  to  read  and  write,  the  girls  to  read  and 
■work  with  the  needle. 

In  the  sphere  of  university  education,  the  same  aug- 
mentation of  the  old  and  creation  of  new  institutions  were 
found.  When  the  Chapters  were  abolished,  ^2000  a  year 
was  reserved  for  the  augmentation  of  the  universities  and 
applied  partly  in  increasing  the  pay  of  Heads  of  Houses,  as  in 
the  specimens  given  of  St  John's  and  Emmanuel  at  Cambridge  ; 
and  also  in  professorships,  especially  a  mathematical  professor- 
ship at  Cambridge.  The  erection  of  Durham  College  out  of 
Cathedral  revenues  and  its  proposed  conversion  into  a  univer- 
sity anticipated  by  nearly  200  years  what  was  eventually  done 
by  the  Dean  and  Chapter  themselves  too  late.  All  these  new- 
schools  and  augmentations  were  swei)t  away  at  the  Restora- 
tion. Not  only  institutionally  did  education  flourish  during  the 
Commonwealth  but  in  method  and  curriculum  also.  Charles 
Hoole's  'New  Discovery  of  the  Old  Art  of  Teaching  School' 
might  appear  a  mere  dream  were  it  not  recorded  as  fact  and 
su[)ported  by  Milton's  Tractate  on  Education  and  his  practice. 

The  Commonwealth  was  the  era  of  the  develo[)ment  of 
Private  Schools,  set  up,  especially  in  London,  by  schoolmasters 
on  both  sides  driven  out  of  their  places.  Stephens,  e.xpelled 
as  we  saw  from  Bury  St  Edmunds  (irammar  School,  set  up  a 
private  school  there,  and  was  so  successful  that  when  things 
had  settled  down  the  (Governors  were  fain  to  reinstate  him  in 
the  (irammar  School.  Education  had  to  thank  the  abolition 
of  the  Bishops  and  ("hapters  and  their  coercive  and  restrictive 
powers  for  this.  The  Restoration  had  its  educational  victims, 
notably  the  Head  Master  of  Eton,  Singleton,  who  fled  to 
London  and  set  up  a  school  in  St  Mary  Axe  where  he  is  said 
to   have   had  300  boys.     The   Restoration   Parliament  in  the 

Spread  of  Elementary  Education  xlix 

Act  of  Uniformity  required  subscription  to  the  Articles,  and 
licences  from  the  Ordinary  for  all  schoolmasters.  As  late  as 
1 7 13  all  schoolmasters  who  frequented  conventicles,  or  everv 
services  according  to  the  Church  of  England  where  the  Queen 
was  not  prayed  for,  were  disabled  from  keeping  a  school  ;  thus 
keeping  out  with  even  hand  the  low  church  dissenter  and  the 
high  church  non-juror.  But  in  this  Act  for  the  first  time  an 
exception  appears  for  teachers  of  'reading,  writing  and  arith- 
metick,  or  any  fact  of  mathematical  learning  only  so  far  as '"  it 
'relates  to  Navigation  or  any  mechanical  Art  only... and  shall 
be  taught  in  the  English  tongue.'  This  was  due  to  the  action 
of  the  Courts,  which  had,  in  ignorance  or  defiance  of  history,  1 
ruled  out  of  the  bishop's  jurisdiction  all  schools  but  grammar 
schools.  Hence  a  great  development  of  private  schools  which 
nominally  confined  themselves  to  mathematics  and  other 
modern  subjects. 

In  the  last  month  of  the  last  year  of  the  17th  century,  the 
first  systematic  effort  was  made  to  spread  elementary  instruction 
among  the  poorest  classes,  by  what  were  known  as  Charity 
Schools.  vSubscriptions  for  them  were  set  on  foot  by  a  circular 
issued  in  December  1699  by  the  new  Society  for  the  Pro- 
motion of  Christian  Knowledge,  founded  a  year  or  two  before. 
The  success  of  the  movement  was  immediate  and  extra- 
ordinary. By  May  1705,  36  schools  had  been  founded  in 
London  and  10  miles  round,  which  by  17 18  had  grown  to 
1378  schools  with  28,610  children,  boys  and  girls,  besides 
those  in  241  other  schools  in  which  the  numbers  were  not 
stated.  They  aimed  at  being  a  sort  of  lower  (Christ's  Hospital, 
the  children  being  clothed  in  gray,  or  green  or  yellow  '  Blue 
coat '  dress.  The  movenient  might  have  been  more  prolonged 
and  successful  if  too  much  insistence  had  not  been  j)laced  on 
the  (Jhurch  catechism  and  the  power  of  the  parson.  Though 
dissenters  subscribed  largely,  they  were  allowed  no  voice 
in  management.  A  century  later  two  rival  bodies,  the 
undenominational  British  and  Foreign  School  Society,  first 
founded  as  the   Royal   Lancasterian   Institution  in    1808,  and 

1  The  Endowed  Schools  Act,    1869 

the  strictly  Church  National  Society  inaugurated  in  181 1, 
began  another  organised  movement  for  spreading  elementary 
education  broadcast.  Rival  sects  still  dispute  to  whom  the 
movement  was  really  due — Joseph  Lancaster  who  started  a 
school  in  the  Borough  Road  in  1801  and  published  his  book  on 
Improvements  in  Education  in  1803,  or  the  Rev.  Andrew  Bell 
who  introduced  in  a  single  school,  in  1798,  the  method  he  had 
practised  in  Madras  in  an  orphan  asylum  there.  The  main 
points  of  each  were  the  same,  to  broaden  education  by 
cheapening  it,  through  large  classes,  learning  mainly  by 
repetition  in  chorus,  taught  by  pupil  teachers.  Between  the 
two  Societies  1,520  schools  for  about  200,000  children  had 
been  established  by  1820.  The  year  after  the  Reform  Act  of 
1832  a  grant  in  aid  was  made  by  Parliament  in  the  shape 
of  ^20,000  to  build  school  houses,  and  in  1836  the  first 
Schools  Sites  Act,  to  empower  tenants  for  life  and  other 
limited  owners  to  give  or  sell  sites  for  schools,  was  passed. 
Under  these  Acts  most  of  the  8,281  elementary  schools 
existing  in  1870  and  of  the  5,000  voluntary  schools  since 
built,  were  founded. 

While  Elementary  schools  were  yearly  improving  both  in 
quantity  and  quality,  Secondary  schools  were  in  a  state  of 
deplorable  decadence.  Except  for  the  schools  which  came  to 
be  known  par  excelleitcc  as  Public  Schools,  the  Grammar 
Schools  nearly  everywhere  decayed.  The  restriction  of  the 
term  Public  Schools  to  a  select  few  of  the  aristocratic 
Boarding  Schools  is  quite  modern.  Public  Schools  are,  as  we 
have  seen,  spoken  of  in  the  days  of  Canute,  by  Abbot  Samson 
writing  c.  1170,  and  Kingston  Orammar  School  is  so  called 
in  1364.  The  synonymous  terms  Ceneral  and  Common  are 
more  often  used  in  the  14th  to  the  i6th  centuries,  when  the 
term  Public  came  into  vogue.  These  greater  Public  Schools 
took  the  cream  of  the  upper  classes,  while  the  Private  Schools, 
which  professed  at  least  to  give  commercial  education  and  to 
teach  modern  subjects,  carried  off  the  middle  classes.  Many 
died  away  into  bad  elementary  schools,  or  perished  altogether. 

Tlie  Board  of  Education  li 

But  decadence  does  not  lend  itself  to  documentary  illustra- 

For  similar  reasons  the  i8th  and  early  19th  century 
history  of  the  Universities,  where  a  similar  decay  had  set  in, 
is  left  unillustrated,  together  with  that  of  the  revival  under  the 
Universities  Commission  in  1854.  For  the  Schools  some 
attempt  at  revival  began  with  the  Grammar  Schools  Act  in 
1848.  But  effective  progress  only  took  place  after  the  Public 
Schools  Act,  1862,  and  the  Endowed  Schools  Act,  1869, 
the  Commissioners  appointed  under  which  possessed  such 
nominally  extensive  powers  that  it  was  said  they  could  convert 
a  Church  of  England  Grammar  School  for  boys  in  Corn- 
wall into  a  Mohammedan  Elementary  School  for  girls  in 

Their  scheme  for  Bradford  Grammar  School  is  taken  as  a 
specimen  of  their  handiwork.  Though  adding  no  endowment, 
it  resulted  in  changing  a  school  of  58  boys  getting  a  poor 
classical  education  into  two  schools  of  550  boys  and  300  girls 
receiving  the  best  education  of  the  day,  classical  and  other. 
Yet  a  political  reaction  in  1875  caused  the  destruction  of  the 
Endowed  Schools  Commissioners  and  a  transfer  of  their  powers 
to  the  Charity  Commission.  A  further  transfer  of  the  same 
powers  took  place  under  the  Act  of  1899  to  the  Board  of 
Education,  who,  as  may  be  seen  from  one  of  their  latest 
schemes,  that  for  Andover  Grammar  School,  still  follow  the 
model  set  in  1872.  The  chief  difference  is  that  the  curriculum 
of  instruction  is  no  longer  defined  by  a  detailed  list  of  subjects 
but  comprised  in  the  formula  'such  subjects  as  are  usually 
taught  in  Secondary  Schools.'  Thus  the  school  legislator  of 
the  last  days  of  Edward  VII  follows  his  predecessors  in  the 
days  of  Edward  VI  and  Edward  III  with  their  simple  formula 
of  a  Grammar  School. 

Rigorous  restriction  of  space  has  prevented  any  inclusion 
of  documents  to  illustrate  the  development  of  elementary 
education,  the  rise  of  technical  education  with  its  novel 
schools   and   colleges,    the   organization   of   the   education    of 

Hi  University  Colleges 

girls  and  women,  and,  most  remarkable  development  of  all,  the 
new  University  Colleges  and  Universities,  in  which  the  United 
Kingdom  bids  fair  to  rival  the  outcrop  of  Universities  in 
Germany  in  the  15th  century. 

These  things  are  a  matter  of  common  knowledge,  and 
perhaps  do  not  require  records  at  present.  This  book  will,  it 
is  hoped,  at  least  set  the  early  history  of  our  educational 
institutions  once  for  all  on  a  solid  basis  of  historical  docu- 


Our  Oldest  Schools 

Foufidation  of  East  Anglian  Grammar  School, 
on  the  Model  of  Canterbury  School.     631. 

[Bede,  Hist.   Eccl.  III.   i8,  ed.  C.   Plummer,   1896.] 

His  temporibus  regno  Orientalium  Anglorum,  post  Erpual- 
dum  Redualdi  successorem,  Sigberct  frater  eius  praefuit,  homo 
bonus  ac  religiosus;  qui  duduni  in  Gallia,  dum  inimicitias 
Redualdi  fugiens  exularet,  lauacrum  baptismi  percepit,  et 
patriam  reuersus,  ubi  regno  potitus  est,  mox  ea,  quae  in 
Galliis  bene  disposita  uidit,  imitari  cupiens,  instituit  scolam, 
in  qua  pueri  litteris  erudirentur;  iuuante  se  episcopo  Felice, 
quern  de  Cantia  acceperat,  eisque  pedagogos  ac  magistros  iuxta 
morem  Cantuariorum  praebente. 

The   Teaching  of  Archbishop   Theodore  and 
Abbot  Hadrian.     668. 

{lb.    IV.     1.] 

Erat  autem  in  monasterio  Niridano,  quod  est  non  longe  a 
Neapoli  Campaniae,  abbas  Hadrianus,  uir  natione  Afir,  sacris 
litteris  diligenter  inbutus,  monasterialibus  simul  et  ecclesiasticis 
disciplinis  institutus,  Grecae  pariter  et  Latinae  linguae  peri- 

Erat  ipso  tempore  Romae  monaclius  Hadriano  notus, 
nomine  Theodorus,  natus  Tarso  Ciliciae,  uir  et  saeculari  et 
diuina  litteratura,  et  Grece  instructus  et  Latino,  probus 
moribus,  et  aetate  uenerandus,  id  est  annos  habens  aetatis 
Ix  et  vi.  Hunc  offerens  Hadrianus  pontifici,  ut  episcopus 
ordinaretur,  obtinuit. 

Canterbury  and  Dunwich 

Foundation  of  East  Anglian  Grammar  School, 
on  the  Model  of  Canterbury  School.     631. 

At  this  time,  after  Redwald's  successor  Erpwald,  his  brother 
Sigebert  presided  over  the  kingdom  of  the  East  Angles,  a  good 
and  religious  man;  who  some  time  before, while  in  exile  in  Gaul, 
flying  from  the  enmity  of  Redwald,  received  baptism.  After 
his  return  home,  as  soon  as  he  obtained  the  throne,  wishing  to 
imitate  what  he  had  seen  well  ordered  among  the  Gauls,  he  set 
up  a  school  in  which  boys  might  be  taught  grammar.  He  was 
assisted  therein  by  bishop  Felix,  who  came  to  him  from  Kent, 
and  provided  them  with  pedagogues  and  masters  after  the 
fashion  of  the  Canterbury  men. 

The   Teaching  of  Archbishop   Theodore  and 
Abbot  Hadrian.      668. 

Now  there  was  in  the  monastery  of  Niridanum,  which  is 
not  far  from  Naples  in  Campania,  abbot  Hadrian,  an  African  by 
birth,  well  learned  in  sacred  literature,  and  versed  in  both 
monastic  and  ecclesiastical  discipline,  and  highly  skilled  in 
the  Greek  equally  with  the  Latin  tongue.... 

There  was  at  the  same  time  at  Rome  a  monk  known  to 
Hadrian,  whose  name  was  Theodore,  born  at  Tarsus  in  Cilicia, 
a  man  instructed  in  secular  and  divine  literature  both  Greek 
and  Latin  ;  of  approved  character  and  venerable  age,  that  is, 
about  66  years  old.  Hadrian  suggested  him  to  the  Pope  to  be 
ordained  bishop,  and  the  suggestion  was  adopted. 

I — 2 

Archbishop   Theodores 

in>.  IV.  2.] 

Ut  Theodora  cuiicta  peragrante,  Anglorum  ecclesiae  cum 
catholica  ueriiate,  liiteraru?n  quoque  sandarum  coeperint  studiis 

Peruenit  autem  Theodorus  ad  ecclesiam  suam  secundo 
postquam  consecratus  est  anno,  sub  die  vi  Kalendarum  luni- 
arum,  dominica,  et  fecit  in  ea  annos  xx  et  unum,  menses  in, 
dies  XXVI.  Moxque  peragrata  insula  tota,  quaquauersum 
Anglorum  gentes  morabantur,  nam  et  libentissime  ab  omnibus 
suscipiebatur,  atque  audiebatur,  rectum  uiuendi  ordinem,  ritum 
celebrandi  paschae  canonicum,  per  omnia  comitante  et  co- 
operante  Hadriano  disseminabat.  Isque  primus  erat  in  archi- 
episcopis,  cui  omnis  Anglorum  ecclesia  manus  dare  consentiret. 
Et  quia  litteris  sacris  simul  et  saecularibus,  ut  diximus,  abun- 
danter  ambo  erant  instructi,  congregata  discipulorum  caterua, 
scientiae  salutaris  cotidie  flumina  inrigandis  eorum  cordibus 
emanabant ;  ita  ut  etiam  metricae  artis,  astronomiae,  et 
arithmeticae  ecclesiasticae  disciplinam  inter  sacrorum  apicum 
uolumina  suis  auditoribus  contraderent.  Indicio  est,  quod 
usque  hodie  supersunt  de  eorum  discipulis,  qui  I^tinam 
Grecamque  linguam  aeque  ut  propriam,  in  qua  nati  sunt, 
norunt.  Neque  umquam  prorsus,  ex  quo  Brittaniam  petierunt 
Angli,  feliciora  fuere  tempora ;  dum  et  fortissimos  Christianos- 
que  habentes  reges  cunctis  barbaris  nationibus  essent  terrori, 
et  omnium  uota  ad  nuper  audita  caelestis  regni  gaudia  pende- 
rent,  et  quicumque  lectionibus  sacris  cuperent  erudiri,  haberent 
in  promtu  magistros,  qui  docerent. 

Sed  et  sonos  cantandi  in  ecclesia,  quos  eatenus  in  Cantia 
tantum  nouerant,  ab  hoc  tempore  per  omnes  Anglorum  ecclesias 
discere  coeperunt ;  primusque,  excepto  lacobo,  de  quo  supra 
diximus,  cantandi  magister  Xordanhymbrorum  ecclesiis  Aeddi 
cognomenlo  Stephanos  fuit,  inuitatus  de  Cantia  a  reuerentissimo 
uiro  Uilfrido,  qui  primus  inter  episcopos,  qui  de  Anglorum 
gente  essent,  catholicum  uiuendi  morcm  ecclesiis  Anglorum 
tradere  didicit. 

Progress  and  Teaching 

How  through  Theodore's  travelling  everyivhere,  the  churches 
of  the  English  began  to  be  steeped  both  in  catholic  truth  and 
the  study  of  holy  writ. 

Theodore  then  arrived  at  his  church  in  the  second  year 
after  his  consecration,  on  Sunday,  27  May,  and  Hved  in  it 
21  years,  3  months  and  26  days.  He  soon  travelled  through 
the  whole  island,  wherever  it  was  inhabited  by  the  English 
race.  For  he  was  willingly  received  and  listened  to  by  every- 
one, and  everywhere  in  the  company  and  with  the  assistance 
of  Hadrian  he  sowed  the  right  rule  of  life,  the  canonical  rite  for 
the  celebration  of  Easter.  And  he  was  the  first  of  the  arch- 
bishops to  whom  the  whole  English  church  consented  to  do 
fealty.  And  because,  as  we  have  said,  both  were  abundantly 
learned  both  in  sacred  and  profane  literature,  rivers  of  saving 
knowledge  daily  flowed  from  them  to  irrigate  the  hearts  of  the 
band  of  pupils  whom  they  brought  together,  insomuch  that 
they  passed  on  to  their  hearers  the  knowledge  even  of  the  art 
of  metre,  of  astronomy  and  of  ecclesiastical  arithmetic,  together 
with  the  volumes  of  the  sacred  text.  A  proof  of  this  is  that 
even  to-day  \c.  a.d.  731]  some  of  their  pupils  are  still  living, 
who  know  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages  as  well  as  their 
native  tongue.  Never  since  the  English  came  to  Britain  were 
there  happier  times  than  these,  in  which,  under  brave  and 
Christian  kings,  they  were  a  terror  to  all  barbarian  tribes,  when 
the  aspirations  of  all  hung  on  the  lately  revealed  joys  of  the 
kingdom  of  heaven,  and  everyone  who  wished  to  become 
learned  in  holy  writ,  had  masters  at  hand  to  teach  him. 

Besides,  they  thenceforth  began  to  learn  in  all  the  churches 
of  the  English  the  notes  of  ecclesiastical  chants,  which  hitherto 
they  had  only  known  in  Kent.  The  first  singing  master  (except 
James  whom  we  mentioned  above)  in  the  Northumbrian 
churches  was  Stephen  Aeddi,  who  was  invited  from  Kent  by 
the  venerable  Wilfrid,  who  was  the  first  among  the  bishops  of 
English  birth  to  teach  the  catholic  method  of  life  to  the 
churches  of  the   English. 

Song  Schools 

Song  Schools  at  Canterbury ,  York  and  Rochester. 

\Ib.  11.  io.\ 

Reliquerat  autem   in  ecclesia   sua   Eboraci   lacobum   dia- 

conum,  uirum  utique  ecclesiasticum  et  sanctum Qui,  quoniam 

cantandi  in  ecclesia  erat  peritissimus,  recuperata  postmodum 
pace  in  prouincia,  et  crescente  numero  fidelium,  etiam  magister 
ecclesiasticae  contionis  iuxta  morem  Romanorum  siue  Can- 
tuariorum  multis  coepit  existere. 

Ub.  IV.  2.] 

Et  ipse  [Theodore]  ueniens  mox  in  ciuitate  Hrofi...ordinauit 
uirum  magis  ecclesiasticis  disciplinis  institutum,...cui  nonien 
erat  Putta ;  maxima  autem  modulandi  in  ecclesia  more  Roma- 
norum, quern  a  discipulis  beati  papae  Gregorii  didicerat, 

Some  Pitpils  of  Theodore  and  Hadrian.    693-709. 

\lb.  V.  8.] 

Qui  [Berctuald  archiepiscopus]  inter  multos,  quos  ordinauit 
antistites,  etiam  Gebmundo  Hrofensis  ecclesiae  praesule  de- 
functo,  Tobiam  pro  illo  consecrauit,  uirum  Latina,  Greca,  et 
Saxonica  lingua  atque  eruditione  multipliciter  instructum. 

\[b.  V.  20.] 

Ut  religioso  abbati  Hadriano,  Albinus...succcsserit. 
Anno  quinto  Osredi  regis,  reuerentissimus  pater  Hadrianus 
abbas,   cooperator   in    uerbo   Dei   Theodori   beatae  memoriae 

Theodore  s  Pupils 

Song  Schools  at  Canterbury^  York  and  Rochester. 

PauHnus  when  he  fled  from  Northumbria  to  Kent  [in  633] 
had  left  in  his  church  of  York,  James  the  deacon,  a  man  who 
while  an  ecclesiastic  [i.e.  a  secular  cleric]  was  also  a  saint — 
When  peace  was  restored  in  the  province  [Northumbria]  and 
the  number  of  the  faithful  increased,  he  acted  as  master  to 
many  in  church  chanting  after  the  Rome  or  Canterbury  fashion. 

And  he  coming  soon  to  the  city  of  Rochester,  ...ordained 
a  man  well  informed  in  ecclesiastical  learning, ...named  Putta ; 
he  was  especially  skilled  in  the  art  of  church  chanting,  which 
he  had  learnt  from  the  pupils  of  the  blessed  Pope  Gregory. 

Some  Pupils  of  Theodore  and  Hadria^i.    693-709. 

Archbishop  Bertwald  ordained  many  bishops,  and  when 
Gebmund,  prelate  of  the  church  of  Rochester,  died,  consecrated 
Tobias  in  his  place,  a  man  of  manifold  erudition  in  the  Latin, 
Greek,  and  Saxon  languages  and  learning. 

How  Albinus  succeeded  the  religious  abbot  Hadrian. 
In  the  5th  year  of  king  Osred,  the  most  reverend  father 
abbot  Hadrian,  fellow-worker  in  the  word  of  God  with  bishop 

8  Aldkelms  Studies 

episcopi,  defunctus  est. ...Cuius  doctrinae  simul  et  Theodori 
inter  alia  testimonium  perhibet,  quod  Albinus  discipulus  eius, 
qui  monasterio  ipsius  in  regimine  successit,  in  tantum  studiis 
scripturarum  institutus  est,  ut  Grecam  quidem  linguam  non 
parua  ex  parte,  Latinam  uero  non  minus  quam  Anglorum, 
quae  sibi  naturalis  est,  nouerit. 

Aldkelms  Studies,  c.  680. 

[Aldhelmi  Opera,  ed.  Dr  Giles,  p.  96.] 
Epistola  ad  Heddam  episcopum. 

Domino  reverendissimo,  omnique  virtutum  conamine  vene- 
rando,  et  post  Deum  peculiari  patrono,  supplex  almitatis  vestrae 
vernaculus,  in  Domino  salutem. 

Fateor,  o  beatissime  Presul,  me  dudum  decrevisse,  si 
rerum  ratio  ac  temporum  volitans  vicissitudo  pateretur,  vicinam 
optati  Natalis  Domini  solemnitatem,  ibidem  in  consortio 
fratrum  tripudians  celebrare;  et  postmodum  vita  comite  vestra 
caritatis  affabili  praesencia  frui.  Sed,  quia  diversis  impedi- 
mentorum  obstaculis  retardati,  quemadmodum  lator  praesentium 
viva  voce  plenius  promulgabit,  illud  perficere  nequivimus ; 
idcirco  difficultatis  veniam  precor  impendite.  Neque  enim 
parva  temporum  intervalla  in  hoc  lectionis  studio  protelanda 
sunt  ei  duntaxat,  qui,  sagacitate  legendi  succensus,  legum 
Romanorum  iura  meduUitus  rimabitur,  et  cuncta  Juriscon- 
sultorum  secreta  ex  intimis  praecordiis  scrutabitur :  et  quod 
his  muho  arctius  ac  perplexius  est,  centena  scilicet  metrorum 
genera  pedestri  regula  discernere,  et  admista  cantilenae  modula- 
mina  recto  syllabarum  tramite  lustrare.  Cuius  rei  studiosis 
lectoribus  tanto  inextricabilior  obscuritas  praetenditur,  quanto 
rarior  Doctorum  numerositas  reperitur.  Sed  de  his  prolixo 
ambitu  verborum  disputare  epistolaris  angustia  minime  sinit, 
quomodo  videlicet  ipsius  metricae  artis  clandestina  instrumenta 
literis,  syllabis,  pedibus,  poeticis  figuris,  versibus,  tonis,  tem- 
poribusque  conglomerantur:  poetica  quoque  septenae  divisionis 

Roman  Law  and  Prosody 

Theodore  of  blessed  memory,  died.  Among  other  proofs 
of  his  learning  and  that  of  Theodore  is  this,  that  his  pupil 
Albinus,  who  succeeded  him  in  the  rule  of  the  monastery,  was 
so  advanced  in  the  study  of  literature,  that  he  had  no.  small 
knowledge  of  the  Greek  language  and  knew  the  Latin  language 
as  well  as  that  of  the  English,  which  was  his  native  tongue. 

Aldhelms  Studies,  c.   680. 
Letter  to  bishop  Haeddi. 

To  the  most  reverend  lord,  venerable  for  all  the  virtues, 
your  excellency's  suppliant  slave,  health  in  the  Lord. 

I  confess,  most  blessed  prelate,  that  I  long  ago  determined, 
if  the  course  of  events  and  the  flying  chances  of  time  would 
allow  it,  to  celebrate  the  coming  solemnity  of  the  Lord's  birth- 
day dancing  there  with  the  brethren,  and  afterwards  if  life 
remained  to  enjoy  the  affable  company  of  your  grace.  But 
being  kept  back  by  divers  obstacles,  as  the  bearer  will  tell  you 
more  fully,  viva  voce,  I  was  unable  to  do  so.  So  I  pray  pardon 
my  troublesomeness.  For  indeed  no  small  time  must  be  spent 
in  the  study  of  reading,  especially  by  one  who,  inflamed  by  the 
desire  of  knowledge,  wishes  at  the  same  time  to  explore  Roman 
law  to  the  marrow,  and  examine  in  the  most  intimate  fashion  all 
the  mysteries  of  the  Roman  lawyers  ;  and  what  is  much  more 
difificult  and  perplexing,  to  digest  the  hundred  kinds  of  metres 
into  prose  rules,  and  illustrate  the  mixed  modulations  of  song 
in  the  straight  path  of  syllables.  And  in  this  subject  the 
obscurity  is  so  much  the  harder  for  the  studious  reader  to 
penetrate  because  of  the  small  number  of  teachers  to  be  found. 

But  the  restricted  space  of  a  letter  does  not  permit  of 
a  long  dissertation  on  this  matter:  how,  for  instance,  the  secret 
instruments  of  the  art  of  metre  are  collected  in  letters,  syllables, 
feet,  poetical  figures,  verses,  accents,  and  quantities  ;  how  the 
art  of  prosody  too,  is  divided  into  a  seven-fold  division,  the 

lo  Aldhelm  learns  fractions 

disciplina,  hoc  est  acephalos,  lagaros,  protilos,  cum  ceteris 
qualiter  varietur ;  qui  versus  monoschemi,  qui  penteschemi, 
qui  decaschemi,  certa  pedum  mensura  trutinentur:  et  qua 
ratione  catalectici,  brachycatalectici  seu  hypercatalectici  versus, 
sagaci  argumentacione  cognoscantur.  Haec,  ut  reor,  et  his 
similia,  brevis  temporis  intercapedine  momentaneoque  ictu 
apprehendi  nequaquam  possunt. 

De  ratione  vero  calculationis  quid  commemorandum  ?  cum 
tanta  supputationis  imminens  desperatio  colla  mentis  oppres- 
serit,  ut  omnem  praeteritum  lectionis  laborem  parvi  penderem, 
cuius  me  pridem  secreta  cubicula  nosse  credideram ;  et  ut 
sententia  beati  Hieronymi  utar,  qui  mihi  prius  videbar  sciolus, 
rursus  cepi  esse  discipulus,  dum  se  occasio  obtulit,  sicque 
tandem  superna  gracia  fretus,  difficillima  rerum  argumenta  et 
calculi  supputationes,  quas  partes  numeri  appellant,  lectionis 
instantia  reperi.  Porro  de  Zodiaco  et  duodecim  Signorum, 
quae  vertigine  coeli  volvuntur,  ratione  ideo  tacendum  arbitror ; 
ne  res  opaca  et  profunda,  quae  longa  explanandarum  rerum 
ratione  indiget,  si  vili  interpretationis  serie  propalata  fuerit, 
infametur  et  vilescat :  praesertim  cum  Astrologicae  artis  peritia, 
et  perplexa  horoscopi  computatio,  elucubrata  doctioris  inda- 
gacione  egeat. 

Haec  idcirco,  carissime  pater,  cursini  pedetentim  perstrinxi- 
mus  non  garrulo  verbositatis  strepitu  illecti,  sed  ut  solas,  tanta 
rerum  arcana  examussim  non  posse  intelligi,  nisi  frequens  et 
prolixa  meditatio  fuerit  adhibita. 

Alcuin  on  St  Peters  School,    York.      732-786. 

[Transcribed  from  lost  MS.  in  monastery  of  St  Theodoric  in  1690, 
printed  in  JJist.  of  Church  of  York  (Rolls  Series,  No.  71),  l)y  jaines  Raine, 
1879,  P-  39°-   ■'''-'*-'  ■■^-   ^'-  J-'^^'^li.  Eaily  Yorksiiirt:  Scliooh,  I.  4.] 

De  Pontificibus  et  Sanctis  Ecclesiae  Eboracensis  Carmen. 
De  quo  plura  vetat  narrari   Musa  recurrens 
Carminis  ad   fmcni  :    propriicjue  ad  gesta  magistri, 
Qui   post  Egbertum  venerandac  insignia  sedis 
Suscepit  sapiens  Aelbertus  nomine  dictus. 

Aldhelm  learns  fractions  1 1 

headless  hexameter,  the  weak  line,  and  the  rest ;  how  the 
balance  of  verse  is  weighed  by  a  certain  measure  in  single 
lines,  or  stanzas  of  5  or  10  lines;  and  on  what  principles 
the  catalectic,  brachycatalectic  or  hypercatalectic  verses  are 
recognized  by  clever  proof.  All  this  methinks  and  other  like 
learning  cannot  be  grasped  in  a  mere  interval  of  time  and  a 
momentary  application. 

As  to  the  principles  of  arithmetic  what  shall  be  said  ?  when 
the  despair  of  doing  sums  oppressed  my  mind  so  that  all  the 
previous  labour  spent  on  learning,  whose  most  secret  chamber 
I  thought  I  knew  already,  seemed  nothing,  and  to  use  Jerome's 
expression  I  who  before  thought  myself  a  past  master  began 
again  to  be  a  pupil,  until  the  difficulty  solved  itself,  and  at  last, 
by  God's  grace,  I  grasped  after  incessant  study  the  most  difficult 
of  all  things,  what  they  call  fractions.  As  to  the  Zodiac  and  its 
twelve  signs,  which  circle  in  the  height  of  heaven,  I  think  it 
better  to  say  nothing,  lest  any  matter  so  obscure  and  deep, 
which  needs  a  long  and  reasoned  exposition,  should  be  made 
to  seem  cheap  and  worthless  by  a  perfunctory  explanation. 

All  this,  my  dearest  father,  I  have  touched  on  lightly  and 
by  the  way,  not  for  the  sake  of  talking  but  to  show  you  that  the 
mysteries  of  things  cannot  be  understood  without  long  and 
frequent  study. 

Alctiiii  on  St  Peters  School,    York.      732-786. 

Of  whom  [Archbishop  Egbert]  the  Muse  forbids  me  to  say 
more,  passing  on  to  the  end  of  the  poem,  and  to  the  deeds  of 
my  own  master,  Albert  [AethelbertJ  the  wise,  who  took  the 
insiunia  of  the  venerable  see  after  Egbert. 

12  Alcuin  on    York  School 

Vir  bonus  et  Justus,  largus,  plus  atque  benignus ; 
Catholicae  fidei  fautor,  praeceptor,  amator; 
Ecclesiae  rector,  doctor,  defensor,  alumnus. 
De  quo  versifico  paulo  plus  pergere  gressu 
Euboricae  mecum  libeat  tibi,  quaeso,  juventus, 
Hie  quia  saepe  tuos  perfudit  nectare  sensus, 
Mellifluo  dulces  eructans  pectore  succos. 
Quein  mox  a  primis  ratio  pulcherrinia  cunis 
Corripuit  rerum,  summamque  vehebat  in  arcem 
Doctrinae,  pandens  illi  secreta  sophiae. 
Hie  fuit  ergo  satis  Claris  genitoribus  ortus. 
Ex  quorum  cura  studiis  mox  traditur  almis 
Atque  monasterio  puerilibus  inditur  annis, 
Sensibus  ut  fragilis  sacris  adolesceret  aetas. 
De  puero  nee  cassa  fuit  spes  tanta  parentum. 
Jam  puer  egregius  crescebat  corpore  quantum, 
Ingenio  tantum  librorum  proficiebat. 
Tunc  pius  et  prudens  doctor  simul  atque  sacerdos, 
Pontificique  comes  Ecgbert  conjunctus  adhaesit, 
Cui  quoque  sanguineo  fuerat  jam  jure  propinquus, 
A  quo  defensor  clero  decernitur  omni, 
Et  simul  Euborica  praefertur  in  urbe  magister. 
Ille  ubi  diversis  sitientia  corda  fluentis 
Doctrinae,  et  vario  studiorum  rore  rigabat : 
His  dans  grammaticae  rationis  gnariter  artes, 
Illis  rhetoricae  infundens  refluamina  linguae; 
Illos  juridica  curavit  cote  polire, 
lUos  Aonio  docuit  concinnere  cantu, 
Castalida  instituens  alios  resonare  cicuta, 
Et  juga  Parnassi  lyricis  percurrere  plantis. 
Ast  alios  fecit  praefatus  nosse  magister 
Harmoniam  coeli,  solis,  lunaeque  labores, 
Quinque  poli  zonas,  errantia  sidera  septem, 
Astrorum  leges,  ortus  simul  atque  recessus, 
Aerios  motus,   pelagi  terraeque  tremorem, 
Naturas  hominum,   pecudum,  volucrumcjue  ferarum, 
Diversas  numeri  species  variasque  figuras ; 
Paschalique  dedit  sollemnia  certa  recursu, 
Maxime  scripturae  pandens  mysteria  sacrae. 
Nam  rudis  et  veteris  legis  patefecit  abyssum. 

Alcuin  on    York  School  13 

A  good  man  and  just,  broad,  pious  and  kind;  supporter, 
teacher  and  lover  of  the  CathoHc  faith  ;  ruler,  doctor,  defender, 
and  pupil  of  the  Church. 

Bide  with  me  for  a  while,  I  pray  ye,  youth  of  York,  while  I 
proceed  with  poetic  steps  to  treat  of  him,  because  here  he  often 
drenched  your  senses  with  nectar,  pouring  forth  sweet  juices 
from  his  honey-flowing  bosom.  Fairest  Philosophy  took  him 
from  his  very  cradle  and  bore  him  to  the  topmost  towers  of 
learning,  opening  to  him  the  hidden  things  of  wisdom.  He 
was  born  of  ancestors  of  sufficient  note,  by  whose  care  he  was 
soon  sent  to  kindly  school,  and  entered  at  the  Minster  in  his 
early  years,  that  his  tender  age  might  grow  up  with  holy  under- 
standing. Nor  was  his  parents'  hope  in  vain  ;  even  as  a  boy  as 
he  grew  in  body  so  he  became  proficient  in  the  understanding 
of  books. 

Then  pious  and  wise,  teacher  at  once  and  priest,  he  was 
made  a  colleague  of  Bishop  Egbert,  to  whom  he  was  nearly 
allied  by  right  of  blood.  By  him  he  is  made  advocate  of  the 
clergy,  and  at  the  same  time  is  preferred  as  master  in  the  city 
of  York. 

There  he  moistened  thirsty  hearts  with  diverse  streams  of 
teaching  and  the  varied  dews  of  learning,  giving  to  these  the 
art  of  the  science  of  grammar,  pouring  on  those  the  rivers  of 
rhetoric.  Some  he  polished  on  the  whetstone  of  law,  some  he 
taught  to  sing  together  in  Aeonian  chant,  making  others  play 
on  the  flute  of  Castaly,  and  run  with  the  feet  of  lyric  poets  over 
the  hills  of  Parnassus.  Others  the  said  master  made  to  know 
the  harmony  of  heaven,  the  labours  of  sun  and  moon,  the  five 
belts  of  the  sky,  the  seven  planets,  the  laws  of  the  fixed  stars, 
their  rising  and  setting,  the  movements  of  the  air,  the  quaking 
of  sea  and  earth,  the  nature  of  men,  cattle,  birds  and  beasts, 
the  divers  kinds  of  numbers  and  various  shapes.  He  gave 
certainty  to  the  solemnity  of  Easter's  return  ;  above  all,  opening 
the  mysteries  of  holy  writ  and  disclosing  the  abysses  of  the  rude 

14  Alcuin  on   York  School 

Indolis  egregiae  juvenes  quoscunque  videbat, 
Hos  sibi  conjunxit,  docuit,  nutrivit,  amavit ; 
Quapropter  plures  per  sacra  volumina  doctor 
Discipulos  habuit,  diversis  artibus  auctos. 
Non  semel  externas  peregrino  tramite  terras 
Jam  peragravit  ovans,  sophiae  deductus  amore, 
Si  quid  forte  novi  librorum  seu  studiorum, 
Quod  secum  feriet,  terris  reperiret  in  illis. 
Hie  quoque  Romuleam  venit  devotus  ad  urbem, 
Dives  amore  Dei,  late  loca  sancta  peragrans. 
Inde  domum  rediens,  a  regibus  atque  tribunis 
Doctor  honorifice  summus  susceptu5  ubique  est, 
Utpote  quern  magni  reges  retinere  volebant, 
Qui  sua  rura  fluens  Divino  rore  rigaret. 
Ad  sibi  sed  properans  praefinita  facta  magister, 
Dispensante  Deo  patriae  prodesse  redibat. 
Nam  proprias  postquam  fuerat  delatus  in  oras, 
Mox  pastoralem  compulsus  sumere  curam, 
Efficitur  summus  populo  rogitante  sacerdos,... 
Sed  neque  decrevit  curarum  pondera  propter, 
Scripturas  fervens  industria  prisca  legendi  : 
Factus  utrumque,  sagax  doctor  pius  atque  sacerdos ;. 
Namque  ubi  bellipotens  sumpsit  baptismatis  undam 
Edvin  rex,  praesul  grandem  construxerat   aram, 
Texit  et  argento,  gemmis  siraul   undique  et  auro, 
Atque  dicavit  eam  Sancti  sub  nomine  Pauli, 
Doctoris  mundi,  nimium  quern  doctor  amabat. 

Ergo  ministrator  clarissimus  ordine  sacro, 
Praesul  perfectus  meritis  plenusque  dierum, 
Tradidit  Eanbaldo  dilecto  laetus  alumno 
Pontificale  decus,  sibimet  secreta  petivit 
Septa,    Deo  soli  quo  jam  servire  vacaret. 
Tradidit  ast  alio  caras  super  omnia  gazas 
Librorum  nato,  patri  cjui  semper  adhaesit, 
Doctrinae  sitiens  haurire  fluenta  suetus  : 
Cujus  si  curas  proprium  cognoscere  nomen, 

Alcuin  on   York  School  15 

and  ancient  law.  Whatever  youths  he  saw  of  conspicuous  in- 
telligence, those  he  joined  to  himself,  he  taught,  he  fed,  he 
loved ;  and  so  the  teacher  had  many  disciples  in  the  sacred 
volumes,  advanced  in  various  arts.  Soon  he  went  in  triumph 
abroad,  led  by  the  love  of  wisdom,  to  see  if  he  could  find  in 
other  lands  anything  novel  in  books  or  schools,  which  he  could 
bring  home  with  him.  He  went  also  devoutly  to  the  city  of 
Romulus,  rich  in  God's  love,  wandering  far  and  wide  through 
the  holy  places.  Then  returning  home,  he  was  received  every- 
where by  kings  and  princes  as  a  prince  of  doctors,  whom  great 
kings  tried  to  keep  that  he  might  irrigate  their  lands  with 
learning.  But  the  master  hurrying  to  his  appointed  work, 
returned  home  to  his  fatherland  by  God's  ordinance.  For 
no  sooner  had  he  been  borne  to  his  own  shores,  than  he  was 
compelled  to  take  on  him  the  pastoral  care,  and  made  high 
priest  at  the  people's  demand. 

But  his  old  fervent  industry  for  reading  the  Scriptures  was 
not  diminished  by  the  weight  of  his  cares,  and  he  was  made 
both  a  wise  doctor  and  a  pious  priest. 

As  prelate  he  built  a  great  altar  where  king  Edwin  had 
received  baptism,  covered  it  in  all  parts  with  silver,  gold  and 
precious  stones  and  dedicated  it  to  Paul,  the  doctor  of  the 
world,  whom  as  a  doctor  he  especially  loved. 

Then  the  illustrious  minister  in  holy  orders,  the  prelate, 
perfect  in  good  works  and  full  of  days,  gladly  handed  over  to 
his  beloved  disciple  Eanbald  the  episcopal  ornaments,  while 
he  sought  for  himself  a  sequestered  cloister  in  which  to 
devote  himself  wholly  to  God's  service.  But  he  gave  the  dearer 
treasures  of  his  books  to  the  other  son,  who  was  always  close  to 
his  father's  side,  thirsting  to  drink  the  floods  of  learning.  His 
name,  if  you  care  to  know  it,  these  verses  on  the  face  of  tliem 

1 6  The   York  School  Library 

Fronte  sua  statim  praesentia  carmina  prodent. 
His  divisit  opes  diversis  sortibus ;    illi 
Ecclesiae  regimen,  thesauros,  rura,  talenta  : 
Huic  sophiae  specimen,  studium,  sedemque,  librosque, 
Undique  quos  clarus  collegerat  ante  magister, 
Egregias  condens  uno  sub  culmine  gazas. 
Illic  invenies  veterum  vestigia  patrum, 
Quidquid  habet  pro  se  Latio  Romanus  in  orbe, 
Graecia  vel  quidquid  transmisit  clara  Latinis, 
Hebraicus  vel  quod  populus  bibit  imbre  superno, 
Africa  lucifluo  vel  quidquid  lumine  sparsit. 
Quod  pater  Hieronymus,  quod  sensit  Hilarius,  atque 
Ambrosius  praesul,  simul  Augustinus,  et  ipse 
Sanctus  Athanasius,  quod  Orosius  edit  avitus  : 
Quidquid  Gregorius  summus  docet,  et  Leo  papa; 
Basilius  quidquid,   Fulgentius  atque,  coruscant 
Cassiodorus  item,  Chrysostomus  atque  Johannes. 
Quidquid  et  Athelmus  docuit,   quid  Beda  magister, 
Quae  Victorinus  scripsere  Boetius  atque ; 
Historici  veteres,   Pompeius,   Plinius,  ipse 
Acer  Aristoteles,  rhetor   quoque  Tullius  ingens ; 
Quid  quoque  Sedulius,  vel  quid  canit  ipse  Juvencus, 
Alcimus  et  Clemens,   Prosper,  Paulinus,  Arator ; 
Quid  Fortunatus,  vel  quid  Lactantius  edunt, 
Quae  Maro  Virgilius,   Statius,   Lucanus  et  auctor, 
Artis  grammaticae  vel  quid  scripsere  magistri. 
Quid  Probus  atque  Focas,   Donatus,  Priscianusve, 
Servius,   Euticius,   Pompeius,  Comminianus. 
Invenies  alios  perplures,  lector,  ibidem 
Egregios  studiis,  arte  et  sermone  magistros, 
Plurima  qui  claro  scripsere  volumina  sensu  ; 
Nomina  sed  quorum  praesenti  in  carmine  scribi 
Longius  est  visum,  quam  plectri  postulet  usus. 

York  School  Library  17 

will  at  once  betray.  Between  them  he  divided  his  wealth  of 
different  kinds  :  to  the  one,  the  rule  of  the  church,  the  orna- 
ments, the  lands,  the  money ;  to  the  other,  the  sphere  of 
wisdom,  the  school,  the  master's  chair,  the  books,  which  the 
illustrious  master  had  collected  from  all  sides,  piling  up  glorious 
treasures  under  one  roof. 

There  you  will  find  the  footsteps  of  the  old  fathers,  whatever 
the  Roman  has  of  himself  in  the  sphere  of  Latin,  or  which 
famous  Greece  passed  on  to  the  Latins,  or  which  the  Hebrew- 
race  drinks  from  the  showers  above,  or  Africa  has  spread  abroad 
with  light-giving  lamp. 

What  father  Jerome,  what  Hilarius,  bishop  Ambrose, 
Augustine,  Saint  Athanasius  felt,  what  old  Orosius  published, 
whatever  the  chief  doctor  Gregory  teaches  and  Pope  Leo,  what 
Basil  and  Fulgentius,  while  Cassiodorus,  Chrysostom  and  John 
also  shine.  Whatever  Aldhelm  taught  and  Bede  the  Master, 
what  Victorinus  and  Boethius  wrote  :  the  ancient  historians, 
Pompeius,  Pliny,  keen  Aristotle  himself  and  the  mighty  orator 
Tully.  What  also  Sedulius,  and  Juvencus  himself  sings,  Alcimus 
and  Clemens,  Prosper,  Paulinus,  Arator  ;  what  Fortunatus  and 
Lactantius  produce ;  what  Virgilius  Maro,  Statius  and  I^ucan 
the  historian,  what  too  the  masters  of  the  art  of  grammar  have 
written,  Probus  and  Phocas,  Donatus,  Priscian,  Servius,  Euticius, 
Pompeius,  Comminianus.  You  will  find  there,  reader,  many 
other  masters  eminent  in  the  schools,  in  art,  and  in  oratory, 
who  have  written  many  a  volume  of  sound  sense,  the  writing  of 
whose  names  in  verse  would  take  longer  than  the  usage  of  the 
bow  allows. 

Separation  of  Grammar, 

Ex-Schoolmaster  Alcuin  recominends  Eanbald  If, 
Archbishop  of  York,  to  separate  the  Gram7nar, 
Song  a7id  Writing  Schools.      796. 

[Alcuiiii   Kpistolae  72,   ed.  Jafic,   Bib.   Rer.    Gcrtii.    1873,   p.   331.] 

Dilectissimo  in  Christo  filio  Eanbaldo  Archiepiscopo  devotus 
per  omnia  pater  Albinus,  salutem. 

Laus  et  gloria  Domino  Deo  Omnipotenti,  qui  dies  meos  in 
prosperitate  bona  conservavit,  ut  in  filii  mei  karissimi  exalta- 
tione  gauderem,  et  aliquem,  ego  ultimus  ecclesiae  vernaculus, 
ejus  donante  gratia,  qui  est  omnium  bonorum  largitor,  erudirem 
ex  filiis  meis,  qui  dignus  haberetur  dispensator  esse  mysteriorum 
Christi,  et  laborare  vice  mea  in  ecclesia,  ubi  ego  nutritus  et 
eruditus  fueram,  et  praeesse  thesauris  sapientiae,  in  quibus  me 
magister  meus  dilectus  Helbrechtus  Archiepiscopus  heredem 

Praevideat  sancta  sollertia  tua  magistros  pueris  et  clero  ; 
separentur  separatim  orae  illurum,  qui  libros  legant,  (\\\\  canti- 
lenae  inserviant,  qui  scribendi  studio  deputentur.  Habeas  et 
singulis  his  ordinibus  magistros  suos,  ne  vacantes  otio  vagi 
discurrant  per  loca.  et  inanes  exerceant  ludos,  vel  aliis  manci- 
pentur  ineptiis.  Haec  omnia  et  solertissima,  fili  karissime, 
tua  consideret  providentia,  quatenus  in  sede  principali  gentis 
nostrae  totius  bonitatis  et  eruditionis  fons  inveniatur ;  et  ex  eo 
sitiens  viator  vel  ecclesiasticae  disciplinae  amator,  (juid(iuid 
desidcrat  anima  sua,   haurire  valeat — 

Consideret  cjuoque  tua  diligentissima  in  eleemosynis  pietas 
ubi  xenodochia,  id  est,  Hosijitalia,  fieri  jubeas,  in  quibus  sit 
quotidiana  pauperum  ct  j)eregrinorum  susceptio,  ct  ex  vestris 
substanciis  habeant  solatia. 

Sono^  and  Writing  Schools  19 

Ex-Schoohiaster  Alcuin  recommends  Eanbald  II, 
Archbishop  of  Yo7'k,  to  separate  the  Grammar, 
Song  and  Writing  Schools.      796. 

To  his  most  beloved  son  in  Christ,  Archbishop  Eanbald,  his 
devoted  father  Albinus,  greeting. 

Praise  and  glory  to  the  Lord  God  Almighty  who  has 
preserved  my  days  in  good  prosperity,  so  that  I  might  rejoice 
in  the  elevation  of  my  dearest  son,  and  that  I,  the  lowest  slave 
of  the  church,  should  have  educated  one  of  my  sons,  who,  by  the 
grace  of  Him  who  is  the  giver  of  all  good,  is  thought  worthy  to 
be  the  dispenser  of  the  mysteries  of  Christ  and  to  labour  in  my 
stead  in  the  church  where  I  was  brought  up  and  taught,  and  to 
preside  over  the  treasures  of  wisdom,  the  inheritance  of  which 
my  beloved  master  Archbishop  Albert  left  to  me. 

Your  holy  wisdom  should  provide  masters  for  the  boys,  and 
the  clerks.  Let  there  be  separate  spheres  for  those  who  read 
books,  who  serve  singing,  who  are  assigned  to  the  writing 
school.  Have  special  masters  for  each  of  these  classes,  lest 
having  leisure  time  they  wander  about  the  place  and  practice 
empty  games  or  be  employed  in  other  futilities.  Let  your 
most  wise  prudence,  my  most  beloved  son,  consider  all  this,  so 
that  a  well  of  all  goodness  and  learning  may  be  found  in  the 
principal  seat  of  our  nation,  from  which  the  thirsty  traveller 
or  the  lover  of  church  learning,  may  draw  whatever  his  soul 

Let  your  most  diligent  piety  also  consider  where  to  order 
inns,  that  is  hospitals,  to  be  erected  in  which  the  poor  and  the 
traveller  may  be  received  daily  and  be  relieved  at  your  expense. 

20  Hexham  School 

Alcuin  on  Hexham  School,     c.  797. 

ilb.  88,  p.  374.] 

Praecipuae  dignitatis  pastori  Aedilbercto  episcopo  et  omni 
congregationi  in  ecclesia  sancti  Andreae  Deo  servientium 
Alchuinus,  vestrae  clientellus  caritatis,  in  Christo,  salutem.... 

Maneat  vero  in  vobis  lumen  scientiae 

Pueros  adolescentesque  diligenter  librorum  scientiam  ad 
viam    Dei   docete,   ut   digni   vestri    honoris    fiant    successores, 

etiam    et    intercessores    pro    vobis Qui    non    seminat,    non 

metet ;  et  qui  non  discit,  non  docet.  Et  talis  locus  sine 
doctoribus  aut  non  aut  vix  salvus  fieri  poterit.  Magna  est 
elimosina,  pauperem  cibo  pascere  corporali ;  sed  maior  est, 
animam  doctrina  spiritali  satiare  esurientem.  Sicut  pastor 
providus  gregi  suo  optima  praevidere  pascua  curat,  ita  doctor 
bonus  suis  subiectis  perpetuae  pascua  vitae  omni  studio  pro- 
curare  debet.  Nam  multiplicatio  gregis,  gloria  est  pastoris  ;  et 
multitudo  sapientium,  sanitas  est  orbis.  Scio  vos,  sanctissimi 
patres,  haec  optime  scire  et  voluntarie  implere. 

Canonical  Duty  of  Bishops  to  maintain 
Schools.     826. 

[[^'crcti  Prima  Pars,  Disl.  xxxvii.  c.  12.     C.Jiir.  Canon.,  cd.  Leipzig, 
1879.      A.  Y.  Leach,  Early  ^'orkshirc  Schools,  I.  1.] 

Magistros  et  doctores  Episcopi  congruis  locis  constituant. 

Item  ex  sinodo  Eugenii  Papae  [n.  c.  34]  826. 

I)e  cjuibusdam  locis  ad  nos  refertur,  neque  magistros,  neciue 
curam  inveniii  pro  studio  literarum.  Idcirco  ab  universis  epis- 
copis  subjectis  plebibus,  et  aliis  locis,  in  cjuibus  nccessitas 
occurret,  omnino  cura  et  diligcntia  habeatur  [sic],  ut  magistri 
et  doctores  constituanlur,  ([ui  stadia  literarum  liberaliumque 
artium  dogmata  assidue  doceant,  (juia  in  his  maxime  divina 
manifestantur  alquc  dcclarantur  mandata. 

Canon  Law  in  Schools  2 1 

Alcuin  on  Hexham  School,     c.   797. 

To  the  pastor  of  chief  dignity,  Ethelbert  bishop,  and  all 
the  congregation  serving  God  in  the  church  of  St  Andrew, 
Alcuin,  client  of  your  love,  greeting   in  Christ — 

May  the  light  of  learning  remain  among  you. ...Teach  the 
boys  and  young  men  diligently  the  learning  of  books  in  the 
way  of  God,  that  they  may  become  worthy  successors  in  your 

honours   and    intercessors    for   you He   who   does   not    sow 

neither  shall  he  reap,  and  he  who  does  not  learn  cannot  teach. 
And  such  a  place  without  teachers  shall  not,  or  hardly,  be 
saved.  It  is  a  great  work  of  charity  to  feed  the  poor  with  food 
for  the  body,  but  a  greater  to  fill  the  hungry  soul  with  spiritual 
learning.  As  a  careful  shepherd  provides  the  best  pasture  for 
his  flock,  so  a  good  teacher  should  with  all  his  zeal  provide  for 
his  subjects  the  pasture  of  eternal  life.  For  the  increase  of  the 
flock  is  the  glory  of  the  shepherd,  and  the  multitude  of  learned 
men  is  the  safety  of  the  world.  I  know  that  you,  most  holy 
fathers,  know  this  well  and  will  willingly  carry  it  out. 

Canonical  Duty  of  Bishops  to  viaintain 
Schools.      826. 

Bishops  should  establish  masters  and  teachers  in  fit  places. 

From  the  Council  of  Pope  Eugenius. 

Complaints  have  been  made  that  in  some  places  no  masters 
nor  endowment  for  a  Grammar  School  is  found.  Therefore 
all  bishops  shall  bestow  all  care  and  diligence,  both  for  their 
subjects  and  for  other  places  in  which  it  shall  be  found  neces- 
sary, to  establish  masters  and  teachers  who  shall  assiduously 
teach  grammar  schools  and  the  principles  of  the  liberal  arts, 
because  in  these  chiefly  the  commandments  of  God  are 
manifested  and  declared. 

2  2  Alfred  the  Great 

Notationes  correctorum. 

In  indice  etiam  synodi  a  Gregorio  VII  Romae  habitae  talis 
cujusdam  capitis  haec  ponitur  summa  :  '  Ut  omnes  episcopi 
artes  literarum  in  suis  ecclesiis  docere  faciant.' 

State  of  Education  in  England  in  871  and  c.  893. 

[Pref.  to  King  Alfred's  Translation  of  Gregory's  Pastoral  Care,  MS.  Bodl. 
Hatton  20  ;  ed.  H.  Sweet,  E.  E.T.  Soc.  1871.] 

Aelfred  kyning  hateth  gretan  Waerferth  biscep  his  wordum 
luflice  ond  freondlice  ;  ond  the  cythan  hate  thaet  me  com  swithe 
oft  on  gemynd,  hwelce  wiotan  iu  waeron  giond  Angelcynn, 
aegther  ge  godcundra  hada  ge  \vorul[d]cundra...ond  eac  tha 
godcundan  hadas  hu  giorne  hie  waeron  aegther  ge  ymb  lare 
ge  ymb  liornunga,  ge  ymb  ealle  tha  thiowotdomas  the  hie 
Gode  [don]  scoldon  ;  ond  hu  man  utanbordes  wisdom  ond 
lare  hieder  on  lond  sohte,  on  hu  we  hie  nu  sceoldon  ute 
begietan  gif  we  hie  habban  sceoldon.  Swae  claene  hio  waes 
othfeallenu  on  Angelcynne  thaet  swithe  feawa  waeron  behionan 
Hunibre  the  hiora  theninga  cuthen  understondan  on  Hlnglisc, 
oththe  furthum  an  aerendgewrit  of  Laedene  on  Englisc  areccean; 
ond  ic  wcne  thaet[te]  noht  monige  begiondan  Humbre  naeren. 
Swae  feawa  hiora  waeron  thaet  ic  furthum  anne  anlepne  ne 
maeg  gethencean  be  suthan  Temese  tha  tha  ic  to  rice  feng. 
Ciode  aehiiihtegum   sie  thonc  thaet[te]   we  nu  aenigne  onstal 

habbath  lareowa Da  ic  that  this  eall  gemunde  tha  gemunde 

ic  eac  hu  ic  geseah,  aerthemthe  hit  eall  forhergod  waere  ond 
forbaerned,  hu  thaciricean  giond  eall  Angelcynn  stodon  mathma 
ond  boca  gefyldae  ond  eac  micel  menTijgeo  Godes  thiowa,  ond 
tha  swithe  lytic  fiorme  thara  boca  wiston,  forthaemthc  hie  hiora 
nan  wuht  ongiotan  ne  meahton  forthat^mthe  hie  naeron  on  hiora 
agen  gethiode  awritene. 

Forthy  me  thyncth  betre,  gif  iow  swae  thyncth,  thaet  we  eac 
sumac  bee,  tha  the  niedbethearfosta  sien  eallum  monnuni  to 
wiotonne,  thaet  we  tha  on  thaet  gethiode  wenden  the  we  ealle 

on  Education  in  England  23 

Notes  by  correctors  [a  committee  of  revisers  of  Corpus 
Juris  in   1566]. 

Also  in  the  index  of  the  synod  held  at  Rome  by  Gregory  VII 
(1073-85)  there  is  this  heading  of  a  chapter  :  '  That  all  bishops 
cause  the  art  of  grammar  to  be  taught  in  their  churches.' 

State  of  Education  in  England  in  871  and  c.  893. 

King  Alfred  bids  greet  bishop  Waerferth  with  his  words 
lovingly  and  with  friendship ;  and  I  let  it  be  known  to  them 
that  it  has  very  often  come  into  my  mind,  what  wise  men  there 
formerly  were  throughout  the  English  nation,  both  of  sacred 
and  secular  orders... and  also  the  sacred  orders  how  zealous 
they  were  both  in  teaching  and  learning,  and  in  all  the  services 
they  owed  to  God ;  and  how  foreigners  came  to  this  land  in 
search  of  wisdom  and  learning,  and  how  we  should  now  have 
to  get  them  from  abroad  if  we  would  have  them.  So  general 
was  its  decay  among  the  English  people  that  there  were  very 
few  on  this  side  of  the  Humber  who  could  understand  their 
services  in  English,  or  translate  a  letter  from  Latin  into  English; 
and  I  believe  that  there  were  not  many  beyond  the  Humber. 
There  were  so  few  of  them  that  I  cannot  remember  a  single 
one  south  of  the  Thames  when  I  came  to  the  throne.  Thanks 
be   to   God   Almighty   that   we   have   any  teachers   among  us 

now When  I  considered  all  this  I  remembered  also  how  I 

saw,  before  it  had  been  all  ravaged  and  burnt,  how  the  churches 
throughout  the  whole  of  England  stood  filled  with  treasures  and 
books,  and  there  was  also  a  great  multitude  of  God's  servants, 
but  they  had  very  little  knowledge  of  the  books,  for  they  could 
not  understand  anything  of  them,  because  they  were  not  written 
in  their  own  language. 

Therefore  I  think  it  is  better,  if  you  think  so  too,  that  we 
also  should  translate  some  of  the  books,  which  are  most  useful 
for  all  men  to  know,  into  the  language  which  we  can  all  under- 

24  Alf7'cd  the  Great 

gecnavvan  niaegen,  ond  ge  don  swae  we  swithe  eathe  magon 
mid  Codes  fultume,  gif  we  tha  stilnesse  habbath,  thaet[te]  call 
sio  gioguth  the  nu  is  on  Angelcynne  friora  monna,  thara  the 
tha  speda  haebben  thaet  hie  thaem  befeolan  maegen,  sien  to 
liornunga  othfaeste,  tha  hwile  the  hie  to  nanre  otherre  note  ne 
maegen,  oth  thone  first  the  hie  vvel  cunnen  Englisc  gewrit 
araedan  :  laere  mon  siththan  furthur  on  Laedengethiode  tha 
the  mon  furthor  laeran  wille  ond  to  hieran  hade  don  wille. 
Tha  ic  tha  gemunde  hu  sio  lar  Laedengethiodes  aer  thissum 
afeallen  waes  giond  Angelcynn,  ond  theah  monige  cuthon 
Englisc  gewrit  araedan,  tha  ongan  ic  ongeniang  othrum  mis- 
licum  ond  manigfealdum  bisgum  thisses  kynerices  tha  boc 
wendan  on  Englisc  the  is  genemned  on  Laeden  Pastoralis, 
ond  on  Englisc  Hierdeboc,  hwilum  word  be  worde,  hwilum 
andgit  of  andgi[e]te,  swae  swae  ic  hie  geliornode  aet  Plegmunde 
minum  aercebiscepe  ond  aet  Assere  minum  biscepe  ond  aet 
Grimbolde  minum  maesseprioste  ond  aet  lohanne  minum 
maessepreoste.  Siththan  ic  hie  tha  geliornod  haefde,  swae 
swae  ic  hie  forstod,  ond  swae  ic  hie  andgitfullicost  areccean 
meahte,  ic  hie  on  Englisc  awende ;  ond  to  aclcum  biscepstole 
on  minum  rice  wille  ane  onsendan ;  ond  on  aelcre  bith  an 
aestel,  se  bith  on  fiftegum  mancessa.  Ond  ic  bebiode  on 
Codes  naman  thaet  nan  mon  thone  aestel  from  thaere  bee  ne 
do,  ne  tha  boc  from  thaem  mynstre. 

The  E ducat i 071  of  Alfred  the  Great,  c.  860  and 
887,  as  told  by  the  pseudo-Asser.     \c.    looi.] 

[Asseiius,   dc  Rebus   Gcstis  Atlj'reiii,   ed.  W.   II.  Stevenson,    1904,   p.  18.] 

2  1.  Anno  Dominicae  Incarnationis  dccclxvi,  nativitatis 
autem  Aelfredi  regis  decimo  octavo.... 

22.  Cui  ab  incunabulis  ante  omnia  et  cum  omnibus 
praesentis  vitae  studiis,  sapientiae  desiderium  cum  nobilitate 
generis,  nobilis  mentis  ingenium  supplevit  :  sed,  proh  dolor ! 
indigna    suorum    parentum    et    nutritorum    incuria    usque    ad 

on  the  State  of  Education  25 

stand,  and  should  do  as  we  very  easily  can  with  God's  help  if  we 
have  peace,  that  all  the  youth  of  our  English  freemen,  who  are 
rich  enough  to  be  able  to  devote  themselves  to  it,  should  be  set 
to  learning,  as  long  as  they  are  not  fit  for  any  other  occupation^ 
until  they  are  well  able  to  read  English  writing :  and  further  let 
those  afterwards  learn  Latin  who  will  continue  in  learning,  and 
go  to  a  higher  rank.  When  I  remembered  how  the  knowledge 
of  Latin  had  formerly  decayed  among  the  English,  and  yet  many 
could  read  English  writing,  I  began,  among  other  various  and 
manifold  troubles  of  this  kingdom,  to  translate  into  English  the 
book  which  is  called  in  Latin  Pastoralis,  and  in  English  The 
Herd's  Book,  sometimes  word  for  word  and  sometimes  meaning 
for  meaning,  as  I  had  learnt  it  from  Plegmund  my  archbishop, 
and  Asser  my  bishop,  and  Grimbold  my  mass-priest,  and  John 
my  mass-priest.  And  when  T  had  learnt  it  to  the  best  of  my 
ability,  and  as  I  could  most  clearly  interpret  it,  I  translated  it 
into  English  ;  and  I  will  send  a  copy  to  every  bishopric  in  my 
kingdom  ;  with  a  clasp  on  each  worth  fifty  mancuses.  And  I 
forbid  in  (^lod's  name  anyone  to  take  the  clasp  from  the  book 
or  the  book  from  the  minster. 

The  Ediication  of  Alfred  the   Great,  c.  860  and 
887,   as  told  by  the  pseiido-Asser.     \c.    looi.] 

21.  In  the  year  of  the  Licarnation  of  the  Lord  866,  and  of 
the  birth  of  King  Alfred  the  i8th.... 

22.  From  the  cradle  before  everything  and  notwithstanding 
all  the  distractions  of  daily  life,  the  love  of  knowledge  next  only 
to  the  nobility  of  his  nature  gave  its  bent  to  his  noble  mind;  but, 
sad  to  say,  through  the  discreditable  neglect  of  his  parents  and 

26  Miracles  of  Alfred 

duodecimum  aetatis  annum,  aut  eo  amplius,  illiteratus  per- 
mansit.  Sed  Saxonica  poemata  die  noctuque  solers  auditor, 
relatu  alioruni  saepissime  audiens,  docibilis  memoriter  retinebat. 
In  omni  venatoria  arte  industrius  venator  incessabiliter  laborat 
non  in  vanuni ;  nam  incomparabilis  omnibus  peritia  et  felicitate 
in  ilia  arte,  sicut  et  in  ceteris  omnibus  Dei  donis,  fuit,  sicut  et 
nos  saepissime  vidimus. 

23.  Cum  ergo  quodam  die  mater  sua  sibi  et  fratribus  suis 
quendam  Saxonicum  poematicae  artis  librum,  quem  in  manu 
habebat,  ostenderet,  ait :  '  Quisquis  vestrum  discere  citius  istum 
codicem  possit,  dabo  illi  ilium.'  Qua  voce,  immo  divina  in- 
spiratione,  instinctus  [Aelfredus],  et  pulchritudine  principalis 
litterae  illius  libri  illectus,  ita  matri  respondens,  et  fratres  suos 
aetate,  quamvis  non  gratia,  seniores  anticipans,  inquit :  *  Verene 
dabis  istum  librum  uni  ex  nobis,  scilicet  illi,  qui  citissime  intel- 
ligere  et  recitare  eum  ante  tc  possit  ? '  Ad  haec  ilia,  arridens 
et  gaudens  atque  affirmans :  'Dabo,'  infit,  'illi.'  Tunc  ille 
statim  tollens  librum  de  manu  sua,  magistrum  adiit  et  legit. 
Quo  lecto,  matri  retulit  et  recitavit. 

24.  Post  haec  cursum  diurnum,  id  est  celebrationes  horarum, 
ac  deinde  psalmos  quosdam  et  orationes  multas  [didicit] ;  quos 
in  uno  libro  congregatos  in  sinu  suo  die  noctuque,  sicut  ipsi 
vidimus,  secum  inseparabiliter,  orationis  gratia,  inter  oirmia 
praesentis  vitae  curricula  ubique  circumducebat.  Scd,  proh 
dolor!  quod  maxime  desiderabat,  liberalcm  scilicet  arteni, 
desiderio  suo  non  suppetebat,  eo  quod,  ut  loquebatur,  illo 
tempore  lectures  boni  in  toto  regno  Occidcntalium  Saxonum 
non  erant. 

25.  (^uod  maximum  inter  omnia  praesentis  vitae  suae 
impedimenta  et  dispendia  crebris  querelis  et  intimis  cordis 
sui  suspiriis  fieri  affirmabat :  id  est,  eo  quod  illo  tempore, 
quando  aetatem  et  licentiani  atque  suppetentiam  discendi 
habebat,  magistros  non  habuerat  :  quando  vero  et  aetate  erat 
provectior  et  incessabilius  die  noctucjue,  immo  omnibus  istius 
insulae  medicis  incognitis  infirmitatibus,  internisque  atcjue  ex- 
ternis  regiae  potestatis  sollicitudinibus,  necnon  et  paganorum 

the  Great's  learning  27 

tutors  he  remained  unable  to  read  till  his  twelfth  year  or  later. 
But  being  a  diligent  listener  night  and  day  to  Saxon  poems,  and 
often  hearing  others  recite  them,  and  having  a  good  memory,  he 
learnt  them  by  heart.  In  every  branch  of  venery  being  an 
industrious  hunter  he  worked  incessantly  and  not  in  vain ;  for 
he  was  of  incomparable  skill  and  luck  in  that  craft,  as  in  all  the 
rest  of  God's  gifts,  as  I  myself  have  often  seen. 

23.  Once  upon  a  time  then  his  mother  showed  him  and 
his  brothers  a  book  of  Saxon  poetry,  which  she  had  in  her  hand, 
and  said,  '  I  will  give  this  book  to  whichever  of  you  can  learn 
it  quickest.'  Excited  by  these  words,  or  rather  by  the  inspira- 
tion of  God,  and  the  attraction  of  the  beauty  of  the  capital 
letter,  Alfred  anticipated  his  brothers,  his  seniors  in  age  though 
not  in  grace,  and  said  in  answer  to  his  mother,  'Will  you  really 
give  this  book  to  the  one  of  us  who  is  quickest  in  understanding 
it  and  reading  it  to  you?'  And  she,  smiling  and  delighted, 
repeated,  '  I  will  give  it  to  that  one.'  Then  he  immediately 
took  the  book  from  her  hand  and  went  to  a  master  and  read  it ; 
and  when  he  had  read  it,  brought  it  back  and  read  it  aloud  to 
his  mother. 

24.  Afterwards  he  learnt  the  daily  course,  that  is,  the  hours, 
and  some  psalms  and  many  prayers,  and  he  collected  them  in 
a  book  which,  as  I  myself  saw,  he  carried  about  with  him  in  his 
bosom  day  and  night,  wherever  he  went,  among  all  the  changes 
and  chances  of  this  life,  for  his  prayers.  But  alas,  his  desire  for 
the  liberal  art  [i.e.  grammar]  which  he  most  wanted  he  could 
not  satisfy,  because,  as  he  used  to  say,  there  were  not  at  that 
time  any  good  teachers  in  the  whole  realm  of  W'essex. 

25.  And  he  used  frequently  to  complain  with  deep 
sighs  that  among  all  the  annoyances  and  difhculties  of  this 
present  life  the  greatest  was  that,  when  he  was  of  an  age  and 
had  time  and  leisure  for  learning,  he  had  no  masters ;  while 
when  he  was  advanced  in  age  he  was  so  incessantly  preoccupied, 
or  rather  overwhelmed,  day  and  night,  by  an  illness  unknown  to 
all  the  doctors  in  the  island,  and  by  the  foreign  and  internal 

28  Miracles  of  Alfred 

terra  marique  infestationibus  occupatus,  immo  etiam  perturbatus, 
magistros  et  scriptores  aliquantula  ex  parte  habebat,  legere  ut 
non  poterat.  Sed  tanien  inter  praesentis  vitae  impedimenta  ab 
infantia  usque  ad  praesentem  diem  [et,  ut  credo,  usque  ad 
obitum  vitae  suae],  in  eodem  insaturabili  desiderio,  sicut  nee 
ante  destituit,  ita  nee  etiam  adhuc  inhiare  desinit. 

84.  Anno  Dominicae  Incarnationis  dccclxxxvii,  natiui- 
tatis  autem  Elfridi  regis  trigesimo  anno. 

87.  Eodem  quoque  anno  saepe  memoratus  Aelfred,  Angul- 
saxonum  rex,  divino  instinctu  legere  et  interpretari  simul  uno 
eodemque  die  primitus  inchoavit.  Sed,  ut  apertius  ignorantibus 
pateat,  causam  huius  tardae  inchoationis  expedire  curabo. 

[Here  follows  a  long  story  as  to  how  Alfred  one  day  produced 
a  book  which  he  always  carried  in  his  bosom  and  asked  Asser 
to  write  down  in  it  a  passage  he  had  quoted.  Asser  could  not 
find  a  vacant  space,  so  wrote  it  down  at  the  beginning  of  a  new 
book  with  three  or  four  other  passages.] 

89.  Nam  primo  illo  testimonio  scripto,  confestim  legere  et 
in  Saxonica  lingua  interpretari,  atque  inde  perplures  instituere 

Hie  aut  aliter,  quamvis  dissimili  modo,  in  regia  potestate 
sanctae  rudimenta  scripturae,  divinitus  instinctus,  praesumpsit 
incipere  in  venerabili  Martini  solemnitate.  Quos  flosculos 
undecunque  collectos  a  quibuslibet  magistris  discere  et  in 
corpore  unius  libelli,  mixtim  quamvis,  sicut  tunc  suppetebat, 
redigere,  usque  adeo  protelavit,  quousque  propemodum  ad 
magnitudinem  unius  psalterii  perveniret.  Quem  enchiridion 
suum,  id  est  manualem  librum,  nominari  voluit,  eo  quod  ad 
manum  ilium  die  noctuque  solertissime  habebat ;  in  quo  non 
mediocre,  sicut  tunc  aiebat,  habebat  solatium. 

the   Great's   lea7^7iing  29 

cares  of  a  kingdom  and  the  attacks  of  the  heathen  by  land  and  sea, 
that  though  he  had  to  some  extent  teachers  and  writers  he  could 
not  learn.  But  nevertheless  in  all  the  difficulties  of  life,  from 
his  infancy  to  this  day  (and  as  I  believe  to  the  day  of  his  death), 
as  he  never  desisted  from  his  insatiable  wish  to  learn,  so  even 
still  he  does  not  cease  to  yearn  for  it. 

84.  In  the  year  of  our  Lord's  Incarnation  887,  and  in  the 
30th  year  of  the  birth  of  King  Alfred. 

87.  In  the  same  year  the  often-mentioned  Alfred,  king  of 
the  Anglo-Saxons,  by  divine  inspiration  first  began  to  read  and 
construe  on  one  and  the  same  day.  That  this  may  be  plainer 
to  the  uninitiated,  I  will  try  to  explain  the  reason  of  this  late 

89.  As  soon  as  the  first  passage  was  written  he  began  at  once 
to  read  and  construe  it  into  English,  and  then  was  eager  to  set 
down  more  [so  that  he  resembled  the  happy  thief  on  the  cross 
who  first  began  to  learn  the  rudiments  of  the  Christian  faith  on 
the  gallows]. 

At  this  or  another  time,  though  in  a  different  way,  while 
enjoying  royal  power,  by  divine  inspiration  he  began  the 
rudiments  of  Holy  Scripture  on  the  venerable  feast  of  St  Martin. 
And  these  flowers  collected  from  all  (juarters  and  all  sorts  of 
masters  he  used  to  learn  and  enter  in  a  little  book,  without  any 
order,  just  as  they  occurred  to  him  ;  and  he  enlarged  it  to  such 
a  degree  that  it  almost  attained  the  size  of  a  psalter.  This  he 
called  his  enchiridion  or  hand-book,  because  he  always  had  it 
at  hand  by  day  and  night  :  and  in  it  he  had,  as  he  used  to  .say, 
no  small  solace. 

30        The  Education  of  Alfred's  Children 

The  Ediuation  of  Alfred' s  Children. 

75.  Nati  sunt  ergo  ei  filii  et  filiae  de  supradicta  coniuge 
sua,  [scilicet]  ^^thelflaed  primogenita,  post  quam  Eadwcrd, 
deinde  y1^>thelgeofu,  postea  ^^^Ifthryth,  deinde  71^'thelweard 
natus  est.... 

/Kthclweard,  omnibus  iunior,  ludis  literariae  disciplinae, 
divino  consilio  et  admirabili  regis  providencia,  cum  omnibus 
pene  totius  regionis  nobilibus  infantibus  et  eciam  multis  igno- 
bilibus,  sub  diligenti  magistrorum  cura  traditus  est.  In  qua 
scola  utriusque  linguae  libri,  Latine  scilicet  et  Saxonice,  assidue 
legebantur,  scriptioni  quoque  vacabant,  ita,  ut  antequam  aptas 
humanis  artibus  vires  haberent,  venatoria  scilicet  et  ceteris 
artibus,  quae  nobilibus  conveniunt,  in  liberalibus  artibus  studiosi 
et  ingeniosi  viderentur.  Eadwerd  et  /I^llfthryth  semper  in  curto 
regio  nutriti  cum  magna  nutritorum  et  nutricum  diligencia, 
immo  cum  magno  omnium  amore,  et  ad  omnes  indigenas  et 
alienigenas  humilitate,  affabilitate  et  eciam  lenitate,  et  cum 
magna  patris  subiectione  buc  usque  perseverant.  Nee  eciam 
illi  sine  liberali  disciplina  inter  cetera  praesentis  vitae  studia, 
quae  nobilibus  conveniunt,  otiose  et  incuriose  [vivere]  permit- 
tuntur,  nam  et  psalmos  et  Saxonicos  libros  et  maxinie  Saxonica 
carmina  studiose  didicere,  et  frequentissime  libris  utuntur. 

Alf'cd's  Palace  School. 

76.  Filios  quoque  eorum,  qui  in  regali  familia  nutriebantur, 
non  minus  propriis  diligens,  omnibus  bonis  moribus  instituere 
et  Uteris  imbuere  solus  die  noctucjue  inter  cetera  non  desinebat. 
Sed  quasi  nullam  in  his  omnibus  consolationem  haberet,  et 
nuUam  aliam  intrinsecus  et  extrinsecus  perlurbationeni  pateretur, 
ita  tamen  cotidiana  et  noctunia  anxius  tristitia  ad  Doniinum 
et  ad  omnes,  qui  sibi  familiari  dilectione  adsciti  forent,  quere- 

Alfred's  Palace  School  31 

The  Education  of  Alfred's  Children, 

75.  There  were  born  to  him  then  sons  and  daughters 
from  his  aforesaid  wife,  namely,  Ethelfled  the  first-born, 
after  her  Edward,  next  Ethelgifu,  afterwards  Elfthryth,  next 
Ethelward  was   born.... 

Ethelward  the  youngest  of  all,  by  God's  advice  and  the 
admirable  prudence  of  the  king,  was  sent  to  the  Grammar 
School,  with  the  children  of  almost  all  the  nobility  of  the 
country,  and  many  also  who  were  not  noble,  under  the  diligent 
care  of  masters.  In  that  school,  books  in  both  languages, 
namely,  Latin  and  Saxon,  were  diligently  read.  They  also 
had  leisure  for  writing,  so  that  before  they  had  strength  for 
manly  arts,  namely  hunting  and  such  pursuits  as  befit  gentle- 
men, they  were  seen  to  be  studious  and  clever  in  the  liberal 
arts.  Edward  and  Elfthryth  were  bred  in  the  king's  court  with 
great  care  on  the  part  of  their  male  and  female  tutors,  nay  with 
great  love  from  all,  and  they  persevere  even  till  now  in  humility, 
affability  and  also  gentleness  to  all  natives  and  foreigners,  and 
great  obedience  to  their  father.  Nor  are  even  they  suffered  to 
pass  their  time  idly  and  unprofitably  among  the  other  pursuits  of 
this  life,  such  as  befit  gentlemen,  without  liberal  teaching.  For 
they  studiously  learnt  the  Psalms  and  Saxon  books,  especially 
Saxon  poems,  and  very  often  they  use  books. 

Alfred's  Palace  School. 

76.  The  sons,  too,  of  those  who  were  brought  up  in  the 
royal  family,  he  loved  not  less  than  his  own,  and  never  ceased 
day  or  night  amid  all  his  other  business,  alone  and  by  himself, 
to  institute  them  in  all  good  conduct  and  imbue  them  with 
learning.  Yet  he  had  little  consolation  in  all  this,  and  as  though 
he  underwent  no  other  opposition  either  at  home  or  from 
abroad,  was  so  vexed  by  sadness  day  and  night  that  he  com- 
plained to  the  Lord  and  to  all,  who  were  admitted  to  familiar 

32  Alfred's  Palace  School 

laretur,  et  assiduo  gemebat  suspirio,  eo  quod  Deus  Omnipotens 
eum  cxpertem  divinac  sapientiae  et  liberalium  artium  fecisset : 
in  hoc  pium  et  opinatissimum  atque  opulentissimum  Salomonem 
Hebraeorum  regem  aequiparans. ...Coadiutores  bonae  medita- 
tionis  suae,  qui  eum  in  desiderata  sapientia  adiuvare  possent, 
quo  ad  concupita  perveniret,  quandocunque  posset,  acquireret ; 
qui  subinde — velut  apis  prudentissima, — mentis  oculos  longum 
dirigit,  quaerens  extrinsecus  quod  intrinsecus  non  habebat,  id 
est  in  proprio  regno  suo.... 

Quorum  omnium  doctrina  et  sapientia  regis  indesinenter 
desiderium  crescebat  et  implebatur.  Nam  die  noctuque, 
(|uandocunque  aliquam  licentiam  haberet,  libros  ante  se  reci- 
tare  talibus  imperabat — non  enim  unquam  sine  aliquo  eorum 
se  esse  pateretur — (juapropter  pene  omnium  librorum  notitiani 
habebat,  quamvis  per  se  ipsum  aliquid  adhuc  de  libris  intelligere 
non  posset.      Non  enim  adhuc  ali(]uid  legere  inceperat. 

I02.  ...tertiam  scholae,  quam  ex  multis  suae  propriae 
gentis  nobilibus  et  etiam  pueris  ignobilibus  studiosissime  con- 

io6.  ...omnia  pene  totius  suae  regionis  iudicia,  quae  in 
absentia  tua  fiebant,  sagaciter  investigabat,  qualia  fierent,  iusta 
aut  etiam  iniusta. ...Denique  si  illi  iudices  profiterentur  propterea 
se  talia  ita  iudicasse,  eo  quod  nihil  rectius  de  his  rebus  scire 
poterant,  tunc  ille...aut  terrenarum  potestatum  ministeria,  quae 
habetis,  illico  dimittatis,  aut  sapic-ntiae  studiis  multo  devotius 

docerc  ut  studeatis,  impero ita  ut  miruni  in  moduni  illiterati 

ab  infantia  comites  pene  omnes.  praepositi  ac  ministri  Hteratoriae 
arti  studerent,  malentes  insuetam  disciplinam  cjuam  laboriose 
discere,  (juam  potestatum  ministeria  dimittere.     Sed  si  ahcjuis 

Alfred's  Palace  School  33 

intercourse  with  him,  continually  lamenting  that  God  Almighty 
had  made  him  ignorant  of  divine  wisdom  and  the  liberal  arts  ; 
being  in  this  like  the  pious  and  famous  and  rich  king  Solomon. . . . 
He  got  however  from  wherever  he  could  assistants  in  his  good 
purpose,  to  help  him  towards  the  wisdom  he  wanted,  until  he 
attained  his  desire ;  and  then,  like  the  busy  bee,  turned  the 
eyes  of  his  mind  afar,  seeking  from  abroad  what  he  had  not  at 
home,  that  is,  in  his  own  kingdom. 

[He  then  mentions  four  Mercians :  VVilfrith  bishop  of 
Worcester,  Plegmund  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Aethelstan 
and  Werwulf  priests  and  chaplains.] 

By  whose  learning  and  wisdom  the  king's  desire  was  at  once 
increased  and  satisfied.  For  by  day  and  night,  whenever  he  had 
any  leave,  he  ordered  such  persons  to  read  books  to  him  ;  for 
he  never  allowed  himself  to  be  without  one  of  them — by  which 
means  he  had  [some]  knowledge  of  nearly  all  books,  although 
by  himself  he  could  not  as  yet  understand  anything  of  these 
books.  For  he  had  not  yet  begun  to  read  anything.  [A  long, 
inconsistent  and  incomprehensible  account  of  Asser's  coming 
is  given,  followed  under  the  year  887  by  the  account  already 
given  of  Alfred's  learning  to  read  Latin  in  one  day.] 

102.  [Alfred  had  divided  his  income  into  two  halves,  one 
for  secular  purposes  ;  the  second  he  divided  into  four  parts,  one 
for  the  poor,  two  for  two  monasteries  he  founded],  the  third  for 
the  school  which  he  had  with  great  zeal  collected  from  many 
noble  boys,  and  also  boys  who  were  not  noble,  of  his  own  nation. 

106.  He  always  examined  the  judgments  of  his  judges, 
given  in  his  absence,  as  to  their  legality  or  illegality.... If  the 
judges  alleged  that  they  had  given  such  and  such  a  judgment 
because  they  knew  no  better  about  that  matter,  he  would 
say,  I  order  you  either  to  give  up  the  local  jurisdiction  you 
have  or  give  much  more  attention  to  the  learned  studies.... 
So  that  in  a  marvellous  manner  nearly  all  the  earls,  the 
bailiffs  and  thanes  who  had  been  illiterate  from  infancy, 
studied  the  art  of  grammar,  preferring  to  learn  an  unaccus- 
tomed learning   than   to   resign    their  office  and  power.      But 

34  Schools  in  King  Edgars  Canons 

litteralibus  studiis  aut  pro  senio  vel  etiam  pro  nimia  inusitati 
ingenii  tarditate  proficere  non  valeret,  suum,  si  haberet,  filium, 
aut  etiam  aliquem  propinquum  suum,  vel  etiam,  si  aliter  non 
habeat,  suum  proprium  hominem,  liberum  vel  servum,  quern 
ad  lectionem  longe  ante  promoverat,  libros  ante  se  die  nocteque, 
quandocunque  unquam  ullam  haberet  licentiam,  Saxonicos  im- 
perabat  recitare.  Et  suspirantes  nimium  intima  mente  dolebant, 
eo  quod  in  iuventute  sua  talibus  studiis  non  studuerant,  felices 
arbitrantes  huius  temporis  iuvenes,  qui  liberalibus  artibus  feliciter 
erudiri  poterant,  se  vero  infelices  existimantes,  qui  nee  hoc  in 
iuventute  didicerant,  nee  etiam  in  senectute,  quamvis  inhianter 
desiderarent,  poterant  discere.  Sed  banc  senum  iuvenumque 
in  discendis  Uteris  solertiam  ad  praefati  regis  notitiam  expli- 

King  Edgar  s  Canons,     c.   960. 

[Aftr.  Laws  (Rec.  Com.),  od.    B.   Thorpe,    1831,  p.   396.] 

10.  And  we  laerath  thaet  a^nig  preost  ne  underfo  othres 
scolere,  but  on  tha^s  leafe  the  he  xr  folgode. 

11.  And  we  Icerath  thait  preosta  gehwilc  toeacan  lare 
leornige  hand-cra^ft  georne. 

12.  And  we  laerath  thaet  ienig  gelcered  preost  ne  scajnde 
thone  sam-laeredan,  ac  gebete  hine  gif  he  bet  cunne. 

17.  And  we  laerath  thaet  ielc  crislen  man  his  beam  to 
cristendome  geornlice  wnenige  and  him  Pater  noster  and 
Credon  taece. 

22.  And  we  laerath  thiist  aelc  man  leornige  that  he  cunne 
Pater  noster  and  Credon  be  them  the  he  wille  on  gehalgodan 
legere  licgan,  oththe  busies  wurthe  beon.  P'ortham  he  ne  bith 
wel  cristen  the  thait  geleornian  nele ;  ne  he  nah  mid  rihte 
othres  mannes  to  onfonne  xi  fulluhte,  ne  set  biscopes  handa 
rede  thajt  ne  cann  :  sr  he  hit  geleornige. 

51.  And  we  laerath  thc-et  preostas  geoguthe  geornlice 
lieran,  and  to  cra;ftan  teon  thait  hi  ciric-fultum  habban. 

Schools  in  King  Edgars  Canons  35 

if  any  of  them  could  not  get  on  in  his  study  of  literature 
through  age  or  the  stupidity  of  an  unused  intellect,  he  ordered 
his  son  if  he  had  one,  or  other  near  relation,  or  if  there  was  no 
one  else  his  freeman  or  slave,  whom  he  had  long  before  advanced 
to  reading,  to  read  aloud  Saxon  books  to  him,  day  and  night, 
whenever  he  had  any  leave.  And  they  used  to  sigh  and  lament 
in  the  recesses  of  their  minds,  that  in  their  youth  they  had  not 
devoted  themselves  to  such  studies,  thinking  the  youth  of  this 
time  happy,  in  being  happily  able  to  learn  the  liberal  arts,  and 
themselves  unhappy,  in  that  they  had  not  learnt  this  in  their 
youth,  and  that  in  their  old  age,  though  they  vehemently  wanted 
to,  they  could  not  learn.  But  this  zeal  of  old  and  young  to  learn 
letters  we  have  explained  to  the  aforesaid  king's  knowledge. 

King  Edgar  s  Canons,     c.   960. 

10.  And  we  enjoin  that  no  priest  receive  another's  scholar 
without  the  leave  of  him  whom  he  formerly  followed. 

11.  And  we  enjoin  that  every  priest  in  addition  to  lore, 
do  diligently  learn  a  handicraft. 

12.  And  we  enjoin  that  no  learned  priest  put  to  shame 
the  half-learned,  but  amend  him,  if  he  know  better. 

17.  And  that  every  Christian  man  zealously  accustom  his 
children  to  Christianity  and  teach  them  the  Pater  Noster  and 

22.  And  we  enjoin  that  every  man  learn  so  that  he  know 
the  Pater  Noster  and  Creed,  if  he  wish  to  lie  in  a  hallowed 
grave,  or  to  be  worthy  of  housel ;  because  he  is  not  truly 
a  Christian  who  will  not  learn  them,  nor  may  he  who  knows 
them  not  receive  another  man  at  baptism,  nor  at  the  bishop's 
hand,  ere  he  learn  them. 

51.  And  we  enjoin  that  priests  diligently  teach  youth,  and 
educate  them  in  crafts  that  they  may  have  ecclesiastical 

36  Priests  to  keep  Schools 

Council  of  994  (?). 

[Wilkins,   Cottiil.    I.  270,   from   MS.  CC.C.C  s.  xviii.] 

Liber  legum  ecclesiasticarum. 

xix.     De  scholis  in  ecclesiis. 

Si  quis  presbyter  velit  nepotem  suum  vel  quendam  con- 
sanguineum  virum  erudiendum  mittere  ad  ecclesias  quae 
nobis  ad  gubernandum  concreditae  sunt,  concedimus  ei  hoc 

XX.  Ut  presbyteri  per  villas  scholas  habeant  et  gratis 
parvulos  doceant. 

Presbyteri  semper  debent  in  domibus  suis  ludimagistrorum 
scholas  habere,  et  si  quis  devoius  parvulos  suos  eis  ad  in- 
structionem  concedere  velit  illos  quam  libentissime  suscipere  et 
benigne  docere  debent.  Cogitare  debetis  cjuod  scriptum  sit 
quod  '  qui  docti  sunt  fulgebunt  sicut  splendor  coeli '  et  (}uod 
'qui  multos  ad  justitiam  erudiverunt  et  docuerunt  splendebunt 
sicut  stellae  in  aeternum.'  Attamen  non  debent  pro  instructione 
eorum  aliquid  a  consanguineis  expectare  nisi  quod  propria 
voluntate  facere  voluerint. 

Aclfrics  Colloquy.      1005. 

[Wright's  Anglo-Saxon  Vocabiddrit's,  I.  Sy.    From  Coll.  Tib.  A.  III.  f.  28.] 

Hanc  sententiam  Latini  sermonis  olim  Aelfricus  abbas 
composuit,  qui  meus  fuit  magister,  sed  tamen  ego  Aelfric 
Bata  multas  postea  huic  addidi  appendices. 

7ve   cildra  biddath  the  eala   lareoiv    thctt   thu    icece   us 
D.    Nos  pueri  rogamus  te,      magister,        ut        doceas  nos 

sprecan  \rihie\for  tham  ungelcerede  7i>e  syiidon  a/id geicucmmod/icc 
locjui     recte       quia  idiote         sunius      et         corrupte 

7iie  sprecatli 

hiiuvt  'iville  ge  sprecan 
M.     Quid  uultis     locjui  ? 

Pi'iests  to  keep  Schools  2il 

Council  of  994  (?). 
Book  of  Ecclesiastical  Laws. 

xix.     Of  schools  in  churches. 

If  any  priest  wish  to  send  his  nephew  or  other  kinsman  to 
be  taught  to  the  churches  which  are  entrusted  to  our  govern- 
ance, we  willingly  grant  him  this. 

XX.  That  priests  shall  keep  schools  in  the  villages  and 
teach  small  boys  freely. 

Priests  ought  always  to  have  schools  of  schoolmasters  in 
their  houses,  and  if  any  of  the  faithful  wish  to  give  his  little 
ones  to  learning  they  ought  willingly  to  receive  them  and  teach 
them  for  nothing.  You  should  think  that  it  has  been  written 
[Dan.  xii.  3]  'The  learned  shall  shine  as  the  brightness  of  the 
firmament '  and  that  '  those  who  have  educated  and  taught 
many  to  righteousness  shall  shine  as  the  stars  for  ever.'  But 
they  ought  not  to  expect  anything  from  their  relations  except 
what  they  wish  to  do  of  their  own  accord. 

Aelfrics  Colloquy.      1005. 

This  dialogue  in  Latin  was  composed  by  Abbot  Aelfric,  who 
was  my  master ;  but  I  Aelfric  Bata  afterwards  made  many 
additions  to  it. 

Boys.  Master,  we  children  ask  you  to  teach  us  to  speak 
correctly  for  we  are  unlearned  and  speak  corruptly. 

Master.      W^hat  do  you  want  to  say  ? 

38  Aelfrics  Colloquy 

h7vcet    rece  7ve   hwret  we  sprecan  buton  hit  riht  sprcec 
D.     Quid  curamus  quid    loquamur,     nisi      recta   locutio 

sy   and  behefe  nccs    uhl  oththe  fracod 
sit,   et    utilis,  non  anilis,   aut    turpis? 

wille  \ge  befln\  bestvungen  on  leornunge 
M.    Uultis  flagcllari    in  discendo  ? 

leo/re     ys      us     beon   beswungen   for      /are       thanne 
D.   Carius   est  nobis         flagellari        pro  doctrina,    (juam 

hit  ne  cunnan    ac   we  ivitan  ike      bile^viine      wesan  and  nellan 
nescire;       sed     scimus     te    niansuetum      esse,     et     nolle 

onbe/ceden  swincgla     us     buton  thu  bi  io-genydd  fram      us 
inferre       plagas  nobis,   nisi  cogaris  a      nobis, 

ic    axle    the  hwcet  sprycst  thu  hivcet  h(cfst  thu 

M.     Interrogo  te    quid   mihi     lociueris?     Quid      habes 

operis  ? 

ic    eom    geanwyrde      nwnuc      and  ic  sincge   telce  d(Eg 
D.     Professus        sum       monachum,  et    psallam   omni  die 

seofon     tida     mid  gebrothrum  and  ic   eom    bysgod  \on  r(edingci\ 
septem  sinaxes  cum  fratribus,      et  occuj)atus  sum     lectionibus 

and  on   sange  ac  iheah   huHcthcre  ic  wolde  bctwenan   leornian 
et       cantu  ;         sed  tamen        uellem      interim       discere 

sprecan      on  Leden  gereorde 
sermocinari      Latina      lingua. 

hwict  cunnon  thas  thine  geferan 
M.     Quid  sciunt    isti     tui     socii? 

sume  synt yrthlincgas  sumc  sccphyrdas    sume   oxanhyrdas 
D.     Alii  sunt    aratores,     alii    opiliones,  quidam    bubulci, 

sume     eac  sivylcc      huntan      sume     fisceras      sume  fugelcras 
cjuidam       ctiam       uenatores,     alii     piscatores,     alii     aucupes, 

sume         cypmenn         sumc     sccivyrhtan  sealteras 

quidam    mercatores,    quidam      sutores,      (juidam     salinatores. 

(juidam  pistores  loci. 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  39 

B.     What  do  we  care  what  we  say  so  long  as  we  speak 
correctly  and  say  what  is  useful,  not  old-womanish  or  improper? 

M.     Will  you  be  flogged  while  learning  ? 

B.  We  would  rather  be  flogged  while  learning  than 
remain  ignorant ;  but  we  know  that  you  will  be  kind  to  us  and 
not  flog  us  unless  you  are  obliged. 

M.     I  ask  you  what  you  were  saying  to  me.     What  work 
have  you  ? 

\st  Boy.  I  am  a  professed  monk  and  I  sing  seven  times  a 
day  with  the  brethren  and  I  am  busy  with  reading  and  singing ; 
and  meanwhile  I  want  to  learn  to  speak  Latin. 

M.     What  do  these  companions  of  yours  know  ? 

ist  Boy.  Some  are  ploughmen,  others  shepherds,  some 
are  cowherds,  some  too  are  hunters,  some  are  fishermen,  some 
hawkers,  some  merchants,  some  shoemakers,  some  salters,  some 
bakers  of  the  place. 

40  Aelfrics  Colloquy 

hweet  safest  thu  yrthlingc        hu        begcest  thu  weorc 
M.     Quid   dici;;    tu,     arator,    quomodo     exerces       opus 


eala  leaf  hlaford     thearle   ic  deorfe  ic  ga  ut  on  dczgrcvd 
A.      O     mi    domine,   nimiuni  laboro ;     exeo      diluculo, 

thywende  axon    to    felda      and  iugie  hig  to        sy/       nys  hyt 
minando  boucs  ad  campum    ct  iungo  eos  ad  aratrum ;  non  est 

swa  stearc     winter    thcpt  ic  durre  lutian  at  ham  for       ege 
tam  aspera  hiemps     ut     audeam    latere     domi      pre    timore 

hlafordes  mines    ac   geiukodan    oxan    and  gefcestnodon    sceare 
domini     mei ;   sed     iunctis      bobus,    et    confirmato  uomere 

and   atltre    mid  thiere  syl   a-lce    dieg   ic  sceal  erian      ftilne 
et     cultro  aratro,         omni  die     debeo     arare    integrum 

acer     oththe  mare 
agrum,     aut     plus. 

hcBfst   thu     (Ftiigne    geferati 
M.      Habes        aliquem  socium  ? 

ic  hcebbe      sunme        cnapan      thywende      oxan      mid 
A.      Habeo    (juendam     puerum    minantem     boues    cum 

gadisene    the    eac  swilce      nu         has        ys     for      cylde    and 
stimulo,     qui       etiam       modo    raucus    est,     pre     frigore    et 


htvcet    tnare    dest  thu  on  dteg 
M.     Quid  amplius     facis     in  die  ? 

gewys/ice  thcpnne  inare  ic  do      ic  sceal    fyllan     hinnan 
A.       Certe      adhuc    plus  facio.      Debeo  implerc  presepia 
oxan  mid  hig  and  wceterian  hig  and  sccarn    hcora     bcran       ut 
bourn  feno,      et    adaquare  eos,  et    fimum  eorum  portare  foras. 

hig  hig    mice!    gedcorf  ys  hyt 
M.      O,   O,   magnus  labor     est ! 

ge  Icof    mice!    gedcotf  hit  ys  fort Jiam    ic    ncom  freoh 
A.      Etiam,  magnus  labor     est,        quia     non  sum   liber. 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  41 

M.     What  do  you  say,  ploughboy,  how  do  you  do  your 

P.  Oh,  sir,  I  work  very  hard.  I  go  out  at  dawn  to  drive 
the  oxen  to  the  field,  and  yoke  them  to  the  plough  ;  however 
hard  the  winter  I  dare  not  stay  at  home  for  fear  of  my  master  ; 
and  having  yoked  the  oxen  and  made  the  ploughshare  and 
coulter  fast  to  the  plough,  every  day  I  have  to  plough  a  whole 
acre  or  more. 

M.     Have  you  anyone  with  you  ? 

P.     I  have  a  boy  to  drive  the  oxen  with  the  goad,  and  he 
is  now  hoarse  with  cold  and  shouting. 

M.     What  more  do  you  do  in  the  day  ? 

P.     A  great  deal  more.      I  have  to  fill  the  oxen's  bins  with 
hay,  and  give  them  water,  and  carry  the  dung  outside. 

M.     Oh,  it  is  hard  work. 

P.     Yes,  it  is  hard  work,  because  I  am  not  free. 
[So  they  go  through  all  the  other  occupations.     At  the  end 
there  is  a  discussion  who  does  the  best  work  and  which  is  the 

42  Aelfrics  Colloquy 

[p.  lOo]  se  getheahtend  scegth  eala  geferan  and  gode  ivyrhtan 
Consiliarius    dicit:    O      socii      et    boni  operarii, 

uton   tmvtirpon  hwictlicor  ihas         geflitu       and  sy    sibb  and 
dissoluamus         citius       has    contentiones    et   sit     pax     et 

getMtuernyss  behveoh    us   and  framige  iiriim  gehwylcum  othron 
Concordia       inter    nos,  et      prosit         unusquisque       alteri 

on  cnefte   hys   and    gedwcerian     symble    mid    tham  yrthlinge 
arte    sua,    et    conueniamus  semper  apud        aratoreni, 

thcer  tve  bkleofan     us      and  foddor   horsum    urum     habbath 
ubi        uictum      nobis     et    pabula     ecjuis     nostris  habemus; 

and  this  gdheaht  ic  sylle   eallum    ivyrhtum    tJuet  anra  gchuylc 
et    hoc  consilium     do     omnibus  operariis,     ut     unusquisque 

crceft      his      geornlicc     begange  fort  ham  se  the     crceft       his 
artem    suam    diligenter   exerceat;     quia       qui      artem    suam 

forhBt       he     byth  forlccten  fram   tham    cnefte    S7va  huneder 
dimiserit,  ipse      dimittatur        ab  arte.  Siue 

thu  sy  swa  tncesseprest   siva       munuc    swa    ceorl    swa   kempa 
sis  sacerdos     siue  monachus,  seu  laicus,   seu    miles, 

bega  oththe  behwyrf   the    sylfne  on  thisum  and  beo  thcet  thu  cart 
exerce  temetipsumin    hoc,      et   esto  (juod      es, 

fortJmm     micel         hynd      and      sceamu      hyt  is    menn     tielle 
quia     magnum  dampnum  et    uerecundia     est     honiini  nolle 

wesan  thcet  thcet  he  ys  and  thcet  the  he  wcsan    sceal 
esse       quod        est      ct      quod         esse       debet. 

eala    cild        hu  emv    Heath  theos    spccc 

M.       O   pueri,  quomodo  uobis  placet  ista  locutio  ? 

7vel  heo    licath       us        ac     thrarle     deoplice 

D.     Bene  (juidem      placet       nobis,    sed    iialde     profunde 

sprycst    and  ofer    nuethe      ure      thu   forthtyht     spncce       ac 
loqueris,    et    ultra  etatem  nostrum     protrahis     sernionem;  sed 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  43 

most  useful,  and  a  counsellor  is  called  in  to  decide  the 
question.  He  decides  that  divine  service  comes  first,  but 
among  secular  crafts  agriculture,  because  it  feeds  all.  Then 
the  smith  and  the  wheelwright  point  out  that  the  ploughman  is 
no  use  without  the  plough  which  they  make.] 

The  counsellor  says  :  Oh,  all  you  good  fellows  and  good 
workers,  let  us  end  this  dispute  and  have  peace  and  harmony 
among  us,  and  let  each  help  the  other  by  his  craft,  and  let  us 
all  meet  at  the  ploughman's,  where  we  find  food  for  ourselves 
and  fodder  for  our  horses.  And  this  is  the  advice  I  give  all 
workmen,  that  each  of  them  should  do  his  work  as  well  as  he 
can,  as  the  man  who  neglects  his  work  is  dismissed  from  his 
work.  Whether  you  are  a  priest  or  a  monk,  a  layman  or  a 
soldier,  apply  yourself  to  that,  and  be  what  you  are,  as  it  is 
a  great  loss  and  shame  for  a  man  not  to  be  what  he  is  and 
what  he  ought  to  be. 

M.      Now,  children,  how  do  you  like  this  speech  ? 

B.     We  like  it  very  much,  but  what  you  say  is  too  deep  for 
us,  and  is  beyond  our  age.      But  talk  to  us  in  a  way  we  can 

44  Aelfrics  Colloquy 

spree         us       (tfter       urum  andgyte       that    we  magon 

loquere    nobis    juxta    nostrum    intellectum,      ut       possimus 

understandan  tha  thing  the  thii  sprecst 
intelligere  que  loqueris? 

ic  ahsige    eow  forhwi  swa  geornlice  leornia  ge 
M.     Interrogo   uos      cur      tarn  diligenter   discitis. 

fortham  tve  nellath  wesan    swa    stuiite     nytenu    tha 
D.        Quia      nolumus      esse     sicut    bruta  animalia,  quae 

nan  thing  tvitath  buton     gcers     and  wceter 
nihil       sciunt    nisi    herbam    et   aquam. 

ac     spree       us      ce/ter  uron  griviinon  nas  S7va    deoplice 
sed  loquere  nobis      nostro        more,    non  tam  profunde. 

and  ic      do        ceal  S7va   ge  biddath  thu  cnapa  hwcet 
M.      Et  ego  faciam      sicut  rogatis.     Tu,  puer,    quid 

dydesi  \t6\  dceg 
fecisti  hodie? 

vianega  thingc  ic  dyde  on  thisse    niht    tha  t)ia    cnyll 
D.     Multas     res        feci.         Hac       nocte  quando  signum 

ic  gehyrde  ic  aras  on  mitwn  bedde  and    eode    to    cyrcean    and 
audiui,      surrexi  de       lectulo         et     exiui  ad  ecclesiam    et 

sang       iihtsang      mid  gehrothruni  crfter  tha    U'e    sungon    be 
cantaui  nocturnam  cum    fratribus;       deinde      cantauimus  de 

ea/him    haigum  and  dccgredlice   lofsanges  ce/ter  thysufn    pritn 
omnibus  Sanctis    et    matutinales  laudes ;    post    haec,   primam, 

and  seofon    seohnas   mid  letanian  atid   capitol   jmcssan  syththan 
et      vii.     psalmos,  cum  letaniis,    et    [)rimani  missam ;   deinde 

underlide  and    dydon     miessa    be  dcege  ce/ter  Ihisinn  we  siingan 
tertiam,     et    fecimus  missam  dc  die;  post     haec  cantauimus 

middceg  and  ceton  and  druncon  and        sbpon         and 

sextam,    et   manducauimus  et    bibimus,    et     dormiuimus,     et 

e/t       tve    arisDii   and      sungon  noti       and     ?ni     7i'f  sv?id 

iterum  surreximus,    et    cantauimus  nonam,    et    modo   sumus 

her  w.t/oran  the gearwive gehxran  hivcet  thn  ns     secge 
hie   coram    te,     parati     audire    ([uiii    nobis  dixeris. 

hii'ien/ie  loylh'  ge  syngan       .efen     oththe       nihtsangc 
M.     (^)uando    uultis    eantare  uesperum  aut  complctorium? 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  45 

follow  so  that  we  may  understand  what  you  are  talking  about. 

M.     Well,  I  ask  you  why  you  are  learning  so  diligently  ? 

B.  Because  we  do  not  want  to  be  like  beasts,  who  know 
nothing  but  grass  and  water. 

[The  master  then  goes  off  into  a  disquisition  whether  they 
want  to  be  worldly  wise,  full  of  craft,  or  otherwise.  They  com- 
plain again  that  he  is  too  deep  for  them.] 

But  talk  to  us  so  that  we  can  understand,  not  so  profoundly. 

M.  Well,  I  will  do  what  you  ask.  You,  boy,  what  did  you 
do  to-day  ? 

B.  I  did  many  things.  At  night  when  I  heard  the  bell,  I 
got  out  of  bed  and  went  to  church  and  sang  the  nocturne  with 
the  brethren.  Then  we  sang  the  martyrology  and  lauds ;  after 
that,  prime  and  the  seven  psalms  with  litanies  and  first  mass;  next 
tierce,  and  did  the  mass  of  the  day ;  after  that  we  sang  sext, 
and  ate  and  drank  and  slept ;  and  then  we  got  up  again  and 
sang  nones,  and  now  here  we  are  before  you  ready  to  listen  to 
what  you  tell  us. 

M.     When  will  you  sing  vespers  or  compline  ? 

46  Aelfrics  Colloquy 

thonne  hyt  tima  byth 
D.     Quando  tempus    erit. 

wctre  t/iu  todceg  beswuncgen 
M.     Fuisti     hodie      uerberatus? 

ic   nces  fortham  ^cucr/ice  ic  me  heold 
D.     Non  fui,     quia      caute     me  tenui. 

and         /lit         thine  ge/eran. 
M.      Et    quoniodo     tui     socii  ? 

Invcet  me      ahsast     be  tham     ic  nc  deor    yppan     the 
D.      Quid  me  interrogas  de  hoc?    Non  audeo  pandere  tibi 

digla       ure        anra    gehwylc    ivat  gi/   fie    besivuncgen    tvces 
secreta  nostra.       Unusquisque     scit      si  flagellatus         erat 

oththe    Tia 
an     non. 

hwcer    slccpst 
M.       Ubi   dormis  ? 

071     shepern      mid  gebrothrum 
D.     In  dormitorio  cum   fratribus. 

hwa   aivecth  the  to  uhtsancge 
M.     Quis  excitat   te  ad  nocturnos  ? 

htviion      ic  gehyre     cnyll      and  ic  erise       hwilon 
D.     Aliquando      audio      signum,     et      surgo;    aliquando 
lareow     mi?!    awecth  7nc  stithlice  mid  gyrde 
magister  meus  excitat  me  duriter  cum  uirga. 

eala  ge  \gode'\  cildra  and  wynsume  leorneras  eotv  manath 
M.     O      probi     pueri,  et     uenusti    mathites,  uos  hortatur 
eoiver     hreoiv     tha-t  gc  hyrsmnian  godcundiim      larum      a?id 
uester  eruditor     ut  pareatis  diuinis      disciplinis    et 

thcct  ,i^e  healdan  eoiv  sylfc     icnlice     on    celcere  stowc  gath 

obseruetis       uosmet  eleganter  ubique  locoruiii.       Inceditis 

theaivlice      thonne     ge        gcliyran       cyriccan         heUan       and 
morigerate,      cum       auscultaueritis       ecclesie     campanas     et 

gath        into      cvnran      and  abugalh     eadmod/ice  to  halgiim 
ingredimini   in    orationem,     et    inclinate  suppliciter  ad  almus 

wefodum  and  standath        theaivlice        and   singad      anniod/icc 
aras,       et       state      disci[)linabiliter  ct   concinite  uiianiniitcr 

Aelfrics  Colloquy  47 

B.  When  it's  time, 

M.  Were  you  flogged  to-day  ? 

B.  I  was  not,  because  I  was  very  careful. 

M.  And  how  about  the  others  ? 

B.  Why  do  you  ask  me  that?     I  daren't  tell  you  our 

secrets.  Each  one  knows  whether  he  was  flogged  or  not. 

M.     Where  do  you  sleep  ? 

B.     In  the  dormitory  with  the  brethren. 

M.     Who  calls  you  to  nocturnes  ? 

B.     Sometimes  I  hear  the  bell,  and  get  up ;  sometimes  my 
master  wakes  me  with  a  ground-ash. 

M.  All  you  good  children  and  clever  scholars,  your  teacher 
exhorts  you  to  keep  the  commandments  of  God,  and  behave 
properly  everywhere.  Walk  quietly  when  you  hear  the  church 
bells  and  go  into  church,  and  bow  to  the  holy  altars,  and  stand 
quietly  and  sing  in  unison,  and  ask  pardon  for  your  sins,  and 
go  out  again  without  playing,  to  the  cloister  or  to  school. 

48  Aelfrics  Grammar 

and    ^ehiddath   for  eowrum     synnum    and      gath    ut     butan 
et    interuenite  pro    uestris    erratibus,    et      cgredimini    sine 

hygeleaste  to    daustre    oththe  to    leorningc 
scirilitatc  in  claustrum    uel    in  gimnasium. 

The  first  English-Latin   Grammar. 

[Aelfric's   Grammar  and  Glossary,  cd.  Julius  /upitza,  Berlin,   1880,  p.   i.] 

Incipit  Praefatio  huius  libri. 

Ego  Aelfricus,  ut  minus  sapiens,  has  excerptiones  de 
Prisciano  niinore  uel  majore  uobis  puerulis  tenellis  ad  uestram 
linguam  transferre  studui,  quatinus  perlectis  octo  partibus 
Donati  in  isto  libello,  potestis  utramque  linguam,  uidelicet 
latinam  et  anglicam,  uestrae  teneritudini  inserere  interim, 
usque  quo  ad  perfectiora  perueniatis  studia.  Noui  namcjue 
multos  me  reprehensuros,  quod  talibus  studiis  meum  ingenium 
occupare  uoluissem,  scilicet  grammaticam  artem  ad  anglicam 
linguam  uertendo.  Sed  ego  deputo  banc  lectionem  inscientibus 
puerulis,  non  senibus,  optandam  fore.  Scio  multimodis  uerba 
posse  interpretari,  sed  ego  simplicem  interpretationem  sequor 
fastidii  uitandi  causa.  Si  alicui  tamen  displicuerit,  nostram 
interpretationem  dicat,  quomodo  uult :  nos  contenti  sumus, 
sicut  didicimus  in  scola  Adelwoldi,  uenerabilis  praesulis,  qui 
multos  ad  bonum  imbuit.  Sciendum  tamen,  quod  ars  gram- 
matica  multis  in  locis  non  facile  anglicae  linguae  capit 
interpretationem,  sicut  de  pedibus  uel  metris,  de  quibus  hie 
reticemus  ;  sed  aestimamus  ad  inchoationem  tamen  banc  in- 
terpretationem paruulis  prodesse  posse,  sicut  iam  diximus. 
Miror  ualde,  quare  multi  corripiunt  sillabas  in  prosa,  quae  in 
metro  breues  sunt,  cum  prosa  absoluta  sit  a  lege  metri ;  sicut 
pronuntiant  pater  brittonice  et  malus  et  similia,  quae  in  metro 
habentur  breues.  Mihi  tamen  uidetur  melius  inuocare  deum 
patrem  honorifice  producta  sillaba,  (juam  brittonice  corripere, 
quia  ncc  deus  arti  grammaticac  subiciendus  est.  Valetc,  o 
pueruli,   in  domino. 

Aelfrics   Grammar  49 

The  first  English- Latin  Grammar. 

Here  begins  the  Preface  of  this  book. 

I  Aelfric,  as  not  being  very  learned,  have  taken  pains  to 
translate  these  extracts  from  the  larger  and  smaller  Priscian  for 
you  tender  children  into  your  own  language,  so  that  when  you 
have  gone  through  Donatus  on  the  Parts  of  Speech,  you  may 
be  able  to  instil  both  languages,  Latin  and  English,  into  your 
youthful  minds,  by  this  little  book,  until  you  reach  more 
advanced  studies.  I  am  aware  that  many  will  blame  me, 
for  being  willing  to  devote  my  mind  to  such  a  pursuit  as  to 
turn  '  The  Art  of  Grammar '  into  English.  But  I  destine  this 
lesson-book  for  little  boys  who  know  nothing,  not  for  their 
elders.  I  know  that  words  can  be  construed  in  many  different 
ways,  but  to  avoid  raising  difficulties  I  follow  the  simplest 
meaning.  If  anyone  is  offended  at  it  he  can  call  it  my  con- 
struction, if  he  pleases.  I  am  content  to  do  it,  as  I  learnt  it  in 
the  school  of  the  venerable  prelate  Ethelwold,  who  taught  many 
the  elements  to  good  purpose.  It  must  be  remembered  how- 
ever that  in  many  places  '  The  Art  of  Grammar '  cannot  easily 
be  turned  into  English,  as  in  the  part  about  metres  and  feet, 
of  which  I  say  nothing  here.  But  I  think  that  for  a  beginning 
this  translation  may  help  little  boys,  as  I  have  already  said.  I  often 
wonder  indeed  why  many  people  pronounce  syllables  short  in 
prose  which  are  short  in  verse,  seeing  that  prose  is  not  governed 
by  the  laws  of  metre.  Thus  they  pronounce  pater  patter  like 
the  Britons,  and  malus  mallus  and  the  like.  But  in  my  opinion 
it  is  better  to  invoke  God  the  Father  '  Deus  pater/  giving  Him 
honour  by  making  the  syllable  long  than  by  making  it  short 
like  the  Britons,  for  God  ought  not  to  be  subject  to  the  rules  of 
grammar.     Farewell,  little  boys,  in  the  Lord. 

50  Aelfrics  Grammar 

Praefatio  de  partibus  Orationis. 
p.  8.  Partes  orationis  sunt  octo  cahta  daelas  synd  leden- 
spraece :  Nomcn,  pronomen,  vcrbum,  adverbium,  participium, 
coniunctio,  praepositio,  interiectio.  Nomen  is  nama,  mid  tham 
we  nemnath  ealle  thing  aegther  ge  synderlice  ge  gemaenelice. 
Synderlice  be  agenum  naman  :  Eadgarus,  Athelwoldus  ;  gemaene- 
lice :  rex  cyning,  episcopus  bisceop.  Pronomen  is  thaes  naman 
speliend,  se  spelath  thone  naman,  thaet  thu  ne  thurfe  tuwa  hine 
nemnan,  gif  thu  cwest  nu  :  hwa  laerde  the?  thonne  cwethe  ic  : 
Dunstan  ;  hwa  hadode  the?  he  .ne  hadode  :  thonne  stent  se  he 
on  his  naman  stcde  and  spelath  hine.  Eft,  gif  thu  axast :  quis 
hoc  fecit  ?  hwa  dyde  this  ?  thonne  cwest  thu  :  ego  hoc  feci  ic 
dyde  this. 

p.  151.  Gerundia  vel  participalia  verba  sunt  haec :  docendi, 
docendo,  docendum,  doctum,  doctu.  'I'empus  est  docendi  tima 
hyt  ys  to  taecenne.  Docendo  loquor,  taecende  ic  sprece. 
Docendum  est  mihi,  me  ys  to  taecenne.  Habes  pueros  ad 
docendum,  haefst  thu  cild  to  laerenne.  Uis  doctum  ire,  wylt  thu 
gan  taecan  ?  Doctu  veni,  fram  lare  ic  com.  TIuis  word  magon  to 
eallum  hadum  and  to  eallum  tidum  and  to  aegthrum  getele  and 
to  aelcum  cynne.  Multum  ipse  laborat  docendo  pueros  ;  swithe 
he  swincth  taecende  tham  cildum.  Ipsa  monialis  vigilat  docendo 
puellas,  seo  mynecene  wacath  taecende  tham  maedencildum. 
Legendo  docetur  vir  et  legendo  docetur  mulier. 

Aelfrics  Grammar  51 

Preface  to  the  Parts  of  Speech, 
p.  8.  The  parts  of  speech  are  eight.  There  are  eight  parts 
of  speech  in  Latin  :  Noun,  pronoun,  verb,  adverb,  participle, 
conjunction,  preposition,  interjection.  The  noun  is  a  name, 
with  it  we  name  everything  either  by  a  proper  name  or  a 
common  name.  These  are  proper  names,  Edgar,  Ethelwold : 
common  names,  king,  bishop.  A  pronoun  is  the  substitute 
for  a  noun.  It  represents  the  name  so  that  you  need  not 
name  it  twice.  If  you  ask  Who  taught  you?  Then  I  say, 
Dunstan.  Who  ordained  you  ?  He  ordained  me.  Then  the 
'  he '  stands  in  the  place  of  his  name  and  represents  him. 
Again,  if  you  ask,  Who  did  this  ?  Then  you  answer,  I  did 

p.  151.  These  are  gerunds  or  participial  words  :  of  teaching, 
by  teaching,  to  be  taught,  to  teach,  in  teaching.  It  is  time  to 
teach.  1  speak  while  teaching.  I  have  to  teach.  You  have 
boys  to  teach.  Will  you  go  and  teach  ?  I  come  from  teaching. 
These  words  may  apply  to  all  persons  and  to  all  times,  and  to 
both  numbers  and  to  each  sex.  He  works  hard  at  teaching 
boys.  The  nun  is  awake  teaching  little  girls.  A  man  is 
taught  by  reading  and  a  woman  is  taught  by  reading. 

52  Schools,  Exhibitions  and  Scholar's 

King  Canute  founds  Public  Schools  and  gives 
Exhibitions  to  Poor  Boys.     c.   1020. 

\Meiii.  of  Bury  St  Edmunds  (Rolls  Series),  hy   Herman,    1.   46-7. 
From  Cott.  Tib.    H.  11.   f.  25.] 

Quo  tempore  hereditarius  Sweyn,  Chnut  dictus  nomine... 
invi.sens  Sanctum  Edmundum...actu  rcgali  xeniavit  locum 
donis. ...Ncc  pretereundum  silentio  hie  rex  bonu.s  quid  ele- 
mosine  fecerit  modo,  videlicet,  sicubi  monasteria  vel  castella 
nominata  petiit,  clericali  et  monastico  ordini  ex  .suo  sumptu 
pueros  docendos  tradidit,  non  quo.s  invenerat  de  libertinis, 
verum  ex  elegantioribus  de  paupertini.s,  quosdam  etiam  sic 
incedens  regio  more  liberos  dabat  propria  manu. 

\Ib.    \^f>,  by  Samson,  afterwards  ahliot.] 

Hie  [Canutus]  ergo  tarn  pius,  tarn  benignus,  tam  religionis 
amator  fuisse  memoratur,  ut  per  urbes  et  oppida,  publicas 
instituens  scolas,  magi.stris  deputatis  elegantes  boneque  spei 
pueros,  necnon  servorum  filios  manumissos,  litteris  traderet 
imbuendos,  de  ratione  fiscali  sumptibus  constitutis. 

The  Rank  of  a  Scholar,     c.    1029-60. 

[F.    Liebermann,   Did  Gesdzc  dcr  Aiii:;i'lsach.^t'.i!,  from   .MS.  C.C.C.C   201, 
.■\.i).    1050-80.] 

Be  wergilduni  and  be  gctliingthuni. 

Hwilum  wres  [in  Engla  lagum]  tha?t  leod  and  lagu  for  be 
gethingthum  and  tha  wa^ron  theodvvitan  wurthscipes  wurthe, 
ailc  be  liis  nKvHhe,  ge  eorl  ge  ceorl,  ge  thegen  ge  theoden. 

under  Canute  53 

King  Canute  founds  Public  Schools  and  gives 
Exhibitions  to  Poor  Boys.     c.  1020. 

At    which    time    Sweyn's    heir,    called     Canute. ..visiting 

St  Edmund... with  kingly  act  endowed  the  place  with  gifts 

Nor  must  we  pass  over  in  silence  what  this  good  king  did  by 
way  of  charity,  namely,  whenever  he  went  to  any  famous 
monastery  or  borough  he  sent  there  at  his  own  expense  boys 
to  be  taught  for  the  clerical  or  monastic  order,  not  only  those 
whom  he  found  among  freemen  but  also  the  cleverer  of  the 
poor,  and  with  his  own  hand  in  kingly  munificence  he  also  in 
his  progress  gave  some  freemen's  children. 

Canute  then  is  related  to  have  been  so  pious,  so  charitable, 
so  great  a  lover  of  religion  that  he  established  public  schools  in 
the  cities  and  boroughs  and  appointed  masters  to  them,  and 
sent  to  them  to  be  taught  grammar  not  only  noble  boys  of 
good  promise,  but  also  the  freed  sons  of  slaves,  charging  the 
expense  on  the  royal  purse. 

The  Rank  of  a  Scholar,     c.   1029-60. 

Of  wergilds  and  ranks. 

It  was  once  among  the  laws  of  the  English  that  people  and 
their  laws  went  according  to  their  ranks,  and  then  were  the 
wise  men  of  the  nation  honoured  each  according  to  his  quality, 
earl  and  churl,  servant  and  master. 

54  Waltham  School  under  Harold 

[Quadripartitus,  AAt.    1114.J 

De  veteri  consuetudine  promotionum. 

Aliquando  fuit  in  Anglorum  laga,  quod  populus  et  leges 
consilio  regebantur ;  et  tunc  orant  sapientes  populi  magni  prorsus 
nominis  et  pretii,  comes  et  villanus,  tainus  et  alii,  singuli  pro 
modo  suo. 

[7]  And  gif  leornere  wcere  the  thurh  lare  gethuge,  thaet  he 
had  hrefde  and  thenode  Criste,  wnere  se  siththan  msethe  and 
munde  swa  micelre  wyrthe,  swa  thonne  thani  hade  gebirede 
and  rihte,  gif  he  hine  heolde  swa  swa  he  scolde. 

Et  si  scolaris  profecisset  in  doctrina  cur  ad  sacros  ordines 
pertransiret  et  Christo  domino  ministraret,  erat  denique  digni- 
tatis et  pacis  dignus  quanta  pertinebat  super  illud,  nisi  foris 
faceret  cur  ipsius  ordinis  officio  non  uteretur. 

Waltham  Holy  Cross  College  School,  1060- 
1177.  The  Foundatioji  by  Earl  Harold, 
3  May,    1060. 

yfractatiis  de  inventioue  Saute  Crticis,  ed.  W.  Stul)])s,  i86r,  from  Cotton 
MS.  Julius  I).  6  (r.  n8o)  and  Harl.  3776.J 

p.  15.  Duobus  igitur  predictis  clericis  quos  instituerat  Toui 
le  prude  in  ecclesia  Walthamensi  uir  ille  strenuus  comes  Haraldus 
xj  sociauit  alios  uiros  prudentes,  literatos,  selectos  a  communibus, 
inter  precipuos  terre  diligenter  exquisitos  ;  inter  quos  Theu- 
tonicum  quendam  diuino  munere  et  inexperato  sibi  collatum, 
Magistrum  Athelarduni,  Leodicensem  genere,  Trajectensem 
studii  disciplina,  (juatenus  leges  instituta  et  consuetudines,  tarn 
in  ecclesiasticis  ([uam  in  secularibus  ecclesiarum  in  (juibus 
educatus  fuerat,  in  ecclesia  Walthamensi  constituerct,  ([uum 
multorum  relatione  didicerat  ordinatissima  distinctione  regi 
Theutonicorum  ecclesias  ;  ut,  si  c}uid  dignum  ultione  uel  cor- 
reptione  inter  clericos  oriretur  a  Decano  ecclesie  siue  ah  ipso 
Magistro  Athelardo,  excessus  acri  uerbo,  enormitates  flagello, 
immania  etiam  peccata  ipsius  prebende  priuatione,  multarentur. 
Quod   et   predecessorum   nostrorum   temporibus   inoleuisse   et 

Waltham  School  under  Harold  55 

Of  the  ancient  custom  of  precedence. 

It  was  an  ancient  law  of  the  EngHsh  that  the  people  and 
customs  were  held  in  honour,  and  by  the  Witan  was  given  to 
each  according  to  his  measure,  to  count  and  villein,  thane  and 
others,  each  according  to  his  measure. 

[7]  And  if  a  scholar  became  so  proficient  in  learning  that 
he  had  been  ordained  and  served  Christ,  he  was  then  thought 
worthy  of  such  honour  and  peace  as  belonged  and  appertained 
to  his  order,  if  he  behaved  as  he  should. 

And  if  a  scholar  had  become  proficient  in  learning  and  so 
had  attained  holy  orders  and  ministered  to  Christ  the  lord,  he 
was  then  worthy  of  such  dignity  and  peace  as  belonged  thereto, 
unless  he  forfeited  the  use  of  the  duties  of  his  order. 

Waltham  Holy  Cross  College  School,  1060- 
II 77.  The  Foundation  by  Earl  Harold, 
3  May.    1060. 

p.  1 5.  With  the  two  clerks  therefore  whom  Tovi  the  proud 
had  instituted  in  the  church  of  Waltham  that  great  man  Earl 
Harold  associated  1 1  others,  wise,  learned,  selected  from  the 
commons  or  carefully  chosen  from  the  highest  in  the  land. 
Among  them  was  a  certain  Dutchman  who  came  to  him  by  a 
divine  and  unexpected  gift.  Master  Athelard,  born  at  Liege, 
brought  up  in  the  school  of  Utrecht,  that  he  might  establish 
in  Waltham  church  the  laws,  statutes  and  customs,  both  in 
ecclesiastical  and  in  secular  matters,  of  the  churches  in  which 
he  had  been  educated,  since  he  [Harold]  had  heard  from  many 
people  that  the  Dutch  churches  were  governed  by  most  care- 
fully devised  rules.  So  if  anything  needing  punishment  or 
rebuke  arose  among  the  clerks  it  was  punished  by  the  Dean  or 
Master  Athelard  himself,  mere  excess  by  a  sharp  word,  breaches 
of  order  by  the  birch,  and  serious  offences  even  by  deprivation 
of  the  prebend.     There  is  no  doubt  that  what  had  been  prac 

56  Waltham  School  under  Harold 

usque  ad  tcmpora  pueritie  nostra  perdurasse  non  ambigimus. 
His  autem  xii  clericis  perhibetur  comes  ille  Wlwinum  Decanum 
prefecisse,  uirum  religiosum,  moribus  illustrem,  doctrina  literali 
uenustum,  special!  castitatis  prerogatiua  fulgentem,  (jui  cum 
Magistro  Athelardo  ecclesie  statum  ita  distinctum  ordinauerunt. 
Unicuique  assignata  est  portio  sua  in  prebendam,  ut,  deductis 
expcnsis  que  fratrum  uictualibus  exhibere  debebant,  quod  resi- 
duum erat  in  proprios  usus,  loco  prebende  cederet 

Uiso  autem  hoc  infausto  auspicio  multo  dolore  correpti 
duos  fratres  de  ecclesia  precipuos  et  maiores  natu  Osegodum 
Cnoppe  et  Ailricum  childemaister  in  comitatu  Regis  miserunt 
ad  prelium  ut  cognitis  rei  euentibus  de  corpore  regis  et  suoruni 
ecclesie  deuotorum  curam  agerent,  et  si  fortuna  sic  darent 
cadauera  reportarent. 

p.  35,  c.  25.  Quam  ordinate  se  habebant  canonici  in 
prim  is. 

Puer  ego  quinque  annorum  uidi  usque  ad  presentia  tempora 
multa,  canonicus  constitutus  in  ecclesia  S.  Crucis  a  bone 
memorie  Ernulpho,  Decano,  assensu  et  donatione  uenerabilis 
Domine  Adalize  Regine,  cuius  tunc  donationis  erant  pre- 
bende, et  ad  prima  litterarum  rudimenta  traditus  Magistro 
Petro,  filio  Magistri  Athelardi,  institutoris  et  ordinatoris  pre- 
sentis  ecclesie.  Fons  enini  uberrima  discipulis  doctrine  tunc 
scaturiebat  ab  ipso  Petro,  secundum  modum  Teutonicorum, 
non  cnim  obstantibus  lectionibus  uel  litteris  et  uersibus  com- 
ponendis  minus  addiscebatur  et  frequentabatur  in  ecclesia 
cantus.  Et  ordinatissima  distinctio  puerilis  habitudinis  ita  ut, 
more  religiosorum  fratrum,  honeste  et  non  sine  grauitate  in- 
cedercnt,  starent,  legerent  et  cantarent,  ct  (juicquid  ad  gradum 
chori  ucl  in  ipso  choro  cantarc  oportebat,  corde  tcnus,  unus  uel 
duo  uel  plurts,  abs(}uc  libri  solatio  cantarent  et  psallarent.  In 
choro  constituti  non  respiciebat  puer  alterum,  nisi  forte  ex 
oblicjuo  tamen  ruro,  nee  faceret  ei  uerbum  uiium  :  non 
discurrebant  per  chorum  nisi  cjuibus  fuisset  iniunctum  a 
magistro,    pro    coi)pis    aut    pro    libris    transferendis    uel    aliis 

Walt  ham  School,  ^.1144  57 

tised  under  my  predecessors  lasted  to  the  time  when  I  was  a 
boy.  Over  these  12  clerks  the  Earl  is  said  to  have  set  Wulwin 
as  Dean,  a  religious  man,  illustrious  for  his  character,  well  known 
for  his  literary  learning,  and  conspicuous  for  the  special  preroga- 
tive of  chastity,  and  he  and  Master  Athelard  established  the 
constitution  of  the  church. 

Each  was  assigned  his  portion  as  a  prebend,  so  that  after 
deducting  the  expenses  due  for  the  maintenance  of  the  brethren 
in  living,  the  residue  went  to  their  own  use  by  way  of  a  prebend. 

Deeply  grieved  at  this  inauspicious  omen  they  sent  the  two 
principal  and  senior  brethren  of  the  church,  Osgood  Cnoppe 
and  Ailric  the  master  of  the  boys,  with  the  King  [Harold]  to 
the  battle,  to  learn  the  result  and  look  after  the  person  of  the 
king  and  of  those  devoted  to  the  church,  and  if  fate  so  decreed 
to  bring  back  their  bodies. 

p.  35,  c.  25.      How  orderly  the  canons  behaved  at  first. 

I  from  a  boy  of  five  years  old  to  the  present  time  have  seen 
many  things,  being  made  a  canon  in  the  Holy  Cross  Church 
by  Dean  Ernulf  of  good  memory,  with  the  assent  and  on  the 
presentation  of  the  lady  Adaliza  the  Queen,  in  whose  gift  the 
prebends  were,  and  for  the  first  rudiments  of  learning  sent  to 
Master  Peter,  son  of  Master  Athelard,  the  organizer  and  founder 
of  the  present  church.  A  most  copious  spring  of  learning  and 
instruction  flowed  from  that  Peter,  after  the  Dutch  fashion,  for 
besides  reading  and  the  composition  of  letters  and  verses,  singing 
was  no  less  learnt  and  practised  in  the  church ;  and  a  well  ordered 
difference  from  the  usual  habit  of  boys  was  that  they  walked, 
stood,  read  and  chanted,  like  brethren  in  religion,  and  whatever 
had  to  be  sung  at  the  steps  of  the  choir  or  in  the  choir  itself  they 
sang  and  chanted  by  heart,  one  or  two  or  more  together, 
without  the  help  of  a  book.  One  boy  never  looked  at  another, 
when  they  were  in  their  places  in  choir,  except  sideways  and 
that  very  seldom,  and  they  never  spoke  a  word  to  one  another  ; 
they  never  walked  about  the  choir  to  carry  copes  or  books  or 
for  any  other  reason,  unless  sent  on  an  errand  by  the  master, 

58  Warwick  School  in  the 

quibuslibet  causis,  manentes  in  choro.  Sicut  processione 
procedentes  a  scola  intrant  chorum,  sic  exeuntes  intrant  scolas, 
ad  modum  canonicorum  de  nocte  surgentium. 

p.  10,  c.  II.  Sanguinem  hunc  de  silice  elicitum...nos 
uidere  et  in  capsa  argentea  repositum,  miseratione  diuina 
moruimus,  quos  a  teneris  annis  educauit  ecclesia  VValthamiensis 
53  annis,  et  in  gremio  suo  literalibus  instruxit  disriplinis.  Me 
miserum  !  quod  datum  est  uidere  in  hac  uita  quod  separer  ab 
uberil)us  uite  mee. 

Cojifirfuaiion  by  Henry  I  of  Warwick  School  as  it 
ivas  in  the  Days  of  Edivard  the  Confessor. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  History  of  IVanuick  School  and  Collet^e,  5,  from  ("liartul. 
St  Mary's,  Warwick,  ().  N.  Ercl.  Misc.  Bks.  i?.] 

Confirmacio  Heiirici  Regis  de  consuetudinibus  et  iudicio 
ferri  et  aque  et  scolis  \Varr[\vici]. 

H.  Rex  Angl[orum],  T.  episcopo  Wigornie  et  R.  episcopo 
de  Cestra,  et  comiti  Rogero  et  Galfrido  de  Clinton  et  Omnibus 
Baronibus  de  Warwicscira,  salutem. 

Preci[pi]o  quod  ecclesia  Omnium  Sanctorum  de  Warrewic 
habeat  omnes  consuetudines  suas  et  iudicia  ferri  et  aque  ita 
bene  et  iuste  sicut  solebat  habere  tempore  Edwardi  regis  et 
patris  et  fratris  mei,  et  scolas  similiter  habeat. 

Teste,  Episcopo  Lincoln,  apud  Wudestocam. 

Grant  of  Dnnwich  School  to  the  Priory  of  Eye. 
Betiveen  1076  a)id  1083. 

[.\.  F.  I.c.ich,   r.  C.  //.  Suffolk,  II.  .^o.v     Dngd.  Mon.  in.  405  from 
Keg.  Eye,  then  in  possession  of  Thomas  Deyc.J 

Carta  Roberti  Malet  Fundatoris  Ecclesiae  Conventualis 
de  Eya. 

...Ego  Robertus  Malet  assensu  domini  mei  Willielmi  regis 
Angliae  pro  anima  ipsius  et  uxoris  ejus  Matildis  reginae,  pro 

Days  of  Edward  the  Confessor  59 

remaining  in  the  choir.  As  if  walking  in  procession  from 
school  they  go  to  choir,  and  on  leaving  the  choir  go  to  school, 
like  canons  getting  up  in  the  night  [for  service]. 

p.  10,  c.  1 1.  This  blood  struck  from  the  flint. ..and  placed 
in  a  silver  shrine,  I  by  the  mercy  of  God  gained  a  sight  of,  for 
I  was  brought  up  from  tender  years  in  VValtham  church  for  53 
years,  and  in  its  bosom  instructed  in  grammar  learning.  Un- 
happy me  !  to  whom  it  has  happened  to  see  myself  in  this  life 
torn  from  the  breasts  which  gave  me  life. 

Confirmation  by  Henry  I  of  Warwick  School  as  it 
was  in  the  Days  of  Edivard  the  Confessor. 

King  Henry's  confirmation  of  the  customs  and  ordeal  of 
iron  and  water  and  the  school  of  Warwick. 

Henry,  King  of  the  English,  to  T.,  Bishop  of  Worcester, 
and  R.,  Bishop  of  Chester,  and  Earl  Roger  and  Geoffrey  of 
Clinton  and  all  the  barons  of  Warwickshire,  greeting. 

I  command  that  the  Church  of  All  Saints,  Warwick,  have 
all  its  customs  and  the  ordeals  of  iron  and  water,  as  well  and 
lawfully  as  they  used  to  ha\e  them  in  the  time  of  King  Edward, 
and  of  my  father  and  brother,  and  have  the  School  in  like 

Witness  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln  at  Woodstock. 

Grant  of  Dicnzuich  School  to  the  Priory  of  Eye. 
Between  1076  and  1083. 

('barter  of  Robert  Malet,  founder  of  the  conventual 
church  of  Eye. 

...I,  Robert  Malet,  with  the  assent  of  my  lord  William,  King 
of  the  English,  for  his  soul  and  that  of  his  wife  queen  Matilda, 

6o  Dtinivich  School  granted 

memetipso,  et  pro  animabus  patris  niei  Willielmi  Malet  et 
matris  meae  Hesiliae,  et  pro  animabus  omnium  antecessorum 
et  parentum  mcorum,  ad  usus  monachoruni  apud  Eyam  monas- 
terium  construe,  et  monachorum  conventum  in  eo  pono. 

At  ut  ipsi  Deo  libere  ct  quiete  servire  possint  eidem 
monasterio,  de  meis  propriis  terris,  ecclesiis,  et  dccimis,  ad 
eorum  sustentamentum  confero,  praesentis  scripti  attestatione 
confirmo.  Imprimis  ecclesiam  Eye,  quae  in  honore  Sancti 
Petri  fundata  est,  concedo  cum  omnibus  terris  et  decimis 
eidem  pertinentibus.... 

Do  eis  etiam  decimam  fori  Eye  et  omnes  ecclesias  de 
Donevico  quae  factae  sunt  et  faciundae  ;  necnon  et  decimam 
totius  villae,  tarn  in  denariis  ([uam  in  allecibus,  et  unam 
feriam...Scholas  etiam  ejusdem  villae — 

The  Oblates  and  Novices  School  at   Canterbury, 
c.    1075. 

(Wilkiiis,    Concilia,    I.   ,^,    55  seq.] 

Constitutiones  Lanfranci. 

Offerendus  puer,  facta  sibi  prius  corona,  manibus  portans 
hostiam,  et  calicem  cum  vino,  sicut  mos  est,  post  evangelium 
sacerdoti,  (jui  missam  celebrat,  a  parenti'ous  offeratur.  Qua 
oblatione  a  sacerdote  suscepta,  involvant  praedicti  parentes 
manus  pueri  in  palla,  qua  altare  coopertum  est,  et  cujus  pars 
anterius  pcndet,  et  tunc  suscipiat  cum  abbas :  quo  facto, 
praefati  parentes... statim  promittant  quod...susceptum  ordinem 
puer  nunquam  relinquat — Hanc  promissionem  prius  scriptam 
coram  testibus  verbis  ibi  prius  edicant,  ct  postea  super  altare 

to  the  Priory  of  Eye  6i 

for  myself,  and  for  the  souls  of  my  father  William  Malet  and  my 
mother  Hesilia,  and  for  the  souls  of  all  my  predecessors  and 
relations,  construct  a  monastery  for  the  use  of  monks  at  Eye 
and  place  a  convent  of  monks  in  it. 

And  that  they  may  freely  and  quietly  serve  God,  I 
confer  on  the  same  monastery  and  by  the  witness  of  this 
present  writing  confirm  for  their  maintenance  out  of  my  own 
lands,  churches  and  tithes  ;  first  I  grant  the  church  of  Eye 
which  is  founded  in  honour  of  St  Peter  with  all  lands  and 
tithes  to  the  same  belonging.... 

I  give  them  also  the  tithe  of  the  market  of  Eye  and  all  the 
churches  of  Dunwich  built  or  to  be  built,  also  the  tithe  of  the 
whole  town,  both  in  money  and  herrings  and  a  fair.... The  school 
also  of  the  same  town 

The   Oblates  mid  Novices  School  at   Canterbury. 

c.    1075. 

Lanfranc's  Constitutions. 

When  a  boy  is  to  be  offered  [i.e.  made  an  oblate],  let  a 
round  tonsure  be  made  on  his  head,  and  carrying  the  host  in 
his  hands  and  the  cup  with  the  wine,  as  the  custom  is,  let 
him  be  offered  by  his  parents  after  the  Gospel  to  the  priest  who 
celebrates  mass.  When  the  priest  has  accepted  the  offering,  the 
aforesaid  parents  should  wrap  the  boy's  hands  in  the  pall  with 
which  the  altar  is  covered  and  part  of  which  hangs  down  in 
front,  and  then  the  abbot  should  receive  him.  After  which  the 
said  parents... should  immediately  promise  that. ..the  boy  will 
never  leave  the  order  he  has  accepted. ...This  promise  they 
should  make  beforehand  in  writing  in  the  presence  of  witnesses 
and  afterwards  place  it  on  the  altar. 

62  The  Monastic  School 

[Continuation  of  Lanfranc's  Constitutions,  from  page  60.] 

Tali  hora  prior  mane  ad  excitandos  fratres  sonitum  debet 
facere,  ut  pueri,  factis  solutis  orationibus,  in  claustro  valeant 
legere.  Qui  cum  legere  inchoant,  alte  quamdiu  legant,  separati 
abinviccm  ita  sedeant,  ut  alter  alterum  nee  manibus,  nee 
vestibus  contingere  possit.  Infans  infanti  non  signo  innuere, 
non  verbo  aliquid  dicere,  nisi  vidente  atque  audiente  magistro, 
praesumat  ;  non  dc  loco,  in  quo  sedet,  sine  praecepto  vel  licentia 
surgat.  Quocunque  pergunt  infantes,  unus  magister  inter  duos 
infantes  sit.  Transeuntes  ante  fratres  inclinent  fratribus,  et 
fratres  eis  sedentes  tantum.  Duobus  una  laterna  sufficiat ;  si  tres 
fuerint,  tertius  alteram  portet ;  si  plures  fuerint,  hoc  ordine 
disponantur.  In  nullius  manuni  aliquid  dent;  de  nullius  manu 
aliquid  accipiant,  nisi  abbatis,  prioris  majoris,  magistri  eorum, 
et  hoc  non  ubic^ue,  sed  in  congruis  locis,  ubi  aliter  esse  non 
possit,  aut  non  debeant.  Cantor  quoque,  cum  in  scholis  eorum 
est,  potest  librum,  in  quo  caiitari,  aut  legi  debet,  dare  eis, 
et  accipere  ab'eis.  Ad  altare  si  serviunt,  dant  etiam  ibi  et 
accipiunt,  sicut  ordines  eorum  exposcunt.  In  capitulo  suo 
vapulent,  sicut  majores  in  majori  capitulo.  Confessuri  ad 
abbatem,  vel  ad  priorem  vadant,  vel  ad  cos,  quos  specialiter 
in  capitulo  designaverit  abbas.  Durn  confitetur  unus,  sedeat 
alter  in  suppedaneo,  magistro  eorum  extra  capitulum  sedente  in 
proximo.  Si  post  versum,  (\\\\  ante  cibum  dicitur,  ingrediuntur 
refectorium,  vel  post  'Gloriam'  primi  psalmi  ad  boras  intrent 
chorum,  ipsi  quidem  ad  loca  sua  vadant,  solito  more  inclinent, 
magister  vero  eorum  ad  loca,  quae  tardantibus  instituta  sunt, 
eat:  puero,  (jui  ante  mensam  abbatis  servit,  abstinentia  <nbi, 
vel  potus  sine  ejus  praecepto  minime  injungatur.  Quodsi 
praecipienti    eo    injungitur,    aut    ei    indulgeatur,    aut    interim 

in  Lanfranc  s  Constitutions  63 

The  prior  ought  to  make  a  noise  to  waken  the  brethren  at 
such  hour  in  the  morning  as  the  boys  when  they  have  said  their 
several  prayers  can  see  to  read  in  the  cloister,  and  when  they 
begin  to  read  let  them  for  some  time  read  aloud,  sitting  separate 
from  each  other,  so  that  one  cannot  touch  another  with  his 
hands  or  clothes.  No  child  shall  dare  to  make  a  sign  or  say  a 
word  to  another  except  in  the  sight  and  hearing  of  the  master ; 
nor  get  up  from  the  place  in  which  he  sits  unless  told  or  given 
leave  to  do  so.  Wherever  the  children  go  there  should  be 
a  master  between  every  two  of  them.  When  they  pass  in  front 
of  the  brethren  they  should  bow  to  them,  and  the  brethren 
remaining  seated  should  do  the  same.  One  lantern  should 
serve  for  two;  if  there  are  three,  the  third  should  carry  a  second 
lantern ;  if  there  are  more,  the  same  arrangement  should  be 
observed.  They  should  not  put  anything  into  anyone's  hand 
or  take  anything  from  anyone's  hand,  except  in  the  case  of  the 
abbot,  the  senior  prior,  or  their  own  master,  and  that  not  every- 
where but  only  in  proper  places,  where  it  cannot  or  ought  not 
to  be  otherwise.  The  precentor,  too,  when  he  is  in  their 
school  may  give  or  take  from  them  a  book  from  which  to  sing  or 
read.  If  they  are  serving  at  the  altar,  too,  they  can  give  or  take 
as  their  orders  require.  They  should  be  flogged  in  a  chapter 
of  their  own,  as  their  elders  are  in  the  great  chapter.  When 
they  go  to  confession  they  should  go  to  the  abbot  or  prior 
or  those  specially  assigned  for  the  purpose  by  the  abbot. 
While  one  confesses  another  should  sit  on  the  steps,  and  the 
master  should  sit  close  by  outside  the  chapter-house.  If  they 
go  into  the  refectory  after  the  verse  which  is  said  before  food, 
or  into  choir  at  the  hours  after  the  Gloria  of  the  first  psalm, 
they  are  to  go  to  their  places  and  bow  as  usual,  while  their 
master  is  to  go  to  the  place  set  apart  for  those  who  are  tardy  : 
but  the  boy  who  waits  at  the  abbot's  table  is  not  to  have  any 
abstinence  from  food  or  drink  imposed  on  him  except  by  the 
abbot's  orders.     But  if  by  his  orders  it  is  imposed,  either  he 

64  The  Oblates  and  Novices  School 

a  mensa  abbatis  removeatur.  In  choro,  praeseiite  abbate,  nisi 
praecepto  ejus  nullus  cos  percutiat,  nuUus  exire  faciat.  Absente 
eo,  cantor  de  iis,  quae  sui  officii  sunt,  eos  castiget ;  prior  vero 
de  caeteris,  in  quibus  se  leviter  habent.  Ubicumque  sint, 
praeter  personas  superius  designatas,  nullus  eis  signum  faciat, 
nullus  arridoat. 

In  scholam  corum  nullus  ingrediatur,  nullus  cum  eis  alicubi 
loquatur,  nisi  sibi  ab  abbate,  vel  priore  ingrediendi,  vcl  loquendi 
licentia  concedatur.  Meridianis  horis  in  Icctis  suis  nuncjuam 
legant,  nihil  aliud  ibi  agant,  scd  cooperti  tantum  quiescant. 
Unus  super  alios  magistros  sit  magistcr  eoruni  maturus  et 
discretus,  qui  auditis  clainoribus,  culpas  delincjuentium  moderata 
discretione  sciat  vel  punire,  vel  indulgere  ;  collocatis  in  lectis 
suis  assistant  magistri,  dum  sint  cooperti,  in  nocte  cum  accensis 

Juvenes  tarn  nutriti  quam  de  seculo  venientes,  qui  magistris 
custodiendi  commendantur,  in  multis  sicut  infantes,  de  quibus 
superius  dictum  est,  custodiantur  ;  remoti,  ut  suj^ra,  a  seinvicem 
sedeant ;  extra  locum  custodiae  suae  sine  custode  nusquam  pro- 
cedant ;  duo  et  duo  laternas  ferant;  abbati,  vcl  priori  et  nulli  alii, 
nisi  specialiter  designatum  sit,  confessiones  suas  faciant.  Meri- 
dianis horis  in  lectis  suis  non  debent  legere,  non  scribere,  non 
quippiam  operis  facere  ;  sed  cooperti  tantum  quiescere ;  lectos 
sues  ante,  vel  inter  lectos  magistrorum  habere;  si  necesse  habent 
surgere,  prius  magistros  excitent,  et  postea  accensa  laterna,  si 
nox  est,  ad  necessitates  suas  explendas  cum  magistris  ambulent. 
Praeter  abbatem,  priorem,  magistrosque  eorum,  nulli  liherum 
sit  in  loco  custodiae  eorum  deputato  sedere,  nee  verbo,  nee 
signo  alitjuid  eis  innotescere,  nisi  accepta  licentia  abbate,  vel 
priore  ;  (juae  licentia  cum  conceditur,  magister  sedere  debet 
inter  juvenem  et  cum  cjui  juveni  locjuitur  ;  juvenis  cum  juvene 
non    loquatur,    nisi    audieiite,    et    intelligente    magistro,    quid 

The  Oblates  and  Novices  School  65 

must  be  pardoned  or  he  must  be  removed  from  the  abbot's 
table.  In  choir,  if  the  abbot  is  there,  no  one  may  strike  them, 
no  one  order  them  out  except  by  his  direction.  When  he 
is  away,  the  precentor  may  chastise  them  for  things  to  do  with 
his  office,  and  the  prior  for  other  things,  in  which  they  behave 
childishly.  Wherever  they  are,  no  one  except  the  persons  above- 
mentioned  may  make  signs  to  them,  no  one  may  smile  at  them. 

No  one  shall  go  into  their  school,  no  one  shall  speak  to 
them  anywhere,  unless  leave  to  go  in  or  to  talk  to  them  has 
been  given  by  the  abbot  or  prior.  They  are  never  to  read 
or  do  anything  else  in  bed  at  midday  but  to  cover  themselves 
up  and  keep  quiet.  A  monk  of  more  than  ordinary  gravity  and 
discretion  shall  be  master  over  the  other  masters,  one  who  may 
know  how,  when  he  has  heard  any  charge  against  them,  to 
inflict  punishment  in  moderation  on  those  who  are  at  fault  or 
to  let  them  off.  When  they  go  to  bed  the  masters  shall  stand 
by  them  at  night  with  lighted  candles  until  they  are  covered  up. 

Young  men,  whether  those  who  have  been  brought  up 
in  the  monastery  or  those  coming  in  from  the  outside  world, 
who  are  given  in  charge  to  masters,  shall  be  looked  after  in 
most  things  as  is  before  provided  with  regard  to  the  boys.  They 
shall,  as  is  above  said,  sit  separate  from  each  other ;  shall  never 
leave  the  place  in  which  they  are  kept,  except  with  the  monk 
who  has  charge  of  them ;  shall  carry  lanterns  in  pairs ;  and  shall 
make  confession  to  no  one  but  the  abbot  or  prior,  unless  by 
special  arrangement.  At  the  midday  rest  they  shall  not  r<_-ad  or 
write,  or  do  any  work  ;  but  cover  themselves  up  and  keep  quiet ; 
they  shall  have  their  beds  before  or  between  their  masters' 
beds.  If  they  have  to  get  up,  they  shall  first  wake  their  master, 
then  light  a  lantern,  if  it  is  night,  and  go  to  the  Necessarium 
with  their  master.  No  one  shall  be  allowed  to  sit  in  the  place 
assigned  to  them  except  the  abbot,  the  prior  and  their  masters  ; 
nor  make  any  communication  to  them  by  words  or  signs, 
except  with  the  leave  of  the  abbot  or  prior:  and  when  leave  is 
given  the  master  ought  to  sit  between  the  youtli  and  the  one 
who  is  talking  to  him.     No  youth  is  to  talk  to  another,  except 

L.  5 

66  Pontefract  School 

utrinque  dicatur.  Magistri  inter  eos  sedeant,  vel  ante  illos, 
sic  ut  eos,  cum  volunt,  conspicere  valeant.  Cum  dormitum 
vadunt,  tamdiu  stent  ante  ipsos  magistri,  usque  dum  ipsi 
juvenes  in  lectis  suis  jaceant  cooperti :  si  nox  est,  cum  candelis 
accensis  assistant. 

In  monasterio,  capitulo,  refectorio,  processione  mixti  sint 
senioribus,  non  observato,  si  necesse  sit,  ordine  conversionis 
eorum.  Si  ad  mensam  legunt,  vel  de  coquina  serviunt,  surgenti- 
bus  a  mensa  fratribus  cum  eis  ad  monasterium  vadant,  et  dicto 
'  Et  ne  nos,'  cum  custodibus  ad  refectorium  revertantur: 
duo  simul,  aut  plures,  si  fieri  possit,  de  conventu  non  re- 
maneant :  quodsi  paucitas  inajorum,  et  pluralitas  juvenum 
aliter  agendum  coegerit,  sufficientes  eis  custodes  deputentur : 
porro  si  custodia  ilia  juvenum,  quae  in  nonnullis  coenobiis 
tenetur,  magis  placet,  ut  videlicet  in  diversis,  ac  separatis 
abinvicem  locis,  per  claustrum  sedeant,  singuli  singulos,  aut 
plures,  si  tanta  copia  est,  custodes  habeant,  singuli  singulos 
laternas  in  nocte  ferant.  (Gustos  juvenem  non  relinquat  nisi 
commendatum  alicui  fratri,  in  quo,  et  de  quo  bene  confidat. 
Omnis  denique  custodia  ei  adhibeatur,  quae  superius  descripta 

Kirby- Po7i(cfract    School  giveii    to    St    Cleincnf  s 
Collegiate  Church.      Between    1075   ^^^^  1087. 

[Printed  in  A.    1'".    Leach's  Early   Yorkshire  Schools  {Yorks.  Archacol. 
Jonrn.,    Rcc.  Ser.    1903),    II.    I.] 

Quando  Ilbertus  de  Laceo  in  honorem  Dei  et  Sancte  Marie 
et  Omnium  Sanctorum  ecclesiam  beati  Clementis  in  castello 
suo,  pro  salute  W'illclmi  regis  majoris,  Willelmi  filii  ejus  et 
filiorum  ipsorum,  ct  pro  animabus  predeccssorum  ct  pro  ani- 
mabus  uxoris  et  filiorum  suorum,  et  pro  salute  omnium  fidelium 
vivorum  et  mortuorum,  in  tempore  principis  supradicti  fundavit, 
donavit  et  confirmavit  cidem  ecclesie  plenaric  decime  sue  duas 
partes  de  dominico  suo,  videlicet  in  Camasella. ... 

Pontefract  School  67 

so  that  the  master  may  hear  and  understand  what  is  said  by 
both  of  them.  The  masters  ought  to  sit  between  them  or 
in  front  of  them,  so  as  to  be  able  to  see  them,  if  they  want  to. 
When  they  go  to  bed  the  masters  ought  to  stand  in  front  of 
them  until  they  lie  down  and  are  covered  over,  and  at  night, 
with  lighted  candles. 

In  the  monastery,  in  chapter,  refectory  and  processions 
they  are  to  be  mixed  up  with  the  elder  monks,  and,  if  necessary, 
without  regard  to  the  order  of  their  admission.  If  they  read 
at  table,  or  are  serving  in  the  kitchen,  when  the  brethren  get 
up  from  table  they  shall  go  with  them  into  the  monastery, 
and  when  '  And  lead  us  not  into  temptation '  has  been  said 
shall  return  with  their  keepers  to  the  refectory.  No  two 
or  more  of  the  convent  shall  stay  with  them,  if  possible  ;  but 
if  the  scarcity  of  older  monks  or  the  greater  numbers  of  the 
young  ones  require  it,  a  sufficient  number  shall  be  assigned  to 
take  charge  of  them.  But  if  the  method  of  taking  care  of  the 
youths  which  prevails  in  some  monasteries  is  preferred,  that, 
namely,  they  shall  sit  singly  in  different  and  separate  places 
about  the  cloister,  each  custodian  shall  have  his  separate 
charge,  one  or  more  together,  if  their  number  is  so  great  as  to 
demand  it,  and  each  singly  shall  carry  a  lantern  at  night.  A 
custodian  shall  never  leave  his  charge,  without  confiding  him  to 
another  of  the  brethren  in  whom  he  has  full  confidence.  In  a 
word  all  the  care  shall  be  shown  him  as  above  described. 

Kirby -Pontefract  School  given  to  St  Clement's 
Collegiate  Church.  Betiveen  1075  ^'^'^  1087. 
When  Ilbert  of  Lacy  founded  the  church  of  St  Clement  in 
his  castle  in  honour  of  God  and  St  Mary  and  All  Saints  for  the 
health  of  King  William  the  elder,  William  his  son  and  their 
sons,  and  for  the  souls  of  his  ancestors  and  for  the  souls  of  his 
wife  and  sons,  and  for  the  health  of  all  the  faithful  living  and  dead 
in  the  time  of  the  said  prince,  he  fully  granted  and  confirmed  to 
the  same  church  two-thirds  of  the  tithe  of  his  demesne,  viz.  in 
Campsall...[a  long  list  of  places  follows]. 

68       Hastings  Grammar  and  Song  Schools 

Harum  rerum  omnium  supradictarum  tenuit  Ranulphus 
Grammaticus  dimidiam  partem  cum  octo  bovatis  terre  in 
Darthingtona  ad  servicium  ccclesic  et  dimidiam  commune 
contra Ranulphumdrammaticum.etGodefridum  presbiterum.... 

Et  pater  meus  Robertas  de  Laceo  dedit  ibi...Barones  eius- 
dem  castellarie.... 

Hec  autem  beneficia  confirmavit  authoritate  Thome 
senioris  archiepiscopi,  dedicavit  ipsam  ecclesiam,  cum  scolis 
de  Kirkby  et  Pontisfracti. 

Et  sicut  antecessores  mei  has  donaciones  et  confirmaciones 
statuerunt  in  suis  temporibus  ;  ita  ego  Ilbertus  concede  et 
confirmo  eas  cum  auctoritate  Turstini  archiepiscopi. 

Hastings  Grammar  and  Song  Schools  before  1 090. 

[p.  R.  O.  Anc.  Deeds,  D.  107.^] 

Transcriptum  carte  de  fundacione  prebendarum. 

Henricus,  divina  consciente  clemencia  Comes  Augi, 
omnibus  primatibus  suis  et  omnibus  suis  subditis  et  omnibus 
suis  hominibus  tam  Francis  quani  Anglis,  salutem.... 

R.  Comes  Augi  fundator  et  edificator  Ecclesie  Sancte 
Marie  de  Hastings  dedit  et  dimisit  Ciymmingo  habendum  in 
prebendam  capellam  de  Berchingis  et  decimam  eiusdem  loci 
...unam  mansuram  in  castello  et  alteram  in  Baillio  ad 

In  prebendam  Ausch  ecclesiam  de  Turok  et  terram  eidem 
ecclesie  i)  unam  mansuram  in  Kstehow  et  in 
castello  unam 

Ad  prebendam  Auch  pertinet  regimen  scole  gramatice  et 
ad  prebendam  Wymingi  regimen  scole  cantus. 

Hi  sunt  testes,  clerici,  Hugo  Decanus,  Willelmus  Alius 
Mazel  et   multi  alii. 

Hastings  Grammar  and  Song  Schools      69 

Of  all  the  aforesaid  property  Randolph  the  Grammarian  held 
half  with  eight  ox-gangs  of  land  in  Darthington  to  the  service 
of  the  church  and  half  the  common  opposite  Randolph  the 
Grammarian  and  Godfrey  the  priest.... 

And  my  father  Robert  of  Lacy  gave  there — The  barons  of 
the  same  castle-ward  gave — 

All  these  grants  he  confirmed  by  the  authority  of  arch- 
bishop Thomas  I,  and  dedicated  the  same  church  with  the 
school  of  Kirby  and  Pomfret. 

And  as  my  ancestors  established  these  grants  and  con- 
firmations in  their  time,  so  I,  Ilbert,  grant  and  confirm  them 
with  the  authority  of  Archbishop  Thurstan. 

Hastings  Grainmar  and  Song  Schools  before  1090. 

Copy  of  charter  of  foundation  of  the  prebends. 

Henry,  by  the  consent  of  the  clemency  of  God,  Count  of 
Eu,  to  all  his  superiors  and  all  his  subjects  and  all  his  men  both 
French  and  English,  health.... 

Robert,  Count  of  Eu,  founder  and  builder  of  the  church  of 
St  Mary  of  Hastings,  gave  and  demised  to  Gymming  to  hold  as 
a  prebend  the  chapel  of  Barking  and  the  tithe  of  the  same 
place... a  mansion  in  the  castle  and  another  in  the  Bailey  at  the 
bridge... [Three  more  prebends  are  set  out.] 

To  Ausch[er]  for  a  prebend  the  church  of  Thurrock  and  the 
land  to  the  same  church  belonging... a  mansion  in  Easthow 
and  one  in  the  castle... [Four  more  prebends  are  set  out  and 
certain  possessions  common  to  all  the  prebendaries.] 

To  Auscher's  prebend  belongs  the  keeping  of  the  grammar 
school  and  to  Wyming's  prebend  the  keeping  of  the  song  school. 

These  are  witnesses,  the  clerks,  Hugh  the  dean,  William, 
son  of  Mazel,  and  many  others. 

70  York  School  under  the  Normans 

York  School.      1075 — 1090. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Early  Yorkshire  Schools,  I.  10,  from  Hugh  the  Chanter, 
Hist.  Ch.  of  York  (Rolls  Series),  II.  107.] 

De  archiepiscopo  [Thomas  I]  brevitcr  recaj)itulare  volo. 
Quando  archiepiscopatum  suscepit,  cuncta  hostili  vastatione 
depopulata  et  vastata  invcnit :  de  septcm  canonicis  (non  enim 
plures  fuerant)  tres  in  civitate  et  ecclesia  combusta  et  destructa 
reperit.  Reliqui  vel  mortui  vcl  mctu  et  desolatione  erant 
exulati.  Ecclesias  vero  re-coopertas,  et  juxta  facultatem  suam 
restructas,  canonicis  quos  invenerat  restituit :  dispersos  re- 
vocavit ;  ad  Deo  serviendum  et  ecclesie  aliquos  addidit ; 
refectoriuni  refecit  et  dormitorium  :  prepositum  constituit,  qui 
ceteris  preesset,  et  eos  procuraret :  villas  ali(}uas  et  terras  et 
ecclesias  dedit,  et  ab  aliis  ablatas  reddidit  ;  plurima  de  suo 
proprio  canonicis  necessaria  administrabat  ;  archidiaconos 
quoque  sapientes  et  industrios  per  diocesim  divisit.  Annis 
pluribus  canonicis  conimuniter  sic  vescentibus,  consilio  quorun- 
dam  placuit  archiepiscopo  de  terra  S.  Petri,  que  multum 
adhuc  vasta  erant,  singulis  prebendas  partiri  ;  ita  ut  canoni- 
corum  numerus  crescere  posset,  et  quisque,  sicut  per  se  partem 
suam  studiosius  et  edificaret  et  excoleret. 

Quod  et  sic  factum  est.  Tunc  enim  statuit  decanum,  the- 
saurarium,  cantorem,  dans  cuicjue  digne  et  ecclesie  et  suo  et 
personarum  honorem:  magistrum  scolarum  jam  antea 
statuerat. . . . 

[Archbishop  Thomas  II,  educated  in  York  School  c.  1075, 
succeeded  Gerard  a.  D.  1108.  ]  Erat  enim  apud  nos  sub  patruo 
suo  amabili  et  amicabili  educatus,  et  decenter  eruditus. 

York  School  under  the  Normans  71 

York  School.      1075— 1090. 

Of  archbishop  [Thomas  I]  I  wish  to  shortly  sum  up. 
When  he  received  the  archbishopric  he  found  the  whole  place 
depopulated  and  ravaged  by  invasion  ;  of  the  seven  canons  (for 
there  were  no  more)  he  found  three  among  the  burnt  ruins 
of  the  city  and  church.  The  rest  were  dead  or  driven  into 
exile  in  fear  and  despair.  He  re-roofed  the  church,  and  to  the 
extent  of  his  means  rebuilt  it,  and  restored  it  to  the  canons 
whom  he  found ;  and  summoned  back  those  who  were  dis- 
persed ;  adding  some  for  the  service  of  God  and  the  church. 
He  re-erected  the  refectory  and  dormitory;  and  established  a 
provost  to  preside  over  the  rest  and  provide  for  them.  He  gave 
them  some  manors  and  lands  and  churches,  and  recovered  those 
which  had  been  taken  away  by  others.  Most  of  the  wants 
of  the  canons  he  met  out  of  his  own  revenues.  He  divided 
the  diocese  among  wise  and  industrious  archdeacons.  After 
the  canons  had  thus  lived  in  common  for  some  years,  the 
archbishop  determined  on  the  advice  of  certain  persons  to 
divide  St  Peter's  land,  much  of  which  was  still  lying  waste,  into 
separate  prebends  ;  so  that  the  number  of  canons  might  be 
increased,  and  that  each  of  them  might  be  the  more  eager 
to  build  and  bring  into  cultivation  his  own  share. 

And  this  was  done.  Then,  too,  he  established  a  dean, 
a  treasurer  and  a  precentor,  giving  each  what  was  fitting  for  the 
honour  of  the  church  and  himself  and  the  person.  The  school- 
master he  had  established  before  this.... 

[Archbishop  Thomas  H,  educated  in  York  School  c.  1075, 
succeeded  Gerard  a.d.  1108.]  For  he  was  brought  up  among 
us  and  properly  educated  under  his  loveable  and  friendly  uncle. 

72  Salisbury  School 

Salisbury  School  in   the   Foundation  Statutes  of 
the  Cathedral.      1091. 

[W.    H.    Frcre,    The    Use    of   Saruni   (1898),    259,    from     Registrum 
Osmundi,  f.  24.] 

Institucio  Osmundi. 

Hee  sunt  dignitates  et  consuetudines  Sarum  ecclesie  quas 
ego  Osmundus  episcopus  eiusdem  ecclesie  in  nomine  sancte 
trinitatis,  anno  ab  Incarnatione  Domini  mxci,  institui  simul 
et  concessi  personis  et  canonicis  eiusdem  ecclesie,  participate 
dominorum  archiepiscopi  et  aliorum  coepiscoporum  nostrorum 
consilio,  quorum  nomina  subscripta  sunt,  et  domini  Regis 
Willelmi  interueniente  assensu.  Videlicet,  ut  decanus  et  cantor, 
cancellarius  et  thesaurarius  residentes  sint  assidue  in  ecclesia 
Sarum,  remota  omni  excusationis  specie — Canonicos  nichil 
potest  excusare  quin  et  ipsi  residentes  sint  in  ecclesia  Sarum, 
nisi  causa  scholarum  et  seruitium  domini  Regis,  qui  unum 
habere  potest  in  capella  sua,  et  archiepiscopus  unum,  et 
episcopus  tres. 

Decanus  omnibus  canonicis  et  omnibus  uicariis  preest 
quoad  regimen  animarum  et  correccionem  morum. 

Cantor  debet  chorum  regere  quoad  cantum,  et  potest  cantus 
eleuare  et  deponere. 

Thesaurarius  in  conseruandis  thesauris  et  ornamentis,  et 
in  administrandis  luminaribus  preeminet.  Similiter  cancellarius 
in  scolis  regendis  et  in  libris  corrigendis. 

Archidiaconi  in  soUicitudine  parrochiarum,  et  in  cura  pollent 

Decanus,  et  cantor,  thesaurarius,  et  cancellarius,  duplicem 
percipiunt  communam.      Reliqui  canonici  simplicem. 

Subdecanus  a  decano  archidiaconatum  urbis  et  suburbii, 
succentor  a  cantore  (jue  ad  cantariam  pertinent,  [)ossidcant. 
Si  decanus  defuerit  ecclesie,  subdecanus  uices  cius  impleat. 
Succentor  similiter  et  cantoris. 

in  the  Institution  of  St  Osmund  "jt, 

Salisbury   School  in  the  Foundation   Statutes   of 
the  Cathedral.      1091. 

The  Institution  of  Osmund. 

These  are  the  dignities  and  customs  of  the  church  of 
Salisbury,  which  I,  Osmund,  bishop  of  that  church,  in  the 
name  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1091, 
established  and  granted  to  the  persons  and  canons  of  the  same 
church,  with  the  advice  of  the  lords,  the  archbishop  and  other 
my  co-bishops  whose  names  are  subscribed,  and  with  the  assent 
of  the  lord  King  William  ;  namely,  that  Dean  and  Chanter, 
Chancellor  and  Treasurer  shall  be  continually  resident  in  the 

church  at  Salisbury,  without  any  kind  of  excuse Nothing  can 

excuse  the  canons  from  being  personally  resident  in  the  church 
of  Salisbury,  except  attendance  at  the  schools  and  the  service 
of  the  lord  King,  who  can  have  one  in  his  chapel,  and  the 
archbishop  one,  and  the  bishop  three. 

The  dean  presides  over  all  canons  and  vicars  [choral]  as 
regards  the  cure  of  souls  and  correction  of  conduct. 

The  precentor  ought  to  rule  the  choir  as  to  chanting  and 
can  raise  or  lower  the  chant. 

The  treasurer  is  pre-eminent  in  keeping  the  treasures  and 
ornaments  and  managing  the  lights.  In  like  manner  the 
chancellor  in  ruling  the  school  and  correcting  the  books. 

The  archdeacons  excel  in  the  superintendence  of  parishes 
and  the  cure  of  souls. 

Dean  and  precentor,  treasurer  and  chancellor,  receive  double, 
the  rest  of  the  canons  single  commons. 

The  sub-dean  holds  from  the  dean  the  archdeaconry  of  the 
city  and  suburbs,  the  succentor  from  the  precentor  all  that 
pertains  to  the  singing.  If  the  dean  is  away  from  the  church 
the  sub-dean  fills  his  place,  and  the  succentor  in  like  manner 
the  precentor's. 

74       The  School  of  Christ  Churchy  Hants 

Archischola  debet  lectiones  ascultare  et  terminare,  et  sigillum 
ecclesie  portare,  literas  et  cartas  comi)onere,  et  in  tabula 
lectores  notare,  et  cantor  similiter  cantatores.... 

Confirmation,    c.     i  io8,    of  School  to    Dean   and 
Chapter  of  Christ  Chnrch,  Hants,  as  in  i  loo. 

(A.  F.  I.eacli,  V.  C.  //.  Hants,  ii.  251,  CoU.  Tib.  D.  vi.  f.  13a. 
Printed  Mon.  vi.  304.] 

Carta  Baldwini  de  Redveriis  senioris,  Comitis  Devonie,  de 
antiquis  libcrtatibus. 

Baldewinus  de  Redveriis  omnibus  hominibus  Francis  et 
Anglis  ceterisque  Christi  fidelibus  ad  quos  presens  scriptum 
pervenerit  universis,   salutem. 

Sciatis  me  pro  Dei  amore  et  pro  salute  anime  mee  et  pro 
animabus  omnium  tam  antecessorum  quam  successorum  et 
amicorum  meorum,  concessisse  et  presenti  carta  mea  con- 
firmasse  Hyllario,  Decano,  et  ceteris  omnibus  in  Christi 
Ecclesia  de  Twinham  Deo  servientibus  et  servituris,  omnes 
tam  ecclesiasticas  possessiones  quam  seculares  tenuraset  omnia 
quecunque  illorum  sunt  et  esse  debent  super  feudum  meum 
de  quibus  saisiata  est  ecclesia.  liberam,  puram  et  perpetuam 
elemosinam  perpetuo  plene  possideant,  sicut  melius,  plenius,  et 
liberius  possunt  possideri,  ut  dignitatem  suam  plenam  et  omnes 
suas  liberas  consuetudines  in  omnibus  rebus  honorifice  habeant, 
sicut  antiquitus  semper  habere  solebant  ;  ville  scilicet  ipsius 
scolam,  suam  liberam  curiam,  cum  soc  et  sac... sicut  re.x 
Henricus  patri  meo  Ricardo  de  Redveriis  plenius  et  liberius 
habere  concessit,  quando  ei  primum  hereditario  iure  habendum 
totum  contulit  feudum,  ipsam  videlicet  Christescherchiam  de 
Twinham  cum  omnibus  suis  pertinenciis,  in  qua  Deo  serviunt... 
[a  long  list  of  churches  and  other  property]  ;  quia  hec  omnia 
cum  eorum  pertinenciis  ante  me,  testibus  multis,  habuerunt, 
libere  et  quiete  de  me  et  de  heredibus  meis  tenenda  et  integra 
habenda  sibi  et  successoribus  suis  concessi,  presenti  carta  mea, 
et  sigillo  meo  confirmavi. 

The  School  of  Christ  Church,  Hants       75 

The  schoolmaster  ought  to  hear  and  determine  the  lessons, 
and  carry  the  church  seal,  compose  letters  and  deeds  and 
mark  the  readers  on  the  table,  and  the  precentor  in  like  manner 
the  singers.... 

Confirmation,    c.    1 1 08,    of  School   to    Dean    and 
Chapter  of  Christ  Church,  Hants,  as  in  iioo. 

Charter  of  Baldwin  of  Redvers  the  elder,  Earl  of  Devon,  of 
the  ancient  liberties. 

Baldwin  of  Redvers  to  all  his  men,  French  and  English, 
and  all  the  rest  of  the  faithful  of  Christ  to  whom  the  present 
writing  shall  come,  greeting. 

Know  that  I,  for  the  love  of  God  and  the  health  of  my  soul 
and  for  the  souls  of  all  my  ancestors,  successors  and  friends, 
have  granted  and  by  this  my  present  deed  confirmed  to  Hilary 
the  Dean  and  to  all  others  serving  or  to  serve  God  in  Christ 
Church  of  Twyneham,  that  they  may  for  ever  fully  possess  all 
ecclesiastical  possessions  and  secular  holdings  and  everything 
which  is  theirs  or  ought  to  be,  on  my  fee  of  which  the  church 
is  seised... in  free,  pure  and  perpetual  alms  as  they  can  best, 
most  fully  and  most  freely  be  held,  so  that  they  may  honourably 
have  their  full  dignity  and  all  their  free  customs  in  all  things, 
as  anciently  they  have  been  accustomed  to  have  them  ;  namely, 
the  school  of  the  same  town,  their  free  court  with  soc  and  sac... 
as  King  Henry  most  fully  and  freely  granted  them  to  my  father, 
Richard  of  Redvers,  when  he  first  transferred  the  whole  fee  to 
him  to  hold  by  hereditary  right,  namely,  Christ  Church  of 
Twyneham  itself  with  all  its  appurtenances,  in  which  they  serve 
God... because  they  held  all  these  things  with  their  appurten- 
ances before  me,  according  to  many  witnesses,  I  have  granted  to 
have  and  to  hold  freely  and  quietly  of  me  and  my  heirs  to  them 
and  their  successors,  and  by  this  present  charter  and  my  seal 

76  Gloucester  and  Beve7'ley  Schools 

Confirmatio7t   of  Grant  of  Gloucester  School  to 
St  OsivalcCs  Cliu7'ch.     c.   iioo. 

[Cal.   Tat.    12   Ric.  II,  pt  ii.   m.   10.] 
Henricus,   rex  Anglorum  et  dux  Normannorum,  omnibus 

suis  fidelibus  Francis  et  Anglis,  salutem. 

Sciatis    me  confirmasse  scolas  tocius  Gloucestrie  ecclesie 

Sancti    Oswaldi   de   Gloucestria   capelle    mee,    quas    episcopi 

Wigornienses  Sansonus  et  ceteri  predicte  ecclesie  dederunt  et 

carte  sue  testimonio  confirmaverunt.     Valete. 

Beverley  Grammar  -  Sc  hoolmaste7'  in  Love, 
c.  1 100. 

[A.    F.    Leach,   Early    Yorkshire  Schools,    180  c,    from   B.   M.    Faust., 
V>.   IV.    156.      Hist.    Ch.  of  York  (Rolls  Series),   I.    281.! 

Miracula  Sancti  Johannis. 

De  multis,  igitur,  unum  producanius  in  medium  prefati 
pontificis  ope  mirabiliter  a  demoniace  perversionis  artibus 
liberatum  ;  et  (]Uod  ab  ejus  ore  veredico  sepius  accepimus,  ad 
laudem  Dei  Omnipotentis,  et  ad  memoriam  Sancti  Sui,  reducere 

Scolasticus  (juidam  ejusdem  temporis  intervallo  Beverlacum 
petiit,  cupiens  ibidem,  quoniam  locus  ille  clericorum  abundabat 
copia,  scolastice  discipline  studium  regere :  qui  unanimi 
devocione  a  prelatis  ejusdem  ecclesie  susceptus  est.  Hinc 
quoniam  litteratoria  pollebat  disciplina,  hinc  (juia  morum 
honestate  nobilitabatur,  placuit  mox  omnibus  illius  conversacio, 
quoniam  humilis  et  bcnigna  ;  placuit  artis  pericia,  ([uoniam 
dulci  et  sollicita  exercitacione  et  jocunda  severitatc  condita. 
Regebat  assidue  scolarum  fre(|uenciam  exterius,  et  chori  curam 
moderabatur  concorditcr  interius,  in  utro(iue  non  scgnis  pro- 
visor,  sed  ofticialis  egregius. 

Injecit  enim  juvenis  ille  oculos  in  cujusdam  formose  virginis 
faciem,   mox   et   earn    cepit    juvenili    dilectione    concupiscere ; 

in  the   \2th  Century  yj 

Confirmation  of  Grant  of  Gloucester  School  to 
St  Oswald! s  Church,     c.    1 1  oo. 

Henry,  king  of  the  English  and  duke  of  the  Normans,  to  all 
his  faithful  subjects,  French  and  English,  health. 

Know  ye  that  I  have  confirmed  to  the  church  of  St 
Oswald  of  Gloucester,  my  chapel,  the  schools  of  all  Gloucester 
which  the  bishops  of  Worcester,  Samson  and  the  rest,  gave  to 
the  aforesaid  church  and  confirmed  by  the  evidence  of  their 
deeds.     Farewell. 

Beverley  Grammar-Schoolmaster  in  Love. 

C.     I  lOO. 

Miracles  of  St  John  of  Beverley. 

Of  many  therefore  we  will  produce  one  who  by  the  help  of 
the  aforesaid  prelate  was  miraculously  delivered  from  the  craft 
of  demoniacal  perversion,  and  endeavour  to  reproduce  to  the 
praise  of  God  Almighty  and  the  memory  of  his  saint  the  tale  as 
we  have  often  heard  it  from  his  truthful  mouth. 

A  certain  scholar  came  to  Beverley  at  that  time,  wishing,  as  the 
place  was  full  of  clerks,  to  keep  school  there  ;  and  was  received 
by  the  prelates  of  the  church  with  unanimous  approval.  As  on 
the  one  hand  he  was  full  of  learning,  and  on  the  other  was  of 
a  noble  character,  his  conduct  was  favourably  regarded  by 
all,  being  at  once  modest  and  kindly.  His  skill  in  his  pro- 
fession also  pleased,  made  up  as  it  was  of  care  in  teaching  and 
pleasantness  in  severity.  Outside  the  church  he  taught  a 
crowded  school  diligently ;  inside  he  governed  the  choir 
harmoniously,  in  both  no  lazy  prebendary,  but  an  active 

But  the  young  master  cast  his  eyes  on  a  pretty  girl  and 
he  at  once  began  to  long  for  her  with  youthful  affection.     The 

78  S^  Albans  and  Dunstable  Schools 

crevit  quotidie  male  cepta  suggestio.  Cepit  illico  rigor  dis- 
cipline scolastice  niollescere,  fervorque  studii  literalis  tepescere; 
putaresque  hominem  non  minima  infirmitate  languentem,  cujus 
pallor  et  feda  macies  juvenilem  dehonestaverat  faciem. 

Divine  itaque  commonitus  instinctu,  interius,  exteriusque 
non  mediocritcr  cgrotans,  ad  potentis  medici  suffragium,  (^uasi 
ad  asylum  confugit,  beatissimum  videlicet  Johannem  ;  et  ut 
commodius  virum  Dei  exoraret,  post  peractam  matutinalis  officii 
psalmodiam,  more  solito  discedente  clero,  in  choro  solus 
remansit.  Projecit  se  illico  coram  altari,  velut  acjuam  miseri- 
cordi  Deo  effudit  animam  suam. 

Finitis  itaque  precibus  et  singultibus  lachrymosis,  cum  ab 
oracione  surrcxisset,  mirabile  dictu  !  a  languoribus  et  demoniace 
decepcionis,  quibus  opprimebatur,  laciucis  dissolutus  :  nulla  in 
medium  mora,  Divinum  sensit  juvamen.  Convaluit  egrotus, 
de  celo  susccpta  medela,  sanctissimi  Johannis  solita  subveniente 
gracia.  Refriguit  mox  caior  pestilens...iMirabantur  qui  aderant 
tam  subite  melioracionis  medelam. 

St  Albans  a7id  Dunstable  Schools  in  the 
1 2tJi   Century. 

[From    A.    F.    Leach,     V.     C.     H.    Herts,    11.     47.      Gcsta    Abbatum 
Moiiasterii  Saiicti  Albani  (Rolls  Scries),   i.   72-3.] 

(iaufridus  Abl)as. 
...Iste  de  Cenomannia,  unde  oriundus  erat,  venit,  vocatus 
ab  Abbate  Ricardo,  duni  adhuc  secularis  esset,  ut  sculam  apud 
Sanctum  Albanum  regeret.  Et  cum  venisset,  concessa  fuit 
scola  alii  magistro,  quia  non  venit  tempe.stive.  Legit  igitur  apud 
Dunestapliam,expectans  scolam  Sancti  Albani,  sibi  repromissam  : 
ubi  quemdam  ludum  de  Sancta  Kalcrina — queni  Miracula 
vulgariter  appcllamus — fecit.  Ad  (juc  dccoranda,  pctiit  a 
Sacrista  Sancti  Albani,  ut  sibi  cape  chorales  accommodarentur, 
et  obtinuit.      Et  fuit  ludus  ille  de  Sancta  Katerina. 

in  the   1 2th  Century  yc) 

ill  conceived  idea  increased  daily.  From  that  moment  the 
rigour  of  scholastic  discipline  began  to  slacken,  and  the  fervour 
of  literary  studies  to  cool ;  and  you  would  have  thought  the 
man  was  stricken  by  a  severe  disease,  so  did  pallor  and 
emaciation  destroy  the  youthful  beauty  of  his  face. 

But  warned  by  a  divine  instinct  within  and  being  outwardly 
no  little  ill,  he  fled,  as  to  an  asylum,  to  the  prayers  of  the 
powerful  physician,  the  most  blessed  John  ;  and  the  better 
to  pray  to  the  man  of  God,  after  the  psalms  were  finished 
at  matins,  after  the  choir  had  departed  as  usual,  he  remained 
behind  alone  in  the  choir.  He  threw  himself  down  before  the 
altar,  and  poured  out  his  soul  like  water  before  the  merciful  God. 

When  he  got  up,  having  finished  his  prayers  and  stopped 
his  tears,  wonderful  to  relate,  he  was  freed  from  languor  and 
the  snares  of  the  deceits  of  the  devil  in  which  he  had  been 
caught;  and  without  a  moment's  delay  felt  the  help  of  God. 
The  sick  man  was  healed,  receiving  medicine  from  heaven 
through  the  intervention  of  the  wonted  grace  of  the  most  holy 
John.  Soon  the  pestilent  fever  abated.... Those  present  were 
astonished  at  the  sudden  cure. 

St  Albaiis  and  Dunstable  Schools  in  the 
I  2th   Century. 

Abbot  Geoffrey. 

...He  came  from  Maine,  where  he  was  born,  being  sum- 
moned by  Abbot  Richard  while  he  was  still  a  secular,  to  keep 
the  school  at  St  Albans.  And  when  he  arrived  the  school  had 
been  granted  to  another  master,  as  he  had  not  come  when  he 
was  expected.  He  taught  therefore  at  Dunstable  while  waiting 
for  St  Alban's  school  which  was  again  promised  him,  where  he 
made  a  play  of  St  Katharine — what  we  commonly  call  a 
Miracle  Play.  To  set  it  off  he  asked  and  obtained  from  the 
Sacrist  of  St  Albans  the  loan  of  some  choir  copes.  And  that 
play  was  of  Saint  Katharine. 

8o         Schoolmaster-librarian  at  St  Paul's 

De  Capa  Sancte  Katerine. 

Casu  igitur,  nocte  sequent!,  accensa  est  domus  Magistri 
Gaufridi,  et  combusta  est  domus,  cum  libris  suis  et  capis 
memoratis.  Nesciens  igitur  quomodo  hoc  damnum  Deo  et 
Sancto  Albano  restauraret,  seipsum  reddidit  in  holocaustum  Deo, 
assumens  habitum  religionis  in  Domo  Sancti  Albani.  Et  hec 
fuit  causa,  quare  tantum  habuit  diligentie,  ut  capas  chorales 
in  eisdem,  postea  in  Abbatem  promotus,  faceret  preciosas. 

Conjirrjiation    to   tJie   Schoolmaster  of  St   Paiil's, 
London,  of  House  and  Lib rajnans hip,  ex-officio. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  'St  Paul's  School  before  and  after  Colet,'  Joiirn.  of 
Education,  June  1909,  and  Arclurol.  62,  pi  i.  {).  211.  Mun.  St  Paul's, 
Lib.  A.  f.   xxviii.] 

De  Magistro  Scolarum  et  de  Cancellario  vij  Littere,  j. 

R.  Dei  gracia  Londoniensis  ecclesie  minister,  W.  Decano 
totique  fratrum  conuentui,  salutem  et  paternam  benediccionem. 

Noueritis  filii  mei  karissimi  uestra  dileccio  me  Hugoni, 
Magistro  Scolarum,  ex  Magisterii  dignitate,  suisque  eiusdem 
dignitatis  successoribus  stabilisse  firmiter  Magistri  Durandi 
stacionem  in  angulo  turris,  uidelicet  ubi  Decanus  Willelmus 
meo  ilium  collocauit  imperio  inter  Robertum  de  Auco  et 
Odonem.  Concedo  eciam  illi  scolarumque  priuilegio  nostre 
ecclesie  omnium  librorum  custodiam.  Volo  igitur,  et  tibi, 
Decane,  precipio  ut  illos  omnes  in  conspectu  fratrum  in  quodam 
cirographo  ascriptos,  cuius  scilicet  altera  pars  in  thesauro 
custodiatur,  alteram  sibi  retineat,  ei  commendes,  et  de  hac 
custodia  eum  seisias,  diligenter  et  sub  anathemate  inuestigans 
si  aliqui  librorum  tam  secularium  quam  diuinorum  extra  missi 
per  aliciuem  fuerint ;  quod  si  fuerint,  sub  obediencia  precij)io 
ut  rctromittantur. 

Fac  eciam  illi  habere  claues  armariorum  {sic)  iuxta  altars, 
que  ad  illud  opus  fieri  imperaui. 

NoTA.  Magistrum  Scholarum  debere  custodiam  librorum 
almariis  habere. 

Schoolmaster-librarian  at  St  Paul's        8i 

Of  St  Katharine's  Cope. 

The  following  night  Master  Geoffrey's  house  was  accidentally 
set  on  fire ;  and  was  burnt,  with  his  books  and  the  copes.  So 
not  knowing  how  to  repair  the  loss  to  God  and  St  Albans,  he 
offered  up  himself  as  a  burnt  offering  to  God,  taking  the 
religious  habit  in  St  Alban's  house.  And  this  was  the  reason 
why,  after  he  was  promoted  to  be  abbot  [in  1119],  he  was 
so  diligent  in  making  precious  choir  copes  in  it. 

Confirmation   to  the  Schoolmaster  of  St  Paul's, 
London,  of  House  and  Librarians  hip,  ex-officio. 

Seven  letters  of  the  Schoolmaster  and  Chancellor.     No.  i. 

R[ichard  de  Belmeis],  by  the  grace  of  God  minister  of  the 
Church  of  London,  to  W[illiam]  dean  and  all  the  assembly 
of  brethren,  greeting  and  paternal  blessing. 

Know  ye  beloved,  my  dearest  sons,  that  1  have  confirmed  to 
Hugh  the  schoolmaster,  in  right  of  the  dignity  of  his  mastership, 
and  to  his  successors  in  the  same  dignity,  the  station  of  Master 
Durand  in  the  angle  of  the  tower,  namely,  where  Dean  William 
placed  him  by  my  orders  between  Robert  of  Eu  and  Odo.  I 
grant  him  also  and  to  the  privilege  of  the  school  the  custody  of 
all  the  books  of  our  church.  I  will  therefore  and  command 
you.  Dean,  to  give  him  charge  of  them  all  when  written  in  an 
indenture  before  the  brethren,  one  part  of  which  shall  be  safe- 
guarded in  the  Treasury,  and  the  other  shall  be  kept  by  him, 
and  give  him  seisin  of  their  custody,  making  diligent  inquiry 
under  pain  of  excommunication  whether  any  of  the  books, 
either  secular  or  theological,  have  been  taken  out  by  anyone ; 
and  if  there  have  been,  I  order  them  in  virtue  of  their 
obedience  to  be  returned. 

Let  him  also  have  the  keys  of  the  cupboards  by  the  altar, 
which  I  ordered  to  be  made  for  the  purpose. 

Note.  The  schoolmaster  ought  to  have  the  custody  of  the 
books  in  the  cupboards. 

L.  6 

82  Thetford  and  London  Schools 

Resto7'aiion   of  Thetford  School  to  the  Dean  of 

[A.    F.    Leach,    V.    C.    H.  Suffolk,    ii.    303.     Anstruther's    Epislolae 
Herherli  Lozinge  xxxii.] 

Herbcrtus  episcopus  fratribus  et  filiis  apud  Tedford.  Sciatis 
me  reddidisse  Bundo  Decano  scolas  suas  apud  Tedford  sicut 
unquani  melius  et  integrius  habuit ;  et  precipio  ut  alie  scole 
non  habeantur  ibi,  nisi  sue  vel  quas  ipse  permiserit. 

London  Schools  in   1118. 

[FitzStephen,  Life  of  'J'homas  a  Hecket  (Rolls  Series,  1877),  ill.  3,  97.] 

De  Fontibus. 
Sunt  etiam  circa  Londoniam  ab  aquilone  suburbani  fontes 
praecipui,  aqua  dulci,  salubri,  perspicua  et  '  per  claros  rivo 
trepidante  lapillos  ' ;  inter  quos  Fons  Sacer,  Fons  Clericorum, 
Fons  sancti  Clementis,  nominatiores  habentur,  et  adeuntur 
celebriore  accessu  et  majore  frequentia  scholarium,  et  urbanae 
juventutis  in  serotinis  aestivis  ad  auram  exeuntis.  Urbs  sane 
bona,  si  bonum  habeat  dominum. 

Ue  Scholis. 
In  Londoniis  tres  principales  ecclesiae  scholas  celebres 
habent  de  privilegio  et  antiqua  dignitate.  Plerumque  tamen 
favore  personali  alicujus  notorium  secundum  philosophiam 
plures  ibi  scholae  admittuntur.  Diebus  festis  ad  ecclesias 
festivas  magistri  conventus  celebrant.  Disputant  scholares, 
quidam  demonstrative,  dialectice  alii  ;  hi  rotant  enthy- 
memata,  hi  perfectis  melius  utuntur  syllogismis.  Quidam 
ad  ostentationem  exercentur  disputatione,  quae  est  inter 
colluctantes ;  alii  ad  veritatem,  ea  cjuae  est  perfectionis 
gratia.  Sophistae  simulatores  agmine  et  inundatione  verborum 
beati  judicantur  ;  alii  paralogizant.  Oratores  aliqui  (juandoque 
orationibus  rhetoricis  ali(iuid  dicunt  apposite  ad  persuadendum, 
curantes   artis    praecepta    servare,   et    ex    contingentibus   nihil 

Thetford  and  London  Schools  83 

Restoration  of  Thetford  School  to  the  Dean  of 

Herbert  the  bishop  to  his  brethren  and  sons  at  Thetford. 
Know  ye  that  I  have  given  back  to  Dean  Bund  his  school 
at  Thetford  as  he  ever  best  and  most  fully  held  it,  and 
I  order  that  no  other  school  shall  be  held  there,  except 
his  own  or  any  which  he  shall  allow. 

London  Schools  in   11 18. 

The  Wells. 
The  chief  suburban  wells  near  London  are  on  the  north,  of 
sweet  water,  health-giving,  clear  and  '  with  stream  hurrying 
over  clear  pebbles ' ;  among  which  Holywell,  Clerkenwell, 
St  Clement's  well,  are  thought  the  best  known,  and  are  more 
frequented  by  the  more  celebrated  of  the  scholars  and  youth 
of  the  town  when  they  walk  out  in  summer  time  to  take  the 
air.     A  good  city  indeed  when  it  has  a  good  lord. 

The  Schools. 
In  London  the  three  principal  churches  have  celebrated 
schools  of  privilege  and  ancient  dignity.  Often,  however, 
through  personal  favour  to  some  noted  philosopher  more 
schools  are  allowed  there.  On  feast  days  the  masters  celebrate 
assemblies  at  the  churches,  en  fete.  The  scholars  hold  dispu- 
tations, some  declaiming,  others  by  way  of  question  and  answer. 
These  roll  out  enthymemes,  those  use  the  better  form  of 
perfect  syllogisms.  Some  dispute  merely  for  show  as  they 
do  at  collections  ;  others  for  truth,  which  is  the  grace  of  per- 
fection. The  sophists  using  the  Socratic  irony  are  pronounced 
happy  because  of  the  mass  and  volume  of  their  words  ;  others 
play  upon  words.  Those  learning  rhetoric,  with  rhetorical 
speeches,  speak  to  the  point  with  a  view  to  persuasion,  being 
careful  to  observe  the  precepts  of  their  art,  and  to  leave  out 


84        London  Schools  in  Beckets  Boyhood 

omittere.  Pueri  diversarum  scholarium  versibus  inter  se 
conrixantur  ;  aut  de  principiis  artis  grammaticae,  vel  regulis 
praeteritorum  vel  supinorum,  contendunt.  Sunt  alii  (jui  in 
epigrammatibus,  rhythniis  et  metris,  utuntur  vetere  ilia  triviali 
dicacitate ;  licentia  Fescennina  socios  suppressis  nominibus 
liberius  lacerant ;  loedorias  jaculantur  et  sconimata,  salibus 
Socraticis  sociorum,  vel  forte  niajoruni,  vitia  tangunt ;  vel 
mordacius  dente  rodunt  Theonino  audacibus  dithyrambis. 

niultuiri  ridere  parati, 
Ingeniinant  ireimilos  naso  cris])ante  cachinnos. 

De  Ludis. 
Praeterea  quotannis,  die  quae  dicitur  Carnilevaria,  ut  a 
ludis  puerorum  Londoniae  incipiamus  (omnes  enim  pueri 
fuimus),  scholarum  singuli  pueri  suos  apportant  magistro 
suo  gallos  gallinaceos  pugnaces,  et  totum  illud  antemeri- 
dianum  datur  ludo  puerorum  vacantium  spectare  in  scholis 
suorum  pugnas  gallorum.  Post  prandium  vadit  in  suburbanam 
planitiem  omnis  juventus  urbis  ad  lusum  pilae  celebrem. 
Singulorum  studiorum  scholares  suam  habent  pilam  ;  singu- 
lorum  officiorum  urbis  exercitores  suam  fere  singuli.  Majores 
natu,  patres,  et  divites  urbis,  in  equis  spectatum  veniunt 
certamina  juniorum,  et  modo  suo  juvenantur  cum  juvenibus  : 
et  excitari  videtur  in  eis  motus  caloris  naturalis  contemplatione 
tanti  motus  et  participatione  gaudiorum  adolescentiae  libe- 

Tho7>ias  a  Becket  a  Pauline. 

{lb.  p.  ,4.] 

Puerum  eum  [Tbomam]  pater  in  religiosa  domo  cano- 
nicorum  Meritoniae  priori  Roberto  aliquamdiu  nutriendum  com- 
mendaverat....  Annis  igitur  infantiae,  pueritiae  et  pubertatis 
simpliciter  domi  patcrnac  et  in  scholis  urbis  decursis,  Thomas 
adolesccns  factus  studuit  Parisius. 

London  Schools  in  Becket's  Boyhood      85 

nothing  that  belongs  to  it.  The  boys  of  the  different  schools 
vie  with  each  other  in  verses ;  or  dispute  on  the  principles 
of  grammar,  or  the  rules  of  preterites  and  supines.  Others  in 
epigrams,  rhymes  and  verses,  use  the  old  freedom  of  the  highway, 
with  Fescennine  licence  freely  scourge  their  schoolfellows  with- 
out mentioning  names,  hurl  abuse  and  fun  at  each  other,  with 
Socratic  wit  gird  at  the  failings  of  their  schoolfellows,  or  even 
of  their  elders,  or  bite  them  more  deeply  with  the  tooth  of 
Theon  in  audacious  dithyrambics.  The  audience,  '  ready  for 
much  laughter,  wrinkle  their  noses  as  they  redouble  their 
shaking  guffaws.' 


Every  year,  on  the  day  which  is  called  the  Carnival  [Shrove 
Tuesday],  to  begin  with  the  boys'  games  [London  is  a  mistake 
of  the  MS.]  (for  we  were  all  boys  once),  all  the  boys  in  each 
school  bring  their  master  their  game-cocks,  and  the  whole 
morning  is  devoted  to  the  boys'  play,  they  having  a  holiday  to 
look  on  at  the  cock-fights  in  their  schools.  In  the  afternoon 
the  whole  youth  of  the  city  goes  into  the  suburban  level  for  a 
solemn  game  of  ball.  Each  school  has  its  own  ball,  and  nearly 
all  the  holders  of  civic  offices  also  provide  one.  The  grown-up 
people,  the  fathers  and  rich  men  of  the  city,  come  on  horse- 
back to  look  on  at  the  struggles  of  the  young,  and  in  their 
ways  grow  young  with  the  young;  and  the  motion  of  natural 
heat  seems  to  be  excited  in  them  by  looking  on  at  so  much 
motion  and  by  sharing  in  the  delight  of  the  freedom  of  youth. 

Thomas  a  Becket  a  Pauline. 

As  a  boy  his  father  had  committed  him  [Thomas  a  Becket] 
for  a  little  time  to  Prior  Robert  to  be  nursed  in  the  religious 
house  of  the  canons  of  Merton... Having  passed  the  years  of 
infancy,  boyhood  and  youth  in  his  father's  house,  and  the 
school  of  the  city,  Thomas,  when  he  became  a  young  man, 
studied  at  Paris. 

86  vS/  Paul's  and   Warwick  Schools 

Appointment    of  Master   of    St    Paul's    School, 
c.    1 1  25. 

[A.  F.  \.^?ic\\,Joum.  of  Ediu.  June  1909,  and  Archaol.  62,  pt.  i.  p.  21 1, 
from  Mun.  St  Paul's,  A  Box,  25  A.  No.  1368,  and  Lib.  A.  f.  xxviii  e.] 

De  Collacione  Scolarum. 

Ricardus,  Dei  gracia  Londonien.sis  episcopus,  W.  Decano 
totique  fratruni  conventui,  et  W.  de  Occhendona  dapifero  suo 
cunctisque  suis  hominibus  salutem  et  in  Christo  benedic- 

Notum  vobis  facio,  kari.ssimi,  me  concessisse  Henrico 
canonico  meo,  nutrito  Magistri  Hugonis,  scolas  Sancti  Pauli 
ita  honorifice  sic[ut]  unquam  melius  et  honorabilius  ilia 
ecclesia  habuit,  et  terram  de  atrio  quam  predictus  Hugo 
ad  se  hospitandum  ibi  inclusit,  et  pratum  quod  eidem  Hugoni 
in  Foleham  concesseram  ;  scilicet  iiij  acras,  scilicet  quicquid 
est  in  illo  loco  a  grava  usque  ad  Tamisiam  singulis  annis,  pro 
xij  denariis  de  recognicione  in  festo  S.  Michaelis,  et  in 
elemosina  decimam  de  Hingis  et  decimam  de  Madeleia. 

Testibus  Willelmo  dc  Wintonia,  et  Willelmo  de  Occhendona 
dapifero,  et  Hugone  de  Cancerisio.     Valete. 

Note  in  Liber  A. 
NoTA.      Magistrum  scolarum  debere  habere  iiij  acras  prati 
apud  Fulham  et  decimam  de  Yllinges  et  de  Madeleya. 

Grant  of  Warzuick  School  to  St  Maiys  Church. 


[A.  F.  Leach,  Hist,  of  IVat-cick  School  and  College,  5,  from  Cliartul. 
St  Mary's,  Warwick.     Exch.  Q.  R.  Misc.  Bks.  22.] 

Carta  eiusdem  [Rogeri  Comitis]  de  scolis  Warwici  datis 
ecclesie  Sancte  Marie. 

R.  comes  de  Warewic  omnibus  suis  fidelibus  de  Warewic, 

S^  PauPs  and   Warwick  Schools  87 

Appointment    of   Master   of   St    Paul's    School, 
c.    1 125. 

A  Collation  of  the  School. 

Richard,  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  London,  to 
W[illiam]  Dean  and  the  whole  assembly  of  brethren,  and 
William  of  Occhendon  his  steward  and  all  his  men  greeting 
and  blessing  in  Christ. 

I  make  known  to  you,  my  dearest,  that  I  have  granted  to 
my  canon  Henry,  the  nursling  of  Master  Hugh,  St  Paul's 
school  as  honourably  as  the  church  ever  held  it  at  its  best  and 
most  honourable  wise,  and  the  land  of  the  court  which  the 
said  Hugh  enclosed  there  to  house  himself  in ;  and  the 
meadow  which  I  had  granted  to  the  same  Hugh  in  Fulham  ; 
viz.  four  acres,  namely,  whatever  there  is  in  that  place  from 
the  ditch  to  the  Thames  for  iid.  a  year  recognition  at 
Michaelmas,  and  as  a  charity  the  tithes  of  Ealing  and  the 
tithe  of  Madeley. 

Witness  William  of  Winchester,  and  William  of  Occhendon 
steward,  and  Hugh  of  Cancerisio.     Farewell. 

Note  in  Liber  A. 

Note  that  the  schoolmaster  ought  to  have  four  acres  of  the 
meadow  at  Fulham  and  the  tithes  of  Ealing  and  Madeley. 

Grant  of  Warivick  School  to  St  Marys  Church. 


Charter  of  the  same  Earl  Roger  of  the  school  of  Warwick 
given  to  St  Mary's  church. 

R[oger]    Earl    of  Warwick    to   all    his   faithful   people   of 
Warwick,  greeting. 

88  Warwick  School  granted  to  the 

Sciatis  me  concessisse  et  dedisse  in  elemosinam  ecclesie 
Sancte  Marie  de  Warewic  scolas  ipsius  ecclesie  Warewic  pro 
me  et  antecessoribus  meis,  ut  servicium  Dei  in  eadem  ecclesia 
frequentacione  scolasticorum  emendetur.  Precipimus  ergo  ut 
quiete  et  libere  teneat  eas  predicta  ecclesia,  et  ne  eas  aliquis 
aliqua  violencia  surripiat  ab  ecclesia.     Valete. 

Testes,  Robertus  de  Novoburgo;  (1.  frater  eius;  (lundreda 
comitissa  [and  nine  others  named]. 

Translatio7i  of  the  College  of  Canons  and  School 
of  All  Saints  to  St  Marys,    Warwick.      1123. 

[ll>.  32,  with  photograph.] 

Carta  eiusdem  Domini  Rogeri  de  possessionibus  et  liber- 
tatibus  datis  et  concessis  ecclesie  Beate  Marie  Warr.  et  de 
translacione  Collegii  infra  castrum  ad  dictam  ecclesiam. 

In  nomine  Sancte  et  Individue  Trinitatis  Notum  sit  omni- 
bus sancte  Dei  ecclesie  filiis  presentibus  et  futuris  quatinus 
ab  incarnacione  Domini  Mcxxiii,  regnante  Henrico  Rege, 
Rogerus  comes  adeptus  consulatum  Warewici  ibi  in  honorem 
Dei  et  Sancte  Dei  genitricis  Marie  et  Omnium  Sanctorum 
veneracione,  pro  anima  Willelmi  Regis  Anglic  Expugnatoris 
eiusque  uxoris  Regine  Matildis  et  eorum  filii  Willelmi  secundi 
Regis  atque  in  futura  memoria  anime  H.  Regis  Willelmi  {)rioris 
filii  et  eius  uxoris  Regine  Matilde  secunde  et  pro  eorum  liberis,  et 
pro  recordacione anime  Rogeri  de  Belmund  et  eius  uxoris  .Velme, 
et  pro  anima  Henrici  Comitis  sui  patris,  qui  prius  hoc  instituit, 
et  pro  recordacione  R.  comitis  Mellent  et  omnium  fidelium 
defunctorum,  disposuit  quatenus  clerici  Ecclesie  Sancte  Marie 
de  Warewici,  et  clerici  Omnium  Sanctorum,  (jue  sita  est  in  cas- 
tello,  cum  consilio  et  assensu  et  devotis  peticionibus  clericorum 

United  Chapter  of  All  Saints  and  St  Marys  89 

Know  that  I  have  granted  and  given  in  alms  for  myself 
and  my  ancestors  to  the  church  of  St  Mary  of  Warwick  the 
school  of  the  same  Church  of  Warwick,  that  the  service  of 
God  in  the  same  church  may  be  improved  by  being  frequented 
by  scholars.  We  order,  therefore,  that  the  said  church  may 
hold  it  quietly  and  freely,  and  that  no  one  by  any  violence 
may  take  the  school  from  the  church.     Farewell. 

Witnesses,  Robert  of  Newburgh  ;  G[eoffrey]  his  brother ; 
Countess  Gundreda  [and  nine  others  named]. 

Translation  of  the  College  of  Canons  and  School 
of  All  Saints  to  St  Marys,    Warwick.      11  23. 

Charter  of  the  same  lord  Roger  of  the  possessions  and 
liberties  given  and  granted  to  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Mary 
of  Warwick  and  of  the  transfer  of  the  college  in  the  castle  to 
the  said  church. 

In  the  name  of  the  Holy  and  Undivided  Trinity  be  it 
known  to  all  sons  of  God's  Holy  Church  present  and  to  come, 
that  in  the  year  from  the  Incarnation  of  the  Lord,  11 23,  in  the 
reign  of  King  Henry,  Earl  Roger,  having  obtained  the  Consul- 
ship [earldom]  of  Warwick,  there  to  the  honour  of  God  and  in 
reverence  to  God's  holy  mother  Mary,  and  All  Saints,  for  the 
soul  of  King  William,  Conqueror  of  England,  and  his  wife 
Queen  Matilda,  and  their  son  King  William  the  Second,  and 
in  future  memory  of  the  soul  of  King  Henry,  William  his 
eldest  son  and  his  wife  Queen  Matilda  the  Second,  and  for 
their  children,  and  in  memory  of  the  soul  of  Roger  of  Beau- 
mont and  his  wife  Aelma,  and  for  the  soul  of  Earl  Henry  his 
father,  who  first  began  this,  and  in  memory  of  R[obert]  Count 
of  Mellent  and  all  the  faithful  departed,  arranged  that  the 
clerks  of  the  church  of  St  Mary  of  Warwick  and  the  clerks  of 
All  Saints',  which  was  situated  in  the  castle,  by  the  advice  and 
assent  and  at  the  devout  petition   of  the   clerks   of  the  said 

90  The  Schoolmaster  of  St  Paufs 

predicte  ecclesie  Omnium  Sanctorum,  pariter  et  Simonis 
Wigorniensis  Episcopi  deliberacione,  in  memorata  Ecclesia 
Sancte  Marie  omnes  pariter  canonico  more  Deo  et  Sancte 
Marie  diligenter  die  noctuque  servirent,  salva  integritate  pre- 
bendarum  suarum,  ipsi  et  successores  eorum  imperpetuum. 
Et  concessit  ad  eorum  victus  necessaria  hec. 

Ecclesiam  Sancti  Nicholai  [a  long  list  of  churches  and 
lands  follows]. 

Et  scolas  Warewici  et  iudicia  ferri  et  aque  et  duelli  et 
c  acras  in  Cotes  et  ecclesiam  Sancti  Jacobi  super  portam 
Warewic  et  terram  Wimundi  capellani. 

Preterea  concessit  quatinus  habeant  Decanum  et  Capitulum 
et  fraternum  conventum  ipsi  clerici  in  predicta  ecclesia  Sancte 
Marie,  et  ut  ita  libere  et  quiete  et  honorifice  omnia  et  singula 
obtineant  sicut  Lincolnienses  et  Salesberienses  et  Eboracenses 
sua  ecclesiastica  dicuntur  obtinere. 

Huius  rei  testes  sunt  [etc.]. 

The    Monopoly    of    St    Paul s    School   enfoj^ced. 

c.  I  1 38. 

[A.  F.  \^ea.c\\,Joiirital  of  luiiication,  ]\xnti  1909,  and  Arclucol.  62,  pt  i., 
from  Mun.  St  Paul's.  A  Box  60,  48,  and  Lib.  A.  f.  xxix.] 

De  Cancellario. 

H[enricus],  Dei  gracia  Wintoniensis  ecclesie  minister,  Capi- 
tulo  Sancti  Pauli  et  Willelmo  archidiacono  et  ministris  suis, 

Precipio  uobis  per  obedientiam,  ut,  [post]  trinam  uoca- 
tionem,  sentenciam  anatematis  in  eos  proferatis,  qui  sine 
licencia  Henrici  magistri  scolarum  in  tola  ciuitate  Lundon. 
regere  presumserint,  preter  eos  qui  scolas  Sancte  Marie  de 
Archa  et  Sancti  Martini  Magni  regunt.  Teste  magistro  Ilario 
apud  Wintoniam. 

Monopoly  in  London   enforced  91 

church  of  All  Saints,  and  likewise  with  the  deliberation  of 
Simon,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  that  all  they  and  their  successors 
for  ever  may  serve  God  and  St  Mary  diligently  day  and  night 
after  the  fashion  of  canons  in  the  aforesaid  church  of  St  Mary, 
keeping  the  integrity  of  their  prebends.  And  for  the  neces- 
saries of  living  gave  them  these. 

The  church  of  St  Nicholas  [a  long  list  of  churches  and 
lands  follows]. 

And  the  school  of  Warwick  and  the  ordeals  of  fire  and 
water  and  duel,  and  100  acres  in  Cotes  and  the  church  of 
St  James  above  the  gate  of  Warwick  and  the  land  of  Wimund 
the  chaplain. 

Further  he  granted  that  the  same  clerks  might  have  a  Dean 
and  Chapter  and  brotherly  assembly  in  the  aforesaid  church  of 
St  Mary,  and  might  hold  them  one  and  all  as  freely  and 
quietly  and  honourably  as  the  canons  of  Lincoln  and  Salisbury 
and  York  are  said  to  hold  their  ecclesiastical  possessions. 

Of  this  matter  are  witnesses  [etc.]. 

The    Monopoly    of    St    Paul's    School    enforced, 
c.  1 138. 

Of  the  Chancellor. 

Henry  [of  Blois],  by  the  grace  of  God  minister  of  the 
church  of  Winchester,  to  the  chapter  of  St  Paul's  and  William 
archdeacon  and  his  ministers,  greeting. 

I  command  you  on  your  obedience  that  after  three 
warnings  you  pronounce  sentence  of  anathema  on  those  who, 
without  the  licence  of  Henry,  schoolmaster,  presume  to  lecture 
in  the  whole  city  of  London,  except  those  who  keep  the  schools 
of  St  Mary-le-Bow  and  St  Martin-le-Grand.  Witness  Master 
Hillary  at  Winchester. 

92         Hu7iti7igdon  attd  Dunstable  Schools 

Nota  quod  scole  non  sunt  tenende  London,  nisi  apud 
Beatum  Paulum,  exceptis  scolis  Beate  Marie  de  Arcubus  et 
Sancti  Martini  Magni. 

Grant    of   ^luntingdon    School    by    Henry    I   to 
Huntingdon  Priory.      1127. 

[P.  R.  O.  Cart,  anliq.  II.  No.  8.] 

Carta  Regis  Henrici  prinii   concessiones   donatorum   recitans 
et  confirmans. 

Henricus  rex  Anglorum  episcopo  Lincolniensi,  comiti 
Huntedonie  et  Willelmo  de  Loveiot  et  justiciariis  et  baronibus 
et  vicecomitibus  et  ministris  suis  et  omnibus  de  quibus 
canonici  tenent,  salutem. 

Sciatis  me  concessisse  et  presenti  carta  confirmasse  ecclesie 
Sancte  Marie  de  Huntedone  et  canonicis  ibidem  Deo  ser- 
vientibus  omnes  possessiones  suas  tarn  in  ecclesiis  (juam  in 
terris  et  decimis ;  et  nominatim  duas  hidas  in  (juibus 
ipsa  ecclesia  sita  est,  liberas  et  quietas  ab  omni  seculari 
exaccione,  et  omnes  ecclesias  et  terras  suas  infra  burgum 
de  Huntedon  et  extra  ;  capellam  castelli  de  Huntedon 
cum  pertinenciis  suis  et  scolam  eiusdem  ville,  ita  ut  nullus 
aliquam  infra  Huntedonsciram  absque  illorum  licencia  teneat. 
Quare  volo  [etc.]. 

Testibus  Willelmo  Cantuarie  archiepiscopo,  David  rege 
Scotorum,  et  pluribus  aliis. 

Grant  of  Dunstable  School  to  the  fieivly  founded 
Priory  there,      i  1 3 1 . 

[Charter  Roll,   ii  Hen.  Ill,  pt.  I.  m.  27.] 

Henricus  Rex  Dei  gracia  [etc.].    Inspeximus  cartam  illustris 
regis  Anglorum  Henrici  primi  in  hec  verba. 

granted  to  newly  founded  Priories         93 

Note  that  schools  are  not  to  be  held  in  London  save 
at  St  Paul's,  except  the  schools  of  Blessed  Mary  of  the  Arches 
and  St  Martin's-le-Grand. 

Grant    of  Huntingdon    School   by    Henry    I    to 
Huntingdon  Priory.      11  27. 

Charter  of  King  Henry  I  reciting  and  confirming  the  grants 
of  donors. 

Henry,  king  of  the  English,  to  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  the 
earl  of  Huntingdon  and  William  of  Lovetot  and  his  justices 
and  barons  and  sheriffs  and  servants  and  to  all  of  whom  the 
canons  hold,  greeting. 

Know  ye  that  I  have  granted  and  by  the  present  charter 
confirmed  to  the  church  of  Saint  Mary  of  Huntingdon  and 
the  canons  there  serving  God  all  their  possessions  as  well  in 
churches  as  in  lands  and  tithes  ;  namely  two  hides  on  which 
the  church  itself  is  situate,  free  and  quit  of  all  secular 
exaction,  and  all  their  churches  and  lands  as  well  within  the 
borough  of  Huntingdon  as  outside  ;... and  the  chapel  of  the 
castle  of  Huntingdon  with  its  appurtenances  and  the  school 
of  the  same  town,  so  that  no  one  may  keep  any  school  in 
Huntingdonshire  without  their  licence.    Wherefore  I  will  [etc.]. 

Witness  William  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  David  king  of 
Scots,  and  many  others. 

Grant  of  Dunstable  School  to  the  newly  founded 
Priory  there.      i  1 3  i . 

Henry  [HI],  king,  by  the  grace  of  God  [etc.].  VV'e  have 
inspected  a  charter  of  the  illustrious  king  of  the  English 
Henry  I  in  these  words. 

94  Reading  and  Gloucester  Schools 

H.  rex  Anglorum  etc.  archiepiscopis  episcopis  etc.  salutem. 

Noveritis  me  pro  Deo  et  pro  salute  mei  et  domini  Willelmi 
filii  mei  et  Matilde  uxoris  mee  dedisse  ecclesie  Sancti  Petri  de 
Dunstaple  quam  ego  in  honore  Dei  et  eiusdem  apostoli  fundavi 
et  canonicis  regularibus  ibidem  Deo  servientibus  in  perpetuam 
et  liberam  elemosinam  totum  manerium  et  burgum  de  Dun- 
staple  cum  terris  eidem  ville  pertinentibus,  scilicet,  quatuor 
culturas  circa  villam  de  Dunstaple,  mercatum  eiusdem  ville  et 
scolas  eiusdem  ville,  cum  omnibus  libertatibus  et  liberis  con- 
suetudinibus  eidem  ville  pertinentibus. 

Testibus  Roberto  episcopo  Hereford,  et  Simone  episcopo 
Wirecestrie  et  G[alfrido]  cancellario  et  Roberto  de  sigillo  et 
N[igello]  nepote  episcopi,  Milone  Cdocestrie  et  Humfrido  de 
Bohun  [and  four  others  mentioned]. 

Readi7ig  School  placed  under  Reading  Abbey. 
Between    1125   and  1 1 39. 

[A.   F.   Leach,  V.    C.  H.  Berks,  II.  245,  from  Reading  Chart.,   1!.  M. 
Harl.  1708,  f.  190  b.] 

Carta  Rogeri  Sarisberie  episcopi  de  scolis  de  Rading. 
R.  episcopus  Sarisberiensis  archidiaconis  de  Berks  et  om- 
nibus decanis  et  toti  clero  de  Berks,  salutem. 

Prohibeo  quod  nullus  regat  scolas  apud  Rading  nisi  con- 
sensu et  bona  voluntate  abbatis  et  conventus. 
Teste  A.  Th.  apud  Wintoniam. 

Confirmation  in  1199  of  Grant  of  Gloucester 
School  to  Llanthony  Abbey  by  Hen7y  II 
in    I  I  37. 

[A.  F.  Leach,   \'.  C.  II.  Gloiics.  II.  315,  from  Rot.  Chart,  p.  7.] 

Confirmacio  canonicoruni  de   Lantonia  de  omnibus 

possessionibus  suis. 

Johannes  Dei  gracia  [etc.].     Novcrit  universitas  vestra  nos 

pro    Dei  amore  et   pro  salute  anime   nostre   et  antecessorum 

granted  to  Abbeys  95 

Henry,  king  of  the  English  etc.  to  archbishops,  bishops  etc. 

Know  ye  that  I,  for  God  and  my  health  and  the  health  of 
the  lord  William,  my  son,  and  Matilda  my  wife,  have  given  to 
the  church  of  St  Peter  of  Dunstable  which  I  have  founded  in 
honour  of  God  and  that  apostle,  and  to  the  canons  regular 
there  serving  God  in  perpetual  and  free  alms  the  whole  manor 
and  borough  of  Dunstable  with  the  lands  to  the  same  town 
belonging,  viz.  four  ploughlands  round  the  town  of  Dunstable, 
the  market  of  the  same  town  and  the  school  of  the  same  town, 
with  all  liberties  and  free  customs  to  the  same  town  belonging. 

Witness,  Robert,  bishop  of  Hereford,  and  Simon,  bishop 
of  Worcester,  and  G[eoffrey]  chancellor,  and  Robert  of  the 
seal,  and  N[igel]  nephew  of  the  bishop,  Milo  of  Gloucester  and 
Humfrey  of  Bohun  [and  four  others]. 

Reading  School  placed  under  Reading  Abbey. 

Between    11  25   and  11 39. 

Bishop  Roger  of  Salisbury's  charter  of  Reading  School. 

Roger,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  to  the  archdeacons  of  Berks 

and  all  the   [rural]    deans   and    the    whole   clergy  of   Berks, 


I  forbid  anyone  to  teach  school  at  Reading  except  with  the 
consent  and  goodwill  of  the  abbot  and  convent. 
Witness  A.  Th.  at  Winchester. 

Confirmation  in  1 1 99  of  Grant  of  Gloucester 
School  to  Llanthony  Abbey  by  Heiiry  II 
in    I  137. 

Confirmation  to  the  canons  of  Llanthony  of  all  their 

John,  by  the  grace  of  God  [etc.].     Know  ye  all  that  we,  for 
the  love  of  God  and  the  health  of  our  soul  and  our  ancestors', 

96  Schools  not  to  be  hired  out 

nostrorum  concessisse  et  presenti  carta  nostra  confirmasse  in 
perpetuam  elemosinam  Deo  et  ecclesie  B.  Marie  et  Sancti 
Johannis  Baptiste  et  canonicis  regularibus  de  Lantonia  sub- 
scriptas  donaciones,  que  illis  racionabiliter  facte  sunt. 

Ex  dono  Henrici  Regis  patris  nostri  capellam  intra 
castellum  Glocestrie  et  scolam  unam  in  eadem  villa  et 
medietatem  piscarie  de  Hersepol  que  est  de  dominico 

Ex  dono  Hugonis  de  Laceio. ... 

Hec  omnia  predicta  et  alia  quecumque  eisdem  canonicis 
data  sunt  racionabiliter  vel  in  futuro  dabuntur  illis  concedimus. 

Quare  volumus  [etc.]. 

Testibus  Simone  Bathoniensi  episcopo  [etc.].  Dat.  per 
manum  H.  Cantuariensis  archiepiscopi,  cancellarii  nostri,  apud 
Rupem  .'\urivallis  xxx  die  Julii  anno  regni  nostri  primo. 

A   Synod  at    Westminster  forbids   the  letting  of 
Schools  for  hire.      3  Dec.    1138. 

[Wilkins,  Concilia,  1.  415.] 

XVII.  Sancimus  praeterea,  ut  si  magistri  scholarum  aliis 
scholas  suas  pro  pretio  regendas  locaverint,  ecclesiasticae 
vindictae  subiaceant. 

Salisbury  Schoolmaster  endozved.      1139. 

[Sa>-.  Ch.  and  Doc.  (Rolls  Series)  8,  from  Stat.  Keel.  Sar.  f.  38  b.] 

Stephanus  rex  Anglie  Henrico  Wintoniensi  episcopo  et 
justiciariis  et  baronibus  et  omnibus  fidelibus  suis  Francis  et 
Anglis  de  Wiltescyre,  salutem. 

Sciatis  me  dcdissc  et  concessisse  in  perpetuam  elemosinam 
Deo  et  ecclesie  Saresberiensi  ad  opus  magistri  scolarum 
Saresberie  ecclesiam  de  Odiham  cum  ecclesiis  de  Lys  et  de 

Schools  not  to  be  hired  out  97 

have  granted  and  by  this  our  present  charter  confirmed  in 
perpetual  alms  to  God  and  the  church  of  the  Blessed  Mary 
and  Saint  John  the  Baptist  and  the  canons  regular  of 
Llanthony  the  underwritten  gifts,  which  have  been  reasonably 
made  to  them. 

Of  the  gift  of  King  Henry  our  father  the  chapel  in 
Gloucester  castle  and  a  school  in  the  same  town  and  half 
the  fishery  of  Horsepool  which  is  in  our  demesne. ... 

Of  the  gift  of  Hugh  of  Lacy... 

All  these  things  aforesaid  and  whatsoever  else  has  been 
reasonably  given  or  shall  in  future  be  so  given  we  grant  to 

Wherefore  we  will  etc.  [that  they  quietly  enjoy  the  same]. 

Witnesses,  Simon,  bishop  of  Bath  [etc.].  Given  by  the 
hand  of  H[erbert],  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  our  chancellor 
at  Roches  d'Orivalle  30  July  in  the  first  year  of  our  reign. 

A    Synod  at   Westminster  forbids  the   letting  of 
Schools  for  hire.     3  Dec.    1138. 

17.  We  decree  further  that  if  schoolmasters  let  their 
schools  for  money  they  shall  be  subject  to  ecclesiastical 

Salisbury  Schoolmaster  endowed.      1139. 

Stephen,  king  of  the  English,  to  Henry,  bishop  of  Win- 
chester, and  the  justices  and  barons  and  all  his  faithful  men  of 
Wiltshire,  French  and  English,  health. 

Know  that  I  have  given  and  granted  in  perpetual  alms  to 
God  and  the  ^church  of  Salisbury,  for  the  use  of  the  school- 
master of  Salisbury,  the  church  of  Odiham  with  the  churches 

L-  7 

98  A  School  at  Bristol 

Bynthewurthe  et  cum  aliis  ecclesiis  et  capellis  sibi  pertinen- 

Quare  volo  et  firmiter  precipio  quod  ipsas  bene  et  in  pace 
et  honorifice  et  libere  teneat,  sicut  Rogerus  Saresberiensis 
episcopus  et  Ranulphus  Dunelmensis  episcopus  illas  unquam 
melius  tenuerint. 

Testibus  Philippo  cancellario  [and  five  others]  apud  Sares- 

Bristol  School  under  the  Kalendars    Gild, 
c.    I  1 4 1 . 

[A.  F.  Leach,   V.  C.  //.  Gloucestershire^  Schools,  11.  3.55,  from  Bristol 
Little  Red  Book,  f.  83  b.] 

Nota  de  Fraternitate  Kalendariorum. 

Venerabili  in  Christo  patri  ac  domino  Domino  Thome  Dei 
gratia  Wygornie  episcopo  sui  humiles  et  devoti  Robertus  de 
Hasele,  Rector  ecclesie  de  Derham  ac  Decanus  Christianitatis 
Bristollie,  subieccionem  omnimodam  tanto  patri  debitam,  reve- 
renciam  et  honorem. 

[Recites  the  bishop's  mandate  17  May  13 18  repeating  one 
of  bishop  Walter  Giffard,  which  had  not  been  executed,  to 
inquire  into  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  brotherhood  ;  and 
the  holding  of  an  inquisition  by  which] 

Invenimus  quod  olim  dicta  Fraternitas  vocabatur  zilda  seu 
Fraria  communitatis  cleri  et  populi  Bristolie.  Et  locus  con- 
gregacionis  fratrum  et  sororum  eiusdem  fuit  usitatus  apud 
ecclesiam  Sancte  Trinitatis  Bristolie  temporibus  Aylwardi 
Mean  et  Bristoici  filii  eiusdem,  dominorum  dicte  ville  ante 
conquestum  ultimum  Anglie  ;  cuius  zilde  et  Frarie  principium 
memoriam  honiinis  excedit. 

Post  vero  conquestum ...  tempore  Domini  Henrici  filii 
Matilde  Imperatricis,  Regis  Anglie,  quidam  Robertus  Hardy ng, 
burgensis  Bristolie,  per  consensum  dicti  Regis  Henrici  ac  Roberti 
comitis  et  aliorum  (juorum  tunc  intererat,  dictam  zildam  seu 
Frariam   ab  ecclesia  Sancte  Trinitatis   in  ecclesiam   Omnium 

under  the  Kalendars'  Gild  99 

of  Liss  and  Bentworth,  and  the  other  churches  and  chapels 
belonging  to  it. 

Wherefore  I  will  and  firmly  order  that  he  hold  them  well 
and  in  peace  and  honourably  and  freely,  as  Roger,  bishop 
of  Salisbury,  and  Randolph,  bishop  of  Durham,  ever  at  best 
held  them. 

Witness,  Philip  the  chancellor  [etc.]  at  Salisbury. 

Bristol  School  under  the  Kalendars    Gild, 
c.    1 1 4 1 . 

Note  about  the  Kalendars'  Brotherhood. 

To  the  venerable  father  and  lord  in  Christ  the  lord 
Thomas,  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Worcester,  his  humble 
and  devoted  Robert  of  Haseley,  rector  of  Dereham  church, 
and  the  Dean  of  Christianity  of  Bristol,  all  subjection,  reverence 
and  honour  due  to  so  great  a  father.... 

We  found  that  once  upon  a  time  the  said  brotherhood  was 
called  the  gild  or  brotherhood  of  the  community  of  the  clergy 
and  people  of  Bristol ;  and  the  place  of  assembly  of  the 
brothers  and  sisters  of  the  same  was  at  Trinity  church,  Bristol, 
in  the  times  of  Aylward  Mean  and  Bristoic  his  son,  lords 
of  the  said  town  before  the  last  conquest  of  England ;  the 
beginning  of  which  gild  and  brotherhood  passes  the  memory 
of  man. 

After  the  conquest... in  the  time  of  the  lord  Henry,  son  of 
the  empress  Matilda,  king  of  England,  one  Robert  Hardyng, 
burgess  of  Bristol,  with  the  consent  of  the  said  king  Henry  and 
earl  Robert  and  others  interested,  translated  the  said  gild 
or   brotherhood   from   Holy  Trinity  church   to    the  said   All 

lOO     The  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University 

Sanctorum  predictas  transtulit,  ac  scolas  Bristollie  pro  Judaeis 
et  aliis  parvulis  informandis,  sub  disposicione  dicte  frarie 
stabilivit,  et  proteccione  Maioris  Bristollie  qui  pro  tempore 
fuerit ;  ac  monasterium  Sancti  Augustini  in  suburbio  dicte 
ville  fundavit,  et  ipsam  ecclesiam  Omnium  Sanctorum  prefato 
monasterio  appropriari  fecit,  ac  vicarium  quemdam  de  capel- 
lanis  dicte  zilde  et  frarie  eligendum,  et  per  abbatem  et 
conventum  monasterii  predicti  episcopo  Wygornie  j^resen- 

The  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University.      1 133-49. 
The  Theological  Lectures  of  Robert  Pullein.      1133- 

[Oxford   Hist.   Soc.  Collect,  ii.   159,  from  Osney  Chron.   .-/;/;/.  Moit. 
(Rolls  Series),  ed.   Luard,  iv.  p.   19.] 

Mcxxxili.  Magister  Robertus  Pullein  scripturas  divinas, 
quae  in  Anglia  obsoluerant,  apud  Oxoniam  legere  coepit,  qui 
postea,  cum  ex  doctrina  eius  ecclesia  tarn  Anglicana  quam 
Gallicana  plurimum  profecisset,  a  Papa  Lucio  secundo  vocatus 
et  in  cancellarium  sancte  Romane  ecclesie  promotus  est. 

[//'.    160,  from  .MS.  Bodl.  712.  f.  375.] 

Mcxxxni.  Quomodo  Robertus  cognomento  PuUus  legit 
scripturas  divinas  apud  Oxon. 

Eodem  anno  venit  Magister  Robertus  cognomento  Pullus 
de  civitate  Exonia  Oxenfordiam,  ibique  scripturas  divinas,  que 
per  idem  tempus  in  Angliam  obsolete  erant,  et  scolasticis  (jui{)pc 
neglecte  fuerant,  per  quinquennium  legit,  omnique  diu  domi- 
nico  verbum  Dei  populo  predicavit.  Ex  cuius  doctrina 
plurimi  profecerunt,  qui  postea  ob  eximiam  doctrinam  ct 
religiosam  famam  a  Papa  Lucio  vocatus  et  in  cancellarium 
sancte  Romane  ecclesie  promotus  est. 

The  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University    loi 

Saints'  church,  and  established  a  school  at  Bristol  to  teach 
the  Jews  and  other  little  ones  under  the  government  of  the 
said  brotherhood  and  the  protection  of  the  Mayor  of  Bristol 
for  the  time  being  ;  and  founded  St  Augustine's  monastery  in 
the  suburbs  of  the  said  town  and  caused  All  Saints'  church  to 
be  appropriated  to  the  said  monastery,  and  a  vicar  to  be 
chosen  from  the  chaplains  of  the  said  gild  and  brotherhood, 
and  presented  by  the  abbot  and  convent  of  the  said 
monastery   to  the  bishop  of  Worcester. 

TJie  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University.     1 133-49. 

The  Theological  Lectures  of  Robert  PuUein.      1133- 

1 133.  Master  Robert  Pullein  began  to  lecture  at  Oxford 
on  the  Scriptures,  which  had  gone  out  of  fashion  in  England. 
Afterwards  when  both  the  English  and  the  French  church  had 
greatly  profited  by  his  teaching,  he  was  summoned  by  Pope 
Lucius  II,  and  promoted  to  be  chancellor  of  the  Holy  Roman 

1 133.  How  Robert,  surnamed  Chicken,  lectured  in  divinity 
at  Oxford. 

The  same  year  came  Master  Robert,  surnamed  Chicken, 
from  the  city  of  Exeter  to  Oxford,  and  for  five  years  read  divinity, 
which  at  that  time  had  gone  out  of  fashion  in  England  and 
had  been  neglected  by  schoolmasters,  and  every  Sunday  he 
preached  the  word  of  God  to  the  people.  Many  profited  by 
that  teaching  of  his.  And  afterwards  on  account  of  his 
excellent  teaching  and  religious  reputation  he  was  summoned 
by  Pope  Lucius  and  promoted  to  be  chancellor  of  the  Holy 
Roman   Churcli. 

I02     The  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University 

Mention  of  Clerks  from  all  over  England  at  Oxford. 

^.   II35- 

Ylb.  p.  162,  from  Mat.  for  Life  of  T.  Beckct,  ed.  Robertson  (Rolls 
Series),   11.  p.  97.] 

[Robert  of  Cricklade,  prior  of  St  Frideswide,  Oxford,  to 
Benedict,  abbot  of  Peterborough.] 

Testis  est  mihi  populus  civitatis  nostre,  quem  [quo  modo  ?] 
cum  in  festis  diebus,  quando  loquebar  ad  eos,  excitans  eos  pro 
modulo  meo  ad  sectandam  viani  iustitie,  cum  intcressent  eciam 
clerici  diversorum  locorum  Anglie,  pretendebam  cxcusacionem 
standi  pro  dolore  predicto,  et  sedens  loquebar. 

Robert,    Prior   of   St    Frideswide's,   Oxford,   formerly   a 
Scholar  and  Master  of  the  Schools  there,     c.   1135. 

[/(i.    161,   from  MS.  Ball.   Coll.  Cl.xvii.   f.    177,   Prefatiuncula   Roberti 
Prioris  Sancte  Frideswuth  in  Librum  de  Connubio  Jacob.] 

Domino  et  amico,  vere  venerabili  fratri,  Laurencio  monacho, 
monacho  sane  non  modo  habitu  et  professione  verum  eciam 
morum  honestate,  frater  Robertus.  Dum  adhuc  scolaris 
scolarum  insisterem  regimini,  libellum  quem  composueram,  sed 
estimo  id  niemoria  excidisse  tua,  tibi  transmitti  rogasti. 

Theobald  of  Etampes  and  his  Critic  on  Clerks  and 
Scholars.      Between    11 19  and   1135. 

\Ih.  153,  from  M.S.  Bodl.  561,  f.  61,  Iinpyopcriuiu  cuiiisdam  in 
Moitaihos.  ] 

Thurstano,  Dei  gracia  laudabili  Eboracensi  archiepiscopo, 
T.  Stampensis  Magister  Oxinfordie.  In  priniis  si  vales  bene, 
valeo.  Deinde  prout  nostre  occurrit  memorie  diligenter  ad 
interrogata  respondeo,  quia  aliud  est  ecclesia  aliud  est 

The  Beginnings  of  Oxford  University     103 

Mention  of  Clerks  from  all  over  England  at  Oxford. 
c.   1135- 

[Robert  of  Cricklade,  prior  of  St  Frideswide,  Oxford,  to 
Benedict,  abbot  of  Peterborough.] 

Witness  the  people  of  our  city,  that  when  I  spoke  to  them, 
on  feast  days,  urging  them  after  my  ability  to  follow  the  ways 
of  justice,  though  the  clerks  of  various  places  in  England  were 
present,  I  pleaded  an  excuse  for  standing  because  of  the  pain 
mentioned,  and  addressed  them  sitting. 

Robert,    Prior   of  St    Frideswide's,    Oxford,    formerly   a 
Scholar  and  Master  of  the  Schools  there,     c.   1135. 

To  his  lord  and  friend,  the  truly  venerable  brother, 
Laurence  the  monk,  a  monk  not  only  in  habit  and  profession 
but  also  in  conduct,  brother  Robert.  While  I  was  still  a 
scholar  and  engaged  in  teaching  school,  you  asked  me  to  send 
you  a  little  book  I  had  composed,  but  I  suppose  it  had  escaped 
your  memory. 

Theobald  of  Etampes  and  his  Critic  on  Clerks  and 
Scholars.     Between   11 19  and   1135. 

Thomas  of  Etampes,  Master  of  Oxford,  to  Thurstan,  by  the 
grace  of  God  worthy  archbishop  of  York.  And  first  if  you  are 
well  so  am  I.  Next  to  your  questions  as  they  occur  to  me,  I 
answer,  that  a  church  is  one  thing  and  a  monastery  another. 

I04  Clerks  and  Monks  at  Oxford 

Ecclesia  namque  est  convocacio  fidelium ;  monasterium 
vero  locus  et  career  damnatoruni,  id  est  monachorum,  qui  se 
ipsos  daninavcrunt  ut  damnacionem  evitarcnt  perpetuani. 
Fructuosius  tamen  daninantur  a  se  ipsis  quam  ah  alio.  NuUus 
autem  monachus  dignitatem  habet  clericalem ;  quod  enim 
habent  capicia  in  transverso  posita,  significacio  est  quia  ipsi 
clerum  exuentes  iam  perdiderunt  capita ;  quia  non  licet  eis 
populo  predicare,  vel  baptizare,  vel  penitentem  ligare  vel  solvere, 
sive  cetera  talia  que  dicuntur  ad  ecclesiam  pertinere.... 

Qui  monasticum  habitum  eligendo,  et  mundum  postponendo, 
se  ipsum  damnando  dignitate  ecclesiastica  indignum  iudicavit. 
Quod  si  monachus  sancte  ecclesie  regimen  quandoque  sortiatur, 
hoc  non  lege  ecclesiastica,  sed  qu.^dam  dispensacione  voluntaria, 
et  clericorum  penuria,  fieri  comj)robatur.... 

[//;.  156  (and  here  corrected),  from  Kescriptiim  ctiiusdam  pro  A/onachis, 
MS.  BodL  561,  f.  62.] 

...Monachus,  inquit,  si  quando  regimen  ecclesie  sortiatur, 
non  fit  lege  ecclesiastica  sed  quasi  dis{)ensacione  voluntaria,  et 
clericorum  penuria... 

O  inquam  clericorum  penuria.  O  clericorum  et  canoni- 
corum  vindicanda  iniuria.  Rogo  itaque  vos,  probi  scolastici, 
obsecro  vos  valentes  clerici,  contestor  vos  religiosi  canonici, 
imitamini  Christum  ducem  vestrum,  estote  patientes,  deponite 
lapides,  continete  manus,  non  lapidetur,  nee,  sicut  meruit,  miser 
patiatur.  Omnium  enim  in  commune  hostis  esse  i)robatur. 
O  clericorum  penuria.  O  versipellis  vanitas,  tjuid  dixisti  ? 
Numquid  Rome  clericorum  est  penuria  ?  numquid  Mediolani  ? 
numquid  Ticini?  numquid  Ravenne  ?  O  penuria.  Numcjuid 
Antisiodori  ?  numquid  Turonis  ?  numquid  Carnoti  ?  num(}uid 
Parisius  ?  numcjuid  Andegavis  ?  nuuKjuid  Rotomagi  ?  numcjuid 
Baiocis?  O  penuria.  Num([uid  Eboraci  ?  numquid  Lundonie  ? 
numquid  Salesberie  ?  numquid  Lincolnie  ?     0  penuria 

Dicis  quia  monasteria  eo  quod  a  monachis  inhabitantur 
locus  et  career  sunt  damnatoruni,  et  ideo  iure  vocantur  ancilla  ; 
non    attendens    quia    monasteria    similiter    a    clericis    sicut    a 

Clerks  and  Monks  at  Oxford  105 

For  a  church  is  an  assembly  of  the  faithful,  but  a  monastery 
is  a  place  and  prison  of  the  damned,  that  is  of  monks,  who 
have  damned  themselves  to  avoid  eternal  damnation.  They 
are  however  more  profitably  damned  by  themselves  than  by 
someone  else.  Now  no  monk  has  the  dignity  of  a  clerk,  for 
their  wearing  their  head-coverings  crosswise  is  a  sign  that 
they  in  putting  off  their  clergy  have  lost  their  heads ;  for  it 
is  not  lawful  for  them  to  preach  to  the  people  or  baptize  or  bind 
or  absolve  a  penitent,  or  do  the  rest  of  such  things  as  are  stated 
to  be  the  business  of  the  church.... 

The  man  who  by  choosing  the  monastic  habit  and  putting 
the  world  aside,  by  thus  damning  himself  has  judged  himself 
unworthy  of  the  dignity  of  an  ecclesiastic.  And  if  a  monk 
sometimes  obtains  the  rule  of  holy  church,  this  is  not  in 
accordance  with  the  ecclesiastical  law,  but  is  proved  to  be  by 
a  sort  of  dispensation  given  at  will,  and  through  the  want  of 

...A  monk,  he  says,  if  he  at  any  time  obtains  the  rule  of 
the  church,  does  not  do  so  by  ecclesiastical  law  but  as  it  were 
by  a  dispensation  at  will  and  for  want  of  clerks — 

Want  of  clerks,  I  say  I  This  is  an  insult  to  clerks  and 
canons  which  calls  for  vengeance.  Now,  I  ask  you,  honoured 
schoolmasters,  I  beseech  you  valiant  clerks,  I  call  you  to  witness 
religious  canons,  imitate  Christ  your  leader,  be  patient,  put 
down  your  stones,  hold  your  hands,  let  not  the  wretched  man 
be  stoned  and  suffer  as  he  deserves.  For  he  is  shown  to  be 
the  common  enemy  of  all.  Want  of  clerks  !  O  crafty  emptiness, 
what  have  you  said  ?  Is  there  a  want  of  clerks  at  Rome  ?  is 
there  at  Milan?  at  Ticino?  at  Ravenna?  A  want  !  Is  there  at 
Auxerre  ?  at  Tour  ?  at  Chartres  ?  at  Paris  ?  at  Anjou  ?  at 
Rouen  ?  at  Bayeux  ?  Oh,  is  there  a  want  of  clerks  at  York  ? 
at  London?    at  Salisbury?   at  Lincoln?   A  want!... 

You  say  that  monasteries,  because  they  are  inhabited  by 
monks,  are  a  place  and  prison  of  the  damned,  and  therefore 
rightly  called  cells ;    forgetting  that  minsters  [also  monasteria 

io6  Clerks  and  Monks  at  Oxford 

monachis,  ut  supradictum  est,  inhabitantur,  quemadmodum 
ecclesia.  Quid  igitur  monasteria  Mediolani,  Turotiis,  Carnoti, 
Lugduni,  Catalaune,  Pictavis,  Rotoniagi,  Lundonie,  Salesberie, 
Lincolie,  Eboraci,  que  omnia  a  clericis  incoluntur,  numquid 
ancilla  iure  dicuntur?...Et  si  vagorum  noverasvicia  clericorum, 
debueras  tamen  honorem  deferre  timori  magistrorum  et 
religioni  canonicorum.  'O  Coridon,  Coridon,  que  te  demencia 
cepit?'  Numquid  non  sunt  ubique  terrarum  liberales 
magistri,  qui  dicuntur  et  clerici  ?  Tu  quoque,  nescioquis, 
nonne  magistri  vice  sexagenos  aut  centenos,  plus  minusve, 
clericos  regere  diceris,  quibus  venditor  verborum  cupidus 
eflficeris,  forsitan  ut  eos  incautos  nequissime  fallas,  sicut  et  ipse 
falleris?  Unde  ergo  ista  tua  clericorum  penuria?  Nam  ut  de 
ceteris  provinciis  sileam,  fere  totidem  aut  plures  sunt  per 
Galliam  et  Alemanniam,  per  Normanniam  et  Angliam,  non 
solum  in  urbibus  et  castellis,  verum  etiam  et  in  villulis, 
peritissimi  scolarum  magistri,  quot  fiscorum  regalium  exactores 
et  ministri.  Unde  ergo  clericorum  penuria?  Quid  igitur? 
Numquid  hie  sic  exensis  efficitur  ut  tales  nee  clericos  nee 
canonicos  appellare  dignetur?  An  potius  constat  eum  contra 
monachos  in  ira  sic  exarsisse,  ut  quid  diceret  noluerit 
previdisse  ? 

Lectures  on  Roman  Law  at  Oxford.      1149- 

[7(6.  166,  Kol).  de  Monte,  C/iron.,  I'ertz,  Script,  vi.  p.  476.] 

...Magister  Vacarius,  gente  Longobardus,  vir  honestus  et 
iurisperitus,  cum  leges  Ronianas  anno  ab  incarnacione  Domini 
MCXLix  in  Anglia  discipulos  doceret,  et  multi  tam  divites  quam 
pauperes  ad  eum  causa  discendi  confluerent,  suggestione 
pauperum  de  Codice  et  Digesta  excerptos  ix  libros  composuit, 
qui  sufificiunt  ad  onines  legum  lites  ([ue  in  scolis  frecjuentari 
solent  decidendas,  si  quis  eos  perfecte  noverit. 

Clerks  and  Monks  at  Oxford  107 

in  Latin]  are  inhabited  by  clerks  just  as  much  as  by  monks, 
just  as  the  church  is.  For  what  of  the  minsters  at  Milan, 
Turin,  Chartres,  Lyons,  Chalons,  Poitou,  Rouen,  London, 
Salisbury,  Lincoln,  York,  which  are  all  inhabited  by  clerks? 
are  they,  too,  properly  called  cells  ?  And  if  you  were  thinking 
of  the  vices  of  wandering  clerks,  you  ought  nevertheless  to  have 
given  due  honour  to  the  dreaded  masters  and  religious  canons. 
'O  Corydon,  Corydon,  what  madness  has  seized  thee?'  Are 
there  not  everywhere  on  earth  masters  of  the  liberal  arts,  who 
also  are  called  clerks?  You  yourself,  a  nobody,  are  you  not 
said  to  have  taught  as  a  master  60  or  100  clerks,  more  or  less? 
Have  you  not  been  a  greedy  seller  of  words  to  them,  and 
perhaps  have  wickedly  deceived  them  in  their  ignorance,  as 
you  have  deceived  yourself?  Where  then,  I  pray,  is  this  want 
of  clerks  of  yours?  For  not  to  mention  other  parts  of  the 
Empire,  are  there  not  nearly  as  many  or  more  skilled  school- 
masters in  France  and  Germany,  in  Normandy  and  England, 
not  only  in  boroughs  and  cities,  but  even  in  country  towns,  as 
there  are  tax  collectors  and  magistrates  ?  Where  then  is  your 
want  of  clerks  ?  What  then  ?  Is  he  so  out  of  his  mind  as  not 
to  think  them  worthy  to  be  called  clerks  or  canons  ?  or  is 
it  not  rather  clear  that  he  was  so  angry  with  the  monks,  that 
he  could  not  think  beforehand  what  he  would  say. 

Lectures  on  Roman  Law  at  Oxford.      1149. 

...Master  Vacarius,  a  Lombard  by  birth,  an  upright  man  and 
a  lawyer,  while  in  1 149  he  was  teaching  Roman  law  to  his  pupils, 
and  many,  both  rich  and  poor,  flocked  to  learn  from  him, 
at  the  suggestion  of  his  poor  pupils,  composed  nine  books 
extracted  from  the  Code  and  the  Digest,  which  enable  anyone 
who  knows  them  thoroughly  to  settle  all  the  points  of  law  which 
are  commonly  discussed  in  the  schools. 

io8  Ro7nan  Law  at  Oxford 

]^Ib.  1 68,  from  Gervas.  Cant.,  ed.  Stubhs  (Rolls  Series),  li.  p.  384.] 

Indignatus  Theodbaldus,  et  Thome,  clerici  Londoniensis, 
industria  fretus,  egit  apud  Celestinum  papam,  qui  Innocencio 
successit,  ut  amoto  Henrico  'I'heodbaldus  in  Anglia  legacione 
fungeretur.  Oriuntur  hinc  inde  discordie  graves,  lites  et 
appellaciones  antea  inaudite.  Tunc  leges  et  causidici  in 
Angliam  primo  vocati  sunt,  quorum  primus  erat  magister 
Vacarius.  Hie  in  Oxonefordia  legem  docuit,  et  apud  Romam 
magister  Gracianus  et  Alexander  qui  et  Rodlandus,  in  proximo 
papa  futurus,  canones  compilavit. 

Law  Lectures  of  Vacarius  stopped,     c.    1 1 50. 

\Ih.  165,  from  Jolin  of  Sali.shur\'s  Polirraticus,  written  1159,  VIII.  §  22, 
ed.  Giles,  vol.  iv.  p.  357.] 

Tempore  regis  Stephani  a  regno  iusse  sunt  leges  Romane, 
quas  in  Britanniam  domus  venerabilis  patris  Theobaldi, 
Britanniarum  primatis,  asciverat.  Ne  quis  enim  libros  retineret 
edicto  regie  prohibitum  est,et  Vacario  nostro  indictum  silencium, 
sed,  Deo  faciente,  eo  magis  virtus  legis  invaluit,  quo  earn  amplius 
nitebatur  impietas  infirmare. 

Cotijirmation  of  Derby  School  to  Darley   Abbey, 
c-    1155- 

[.\.  F.  Leach,    T.  C.  H.  Dcrbyshirt',  II.  209,  Darley  Abhey  C'haitukuy, 
Cott.  .M.SS.  Titus,  c.  IX.  f.  182.] 

Confirmacio  Walteri  Covcntrcnsis  I-^piscopi  super  divcrsis 
donacionibus  Canonicis  de   Dcrlcy  factis. 

W.  Dei  gracia  Cestrensis  Episcopus  univcrsis  Sancte  Ecclesie 
fidelibus,  salutem. 

Confirmando  locum  in  quo  fundata  est  ecclesia  Sancte 
Marie  super  Derewent,  intimamus  vobis  ea  tjue  canonicis  ad 
opus  ecclesie  fidelium  oblacionibus  collata  accepimus  ;  scilicet, 

Roman  Law  at  Oxford  109 

[Archbishop]  Theobald  was  indignant,  and  through  the 
instrumentality  of  Thomas  of  London  [Becket],  a  clerk,  pre- 
vailed on  Pope  Celestine,  Innocent's  successor,  to  remove 
Henry  [de  Blois]  and  let  Theobald  be  legate  in  England. 
Thereupon  great  disputes  arose,  and  suits  and  appeals  before 
unheard  of.  Then  the  Roman  law  and  lawyers  were  first 
invited  to  England,  the  first  of  them  being  Master  Vacarius. 
He  taught  law  in  Oxford,  while  at  Rome  Master  Gratian  and 
Alexander  Roland,  who  was  to  be  the  next  Pope,  compiled  the 
Canons  [i.e.  the  Corpus  Juris  Canonici], 

Law  Lectures  of  Vacarius  stopped,     c.   1150. 

In  king  Stephen's  time  the  Roman  law,  which  the  household 
of  the  venerable  father  Theobald,  primate  of  Britain,  had 
brought  in,  was  expelled  from  the  kingdom.  A  royal  edict 
prohibited  anyone  keeping  books  of  it  and  silence  was  enjoined 
on  our  Vacarius,  but,  by  God's  grace,  the  law  grew  stronger  the 
more  irreligion  tried  to  weaken  it. 

Confirmation  of  Derby  School  to  Darley  Abbey. 

c.    I  I 


Confirmation  by  Walter,  bishop  of  Coventry,  of  sundry 
gifts  made  to  the  canons  of  Darley. 

W[alter]  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Chester  to  all  the 
faithful  of  holy  church,  greeting. 

Confirming  the  place  in  which  is  founded  the  church  of 
St  Mary  on  Derwent,  we  let  you  know  those  things  which  we 
have  heard  have  been  given  the  canons  for  the  work  of  the  church 
by  the  offerings  of  the  faithful ;  namely,  by  the  gift  of  Henry, 

1 1  o       Derby  School  and  Boarding- House 

de  dono  Henrici  Regis  Anglorum  Derlegam,  et  locum  et 
fundum  ubi  predicta  ecclesia  fundata  est. 

Et  quicquid  eis  racionabiliter  datum  est :  ex  dono  Willelmi 
Barbe  Aprilis  et  meo,  scolam  de  Derbie:...Ex  dono  Roberti, 
comitis  de  Ferrariis,  et  de  concessione  Regis  Stephani,  quia 
de  suo  patrimonio  est,  decimam  de  tercio  denario  de  Derby... 
concedo  cum  ecclesiis  Sancti  Petri,  et  Sancti  Michaelis,  et 
Sancti  Wereburge  de  Derby.... 

Concedimus  eciam  quod  predictus  Abbas  sit  Decanus  de 
omnibus  ecclesiis  que  data  sunt  ecclesie  sue  in  Derbisira :  et 
specialiter  eciam  de  omnibus  ecclesiis  que  sunt  in  Derbie :  et 
teneat  capitulum  de  clericis  secularibus,  ut  cum  ipsis  et  per 
ipsos  iudicet  que  secundum  canones  licet  Decanis  iudicare. ... 

Et  obnixi  tam  maiores  quam  minores,  tam  presentes  quam 
futures,  caritative  rogamus  banc  predictam  ecclesiam  religione 
stabilem,  literis  decoratam  provehant  et  protegant. 

Grant  of  House  in  Derby  for  School  and 
B carding- Hoiise.     c.    1 1 60. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  II.  Derbyshire,  II.  213,  from  Cott.  MSS.  Titus, 
c.    IX.   f.   58.] 

Domino  suo  Henrico  Regi  Anglic  et  R.  Cestrensi  Episcopo 
et  omnibus  sancte  matris  ecclesie  filiis  Walkelinus  de  Derbeia 
et  Goda  uxor  sua,  salutem. 

Notum  sit  vobis  quod  ego  Walkelinus  et  (ioda  uxor  mea 
dedimus  et  hac  presenti  carta  nostra  confirmavimus  Deo  et 
ecclesie  Sancte  Marie  de  Derleia  et  canonicis  ibidem  Deo 
servientibus  in  puram  et  perpetuam  elemosinam  pro  salute 
Domini  nostri  Regis  et  pro  salute  animarum  nostrarum  ct 
antecessorum  nostrorum,  salvo  servicio  Regis ;  scilicet,  sex 
solidis  annuatim  pro  omni  servicio.... 

Totam  tenuram  quam  ego  Walkelinus  emi  de  Willelmo  de 
Heriz  in  molendinis  et  terris  infra  burgum  et  extra,  sicut  carta 
ipsius  testatur. 

Derby  School  and  Boarding- House       1 1 1 

king  of  the  English,  Darley,  and  the  place  and  land  where  the 
said  church  is  founded. 

And  whatsoever  was  reasonably  given  to  them  ;  by  the  gift  of 
William  of  the  April  beard  and  myself,  the  school  of  Derby ;. . .  by 
the  gift  of  Robert,  earl  of  Ferrers,  and  the  grant  of  king  Stephen, 
because  it  is  of  his  own  patrimony,  the  tithe  of  the  third 
penny  of  Derby... I  grant  with  the  churches  of  St  Peter  and 
St  Michael  and  St  Werburgh  of  Derby.... 

We  grant  also  that  the  aforesaid  Abbot  shall  be  dean  of  all 
the  churches  which  have  been  given  to  his  church  in  Derby- 
shire, and  especially  of  all  the  churches  in  Derby,  and  may  hold 
a  chapter  of  the  secular  clerks,  that  with  them  and  by  them  he 
may  judge  whatever  according  to  canon  law  deans  may  judge — 

And  we  earnestly  ask  and  entreat  all,  as  well  great  as  small, 
those  living  and  those  to  come,  in  the  name  of  charity,  that  they 
will  advance  and  protect  the  aforesaid  church  now  established 
in  religion  and  adorned  with  learning. 

Grant  of  House  in  Derby  for  School  and 
Boa7^ding- House .     c.    1 1 60. 

To  their  lord,  Henry,  king  of  England,  and  to  Richard, 
bishop  of  Chester,  and  to  all  the  sons  of  holy  mother  church, 
Walkelin  of  Derby  and  Goda  his  wife,  greeting. 

Be  it  known  to  you  that  I,  Walkelin,  and  Goda  my  wife, 
have  given  and  by  this  our  present  deed  confirmed  to  God  and 
the  church  of  St  Mary  of  Darley  and  the  canons  serving  God 
there  in  pure  and  perpetual  alms,  for  the  health  of  our  lord 
the  king  and  for  the  health  of  our  souls  and  our  ancestors', 
saving  the  king's  service,  namely,  6^-.  a  year  for  all  service.  . . 

All  that  holding  which  I,  A\'alkelin,  bought  of  William 
of  Heriz,  in  mills  and  lands  inside  the  borough  and  outside,  as 
his  deed  witnesses. 

1 1 2  Appeal  to  the  Pope  abotit   Winchester  School 

Uedimus  eciam  unam  seldam  mercatoriam  et  unam  bovatam 
terre  quas  ego  Walkelinus  emi  de  Gutha,  et  duas  acras  quas 
emi  de  Helga,  et  unam  acram  quain  emi  de  Oldrico  presbitero, 
et  unam  acram  et  dimidium  quas  emi  de  Ricardo  Cuinterel,  et 
unam  acram  quani  emi  de  Eadrico,  que  est  super  foveam 
iudiciariam,  et  unam  acram  quam  emi  de  Willelmo  iblundo,  et 
unum  messuagium  quod  emi  de  Roberto  filio  Wewenild  ;  et 
unam  acram  super  Capam  quam  ego  (ioda  emi,  et  messuagium 
ubi  manemus,  quod  ego  Walkelinus  emi  de  Willelmo  Cusin  et 
de  Helga,  cum  omnibus  edificiis  que  in  eo  sunt,  secundum 
banc  disposicionem  ;  scilicet,  quod  aula  sit  in  scolam  clericorum, 
et  thalami  sint  in  hospicium  Magistri  et  clericorum  in  per- 
petuum  ;  ita  quod  nee  Abbas  nt"  Magister  nee  aliquis  accipiat 
aliquid  pro  locacione  harum  domorum,  et  quod  pervenerit 
de  furno  sit  hospitali  canonicorum  ad  pauperes  sustentandos. 

Cetera  autem  edificia  sint  in  usus  canonicorum. 

Appeal  from  Court  of  Arches  to  the  Pope  aboiU 
Winchester  School,     c.    1 1  59. 

[A.   F.    Leach,   Hisl.  of  Winchester  College,    1899,  P-  37!    from  Kpist. 
/oh.  .S(ires/>erieiis/s,  t-d.    Dr  Giles,  No.    19.] 

Causaque  vertebatur  inter  magistrum  Jordanum  Fantasmaet 
magistrum  Johannem  Joichellum,  clericos  domini  Wintoniensis 
super  Wintoniam,  tandem  translata  est  ad  audientiam  nostram. 
Auditis  ergo  allegationibus  magistri  Jordani,  et  instrunientis 
diligenter  inspectis,  memorato  Johanni  vestra  et  nostra  auctori- 
tate  inhibuimus  ne  contra  voluntatem  Jordani  scolas  rcgere 
presumeret  in  prefata  civitate.  Die  vero  sequenti  in  nostra 
presentia  constiterunt,  multa  in  se  proponentes  ad  invicem  : 
Jordanus  siquidem  jam  dictum  Johannem  contra  religionem 
fidei  in  predicta  civitate  sibi  scolas  usurpasse,  et  danipna 
plurima  intulisse  dicebat,  officio  nostro  sibi  super  his  satisfieri 

Appeal  to  the  Pope  about  Winchester  School  1 1 3 

We  have  also  given  the  merchant's  shop  and  an  oxgang  of 
land,  which  I,  Walkelin,  bought  of  Gutha,  and  two  acres  which 
I  bought  of  Helga,  and  an  acre  which  I  bought  of  Oldric  the 
priest,  and  one-and-a-half  acres  which  I  bought  of  Richard 
the  girdler,  and  an  acre  which  I  bought  of  Eadric,  which  is  on 
the  well  of  justice  [the  cuckstool  pit],  and  an  acre  which  I 
bought  of  William  the  fair,  and  a  messuage  which  I  bought  of 
Robert,  son  of  Wewenild:  and  an  acre  on  the  sluice  which 
I,  Goda,  bought,  and  the  messuage  in  which  we  live,  which  I, 
Walkelin,  bought  of  William  Cusin  and  of  Helga,  with  all  the 
buildings  in  it,  on  this  trust,  that  the  hall  shall  be  for  a  school 
of  clerks,  and  the  chambers  shall  be  to  house  the  master  and 
clerks  for  ever,  so  that  neither  the  abbot  nor  the  master  nor 
anyone  may  take  anything  for  leasing  the  house,  and  that  the 
proceeds  of  the  oven  may  be  for  the  canons'  hospital  to 
maintain  the  poor. 

The  other  buildings,  however,  shall  be  for  the  use  of  the 

Appeal  from  Court  of  Arches  to  the  Pope  about 
Winchester  School.     ^.1159. 

A  case  which  was  argued  between  Master  Jordan  the 
Phantom  and  Master  John  Jekyll,  clerks  of  the  lord  [bishop]  of 
Winchester,  at  Winchester,  was  at  length  transferred  to  be 
heard  by  us.  Having  heard  therefore  the  allegations  of  Master 
Jordan  and  carefully  inspected  the  documents,  we  granted  by 
your  and  our  authority  an  inhibition  against  the  said  John, 
that  he  should  not  presume  to  teach  school  in  the  said  city 
without  the  consent  of  Jordan.  But  the  next  day  they 
appeared  before  us  with  many  allegations  against  each  other. 
Jordan  said  that  the  said  John  had  against  all  good  faith 
usurped  the  school  in  the  city  aforesaid  and  had  inflicted 
much  damage  on  him,  and  demanded  that  through  our  court 
L.  8 

1 1 4  Appeal  to  the  Pope  about  Winchester  School 

postulans.     E  contra  Johannes  se  judicio  sinodi  super  fidei 

lesione  innocentiam   suam   purgasse   asserebat,    et    magistrum 

J.,  cui   similis    purgatio  adjudicata  est,  quoniam   super   fidei 

lesione   similiter   fuerat   inpetitus,    omnino    defecisse   dicebat, 

petens   ut   eum    urgeremus    vel   ad    purgationem    ex    judicio 

prestandani,  vel  ad  inplendani  pactionem  (|ue  fide  interposita 

dicebatur    fuisse    roborata.       I  His    itaque    sic    altercantibus, 

Johannes  vestram  audicntiam  appellavit,  dicens  se  ostensurum 

quod   sepe    dictus   Jordanus    religionem    fidei    et    sacramenti 

temeraverat,  diem  prefigens  nativitatem  beati  Johannis.     Cum 

vero  Jordanus  prolixitatem  temporis  causaretur,   eo  quod  ab 

initio  decembris  usque  ad  finem  junii  terminum  prorogasset, 

eam  sepefatus  Johannes  in  festum  beati  Michaelis  protelavit. 

Nos  autem  questionem  criminum  vestre  reservantes  discretioni, 

quia  de  jure  scolarum  magistri  Jordani  constahat,  communicato 

fratrum   nostrorum    Cicestrensis,    Herefordensis,   W'igorniensis, 

episcoporum  consiiio,  domino  Wintoniensi  dcdimusin  mandatis 

ne    prefatum    Jordanum    super    scolis    pateretur    a    Johanne 

ulterius  fatigari,  et,  si  eum  inveniret  vestre  et  nostre  auctoritatis 

contemptorem,  ipsum  publice  denuntiaret  anathematis  vinculo 

innodatum.     Postmodum  vero  elapsis  paucis  diebus,  in  nostram 

presentiam  redierunt,    Jordano    veterem  querelam  innovante. 

Dicebat  enim  Johannem  post  interdictum    usurpasse   scolas, 

et  in  sententiam  anathematis  incidisse.     Johannes  vero    hoc 

constantissime  inficiatus  est,  paratus  incontinenti,  tactis  sacro- 

sanctis  Ewangeliis,  jurare  quod  post   prohibitionem   nostram 

a    magisterio   destiterat.     E   contra   Jordanus    se   die    prefixa 

probaturum    dicebat,    assertione    legittimorum    testium,    quod 

post    edictum    magisterium    exercuerat ;    sed    Johannes   diem 

recipere  recusavit,  dicens  se  jam  in  procinctu  Romani  itineris 

esse.     Vos  autem  auctore  Domino  litigiis  eorum  finem  debitum 


Appeal  to  the  Pope  about  Winchester  School  1 1 5 

he  should  receive  satisfactory  damages  for  this.  On  the  other 
hand,  John  asserted  that  he  had  in  the  judgment  of  the 
[provincial]  synod  purged  himself  of  the  charge  of  breach  of 
faith,  and  said  that  Master  Jordan,  who  had  been  ordered  a  like 
purgation,  since  he  had  likewise  been  impeached  for  breach  of 
faith,  had  wholly  failed  to  do  so ;  and  he  asked  that  we  should 
compel  him  either  to  the  purgation  according  to  the  judgment, 
or  to  perform  the  contract  which  was  alleged  to  have  been 
ratified  by  the  exchange  of  pledges  of  good  faith.  While  they 
were  thus  disputing,  John  appealed  to  your  audience,  saying 
he  would  show  that  the  aforesaid  Jordan  had  defiled  the 
sanctity  of  faith  and  oath,  naming  the  24th  June.  But  when 
Jordan  began  to  object  to  the  long  delay,  as  he  proposed  to  put 
the  term  off  from  the  beginning  of  December  to  the  end  of 
June,  the  said  John  adjourned  it  to  Michaelmas.  Thereupon 
we,  reserving  for  your  discretion  the  investigation  of  the  charges 
[of  breach  of  faith],  as  the  right  of  Master  Jordan  to  the 
school  was  clear,  with  the  advice  of  our  brethren,  the  bishops 
of  Chichester,  Hereford  and  Worcester,  directed  the  lord  of 
Winchester  not  to  allow  the  aforesaid  Jordan  to  be  further 
troubled  about  the  school  by  John,  and,  if  he  should  find  him 
[John]  guilty  of  contempt  of  your  and  our  authority,  publicly  to 
proclaim  him  excommunicate.  A  few  days  afterwards,  however, 
they  came  before  us  again,  Jordan  renewing  the  old  plaint.  He 
said  that  John  had  usurped  the  school  after  an  injunction,  and 
had  therefore  incurred  the  sentence  of  excommunication.  John, 
however,  persistently  denied  it,  and  professed  his  readiness  to 
take  his  corporal  oath  on  the  holy  gospels,  that  since  our 
prohibition  he  had  desisted  from  teaching.  Against  this 
Jordan  said  that  he  would  show  on  a  day  he  named,  by  the 
evidence  of  good  witnesses,  that  he  had  acted  as  master  since 
the  injunction  ;  but  John  refused  to  accept  the  day  fixed,  saying 
he  was  already  getting  ready  for  a  journey  to  Rome.  I  pray  you, 
by  the  help  of  the  Lord,  put  an  effectual  end  to  their  litigation. 

1 1 6         Bedford  and  St  Albans  Schools 

Transfer  of  Bedford  School  from  the  Canons  of 
St   Paul's,    Bedford,    to    Newnhani   Priory, 
c.    1 1 60. 

[A.  K.  Leach,    V.  C.  H.  Bedfordshire,  il.  152,  from  Newenham  Cart. 
Harl.  MS.  3656,  fol.  94  (88  pencil).] 

Recognicio  quod  decime  de  Hordelhida  et  scole  Bed. 
sunt  de  jure  ecclesie  S.  Pauli  Bed. 

Universissanctematris  ecclesie  filiis  Nicholaus  Archidiaconus 
Bedfordensis  salutem.  Noverit  universitas  vestra  quod  Capellam 
Sancte  Marie  de  Bedfordia  cum  decimis  de  Hordelhida  et  scolas 
Bed.  quas  ego  aliciuamdiu  assensu  concanonicorum  meorum  in 
manu  habui,  confiteor  esse  de  jure  et  pertinencia  ecclesie 
Sancti  Pauli  Bed.  Et  ideo  eas  Augerio  Priori  et  conventui 
canonicorum  regularium  ejusdetn  ecclesie  sponte  mea  resignavi. 

Education  of  A  lexattder  Neckhani,  Schoolboy,  at 
St  Albans,  c.  i  1 67,  and  Student  at  Paris, 
c.    1 1  73. 

[A.  V.  Leach,   V.  C.  II.  Herts,   il.] 

Hie  locus  etatis  nostre  primordia  novit, 

Annos  felices  leticieque  dies. 
Hie  locus  ingenuis  pueriles  imbuit  annos 

Artibus,  et  nostre  laudis  origo  fuit. 

Vix  aliquis  locus  est  dicta  mihi   notior  urbe 
Qua  modici   Pontis  parva  columna  fui. 

Hie  artes  didici  docuique  fidcliter,  inde 
Accessit  studio  leccio  .sacra  meo. 

Audivi  canones,   Hippocratcm  cum  (Jalicno, 
Jus  civile  mihi  displicuisse  negas. 

Bedford  and  St  Albans  Schools  1 1 7 

Transfer  of  Bedford  School  from  the  Canons  of 
St  Paul's,  Bedford,  to  Newnhani  Priory, 
c.    I  1 60. 

Recognizance  that  the  tithes  of  Hordelhide  and  the  school 
of  Bedford  belong  to  St  Paul's  Church,  Bedford. 

To  all  the  sons  of  holy  mother  church,  Nicholas,  Arch- 
deacon of  Bedford,  greeting.  Know  ye  all  that  the  chapel 
of  St  Mary  of  Bedford  with  the  tithes  of  Hordelhide  and 
Bedford  School,  which  I  have  held  for  some  time  with  the 
consent  of  my  fellow-canons,  I  confess  to  be  of  the  right  and 
appurtenant  to  St  Paul's  Church,  Bedford.  And  therefore 
I  have  voluntarily  resigned  them  to  Auger,  Prior,  and  the 
convent  of  canons  regular  of  that  church. 

Education  of  Alexander  A^eckham,  Schoolboy,  at 
St  Albans,  c.  1167,  and  Studejit  at  Paris, 
c.    1 173. 

St  Albans  knew  me  when  I  was  a  boy. 
Those  years  of  happiness  and  days  of  joy. 
The  liberal  arts,  St  Albans  taught  me  then. 
The  first  beginning  of  my  fame  'mongst  men. 

Scarce  any  place  is  better  known  than  that. 
Where  as  an  arch  of  Petit-pont  I  sat. 
There  faithfully  I  learnt  and  taught  the  arts. 
While  Scripture  reading  added  to   my  parts  ; 
Lectures  on  canon  law  and  medicine. 
On  civil  law,  too,  I  did  not  decline. 

ii8         Canon  Law  on  Licences  to  teach 

Canon  Law  forbids  any  Charge  for  Licence 
to  teach,     c.    1 1 60. 

[A.  V,  Leach,  Early  Yori-s  ft  ire  Schools,  I.  from  Decretal  v.  tit.  5,  cap.  2, 
I)e  Magistris.] 

Pro  licentia  docendi  nihil  exigi  debet  vel  promitti,  et 
exactum  restitui  et  pFomissum  remitti  debet ;  et  negligente 
inferiore  praelato  ad  magistrum  constituendum,  supplebit  hoc 

Alexander  III,  Wintoniensi  [Wiennensi  ?]  Episcopo. 

Prohibeas  attentiu.s  de  cetero  ne  in  parrochia  tua  pro 
licentia  docendi  aliquos  cxigatur  aliquid  aut  etiam  promittatur. 
Si  'quid  veto  postea  solutum  fuerit  vel  promissum,  remitti  pro- 
missum  facias  et  restitui  appellatione  cessante  solutum,  sciens 
quod  scriptum  est  'Gratis  accepistis,  gratis  date.' 

Sane  si  quis  occasione  hujus  prohibitionis  distulerit 
magistros  in  locis  idoneis  instituere,  tibi  liceat  de  concessione 
nostra,  omni  contradictione  et  appellatione  postposita,  ibi 
aliorum  instruction!  praeficere  viros  providos,  honestos  et 

Canon  Law  overrides  Custo?n  to  charge  Fees 
for  Licences  to  teach.      i  170-2. 

lib.  c.  3-] 

Pro  licentia  docendi  pecunia  exigi  non  debet,  etiamsi  hoc 
habeat  consuetudo. 


Quanto  Gallicana  ecclesia  personarum  scientia  et  honestate 
praefulget,  et  cautius  nititur  evitare  quae  confundere  vide- 
antur  ecclesiasticam  honestatem,  tanto  vchemcntiori  dignos  cos 
esse  animadversione  censcmus,  qui  nomen  Magislri  Scolarum  ct 
dignitatem  assumunt  in  ecclesiis  vestris,  et  sine  certo  pretio 
ecclesiasticis  viris  docendi  alios  licentiam  non  impendunt. 

Quum  autem  haec  prava  et  enormis  consuetudo  a  cupidi- 

Canon  Law  on  Licences  to  teach  119 

Canon  Laiv  forbids  any  Charge  for  Licence 
to  teach,     c.    1 1 60. 

For  licence  to  teach  nothing  shall  be  exacted  or  promised ; 
and  anything  exacted  shall  be  restored  and  the  promise 
released ;  and  when  an  inferior  authority  neglects  to  appoint  a 
master,  the  superior  shall  supply  the  defect. 

Pope  Alexander  III  [1159 — 1181]  to  the  bishop  of 
Winchester  [?  Vienne]. 

Strictly  prohibit  for  the  future  any  exaction  or  promise  of 
anything  from  anyone  in  your  diocese  for  licence  to  teach.  If, 
however,  hereafter  anything  shall  have  been  paid  or  promised, 
you  shall  cause  the  promise  to  be  released  and  that  which  has 
been  paid  to  be  returned  without  any  appeal ;  knowing  that  it 
was  written,  'Freely  ye  have  received,  freely  give.' 

Moreover,  if  because  of  this  prohibition  anyone  shall  put  off 
instituting  masters  in  proper  places,  you  may,  in  virtue  of  our 
grant,  disregarding  all  opposition  or  appeal,  prefer  there  for  the 
instruction  of  others  prudent,  upright  and  discreet  persons. 

Canon  Law  overrides  Custom  to  charge  Fees 
for  Licences  to  teach.      11  70-2. 

For  licence  to  teach  no  money  ought  to  be  exacted,  even  if 
there  is  a  custom  to  do  so. 

The  same  to  the  same. 

By  so  much  as  the  church  of  France  is  illustrious  for  the 
learning  and  reputation  of  its  dignitaries,  and  the  more  care- 
fully it  strives  to  avoid  whatever  may  upset  the  honour  of  the 
church,  so  much  the  more  do  we  think  worthy  of  rebuke  those 
who  assume  the  name  and  dignity  of  Schoolmaster  in  your 
churches,  and  refuse  members  of  the  church  licence  to  teach 
without  fees. 

But  whereas  this  bad  and  illegal  custom   proceeds  from 

I20      Exhibition  at  Northampton  School 

tatis  radice  processerit,  et  decorem  ad  modum  ecclesiasticae 
honestatis  confundat,  providendum  vobis  est  et  summopere 
satagendum,  ut  consuetude  ipsa  de  ecclesiis  vestris  penitus 
extirpetur,  quum  vobis  praecipue  et  specialiter  adscribatur, 
si  quid  in  ecclesiis  eisdem  laude  dignum  inveniatur  vel  repre- 
hensione  notandum. 

Nos  quoque  qui  licet  immeriti  dispensante  dementia  Con- 
ditoris  suprema  funginiur  potestate,  tantae  cupiditatis  et  rapaci- 
tatis  vitium  nolentes  immendatum  relinqui,  fraternitati  vestrae 
per  apostolica  scripta  mandamus,  quatenus  consuetudine  ipsa 
de  vestris  ecclesiis  extirpata,  sub  anathematis  interminatione 
hoc  inhibere  curetis,  distincte  praecipientes,  ut,  quicumque  viri 
idonei  et  literati  voluerint  regere  studia  literarum,  sine  molestia 
et  exactione  qualibet  scholas  regere  permittantur,  ne  scientia 
de  cetero  pretio  videatur  exponi,  quae  singulis  gratis  debet 

Si  qui  vero  hujusmodi  prohibitionis  vel  praecepti  extiterint 
transgressores,  eos  auctoritate  nostra  et  vestra  officiis  et  digni- 
tatibus  spolietis.  Porro  si  hoc  juxta  mandatum  nostrum 
corrigere  neglexeritis,  negligentiam  vestram  gravem  habebimus 
et  molestum  [etc.]. 

Dat.  Tusculi  xiii  Kalendas  Novembris. 

No7'tha7)ipton  School.      1 1  76-8. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Northants,  ii.  234,  from  Pipe  R(j11,  22  Hen.  II, 
rot.  4,  111.  I  ;  27  Hen.  II,  p.  6.v] 

Vicecomes  reddit  compotum...iii  libcracionc  lohannis 
clerici  A[Iianorc]  Regine  Hyspanie,  qui  morutur  in  scolis  apud 
Norhamton   de  tribus  septimanis,  per  breve  Regis,  \]s. 

Vicecomes  reddit  liberacione  lohannis 
clerici  A.,  Regine  Hyspanie,  qui  nioratur  in  scolis  apud 
Norhamton,  c  et  iiiji". 

Exhibition  at  Northampton  School        1 2 1 

the  root  of  covetousness,  and  destroys  in  no  small  measure  the 
grace  of  the  reputation  of  the  church,  you  must  provide  for 
and  with  all  your  power  effect  the  complete  extirpation  of  this 
custom  from  your  churches,  since  to  you  specially  and  chiefly 
is  ascribed  whatever  in  the  same  churches  may  be  found  either 
worthy  of  praise  or  to  be  stigmatized  with  blame. 

We  too,  who,  though  unworthy,  by  the  dispensing  clemency 
of  the  Creator  exercise  supreme  power,  being  unwilling  that  the 
sin  of  such  great  covetousness  and  rapacity  should  be  left 
unamended,  command  your  brotherhood  by  these  apostolic 
writs  that  you  root  out  this  custom  from  your  churches,  and 
under  penalty  of  excommunication  inhibit,  plainly  ordering 
that  whatever  fit  and  learned  persons  wish  to  keep  schools 
of  literature  shall  be  allowed  to  keep  schools  without  any 
molestation  or  exaction,  lest  learning,  which  ought  to  be  given 
freely  to  all,  should  henceforth  seem  to  be  exposed  for  sale  at  a 

If  any  shall  be  found  transgressing  this  prohibition  or 
order,  you  shall  deprive  them  by  our  and  your  authority  of  their 
offices  and  dignities.  Further,  if  you  shall  neglect  to  correct 
this  according  to  our  mandate,  we  shall  esteem  your  negligence 
grievous  and  injurious  [etc.]. 

Dated  at  Tusculum  20  October. 

Northampton  School.      11 76-8. 

The  sheriff  renders  account... of  ds.  the  livery  of  John, 
clerk  of  lileanor,  queen  of  Spain,  who  is  staying  at  school  at 
Northampton,  for  three  weeks,  [ordered]  by  the  king's  writ. 

The  sheriff  renders  account... for  the  livery  of  John,  clerk  of 
Eleanor,  queen  of  Spain,  who  is  staying  at  Northampton  at 
school,    1045-. 

122  Canon  Law  on  Free  Schools 

The  Lateran  Council  orders  every  Cathedral  to 
provide  Free  Schools  for  the  Clerks  of  the 
Church  and  Poor.      1 1  79. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Early  Yorkshire  Schools,  I.  2,  from  Decretal  v.  tit.  5,  cap.  i.] 

De  Magistris, 

Et  ne  aliquid  exigatur  pro  licentia  docendi. 

Ecclesia  cathedralis  providere  debet  magistro  de  beneficio, 
qui  clericos  ejusdem  ecclesiae  et  alios  pauperes  gratis  doceat ; 
et  vendens  licentiam  docendi,  aut  interdicens  idoneum  ad 
docendum,  beneficio  privetur. 

Ex  concilio  Lateranensi. 

Quoniam  ecclesia  Dei  et  in  his  quae  spectant  ad  subsidium 
corporis,  et  in  iis  quae  ad  profectum  proveniunt  animarum, 
indigentibus  sicut  pia  mater  providere  tenetur,  ne  pauperibus, 
qui  parentum  opibus  juvari  non  possunt,  legendi  et  proficiendi 
opportunitas  subtrahetur,  per  unamquamque  cathedralem 
ecclesiam  magistro,  qui  clericos  ejusdem  ecclesiae  et  scholares 
pauperes  gratis  doceat,  competens  alicjuod  beneficium  prae- 
beatur,  quo  docentis  necessitas  sublevetur  et  discentibus  via 
pateat  ad  doctrinam. 

In  aliis  quoque  restituatur  ecclesiis  seu  monasteriis,  si 
retroactis  temporibus  aliquid  in  eis  ad  hoc  fuerit  deputatum. 

Pro  licentia  vero  docendi  nullus  omnino  pretium  exigat, 
vel,  sub  obtentu  alicujus  consuetudinis,  ah  eis  qui  docent, 
aliquid  (juaerat,  nee  docere  quemquam,  qui  sit  idoneus,  petita 
licentia  interdicat.  Qui  autem  contra  hoc  venire  praesump- 
serit  ab  ecclesiastico  fiat  beneficio  alienus. 

Dignum  quippe  esse  videtur  ut  in  ecclesia  Dei  fructum  sui 
laboris  non  habeat,  qui  cupiditate  animi,  dum  vendit  docendi 
licentiam,  ecclesiasticum  profectum  nititur  impedire. 

Canon  Law  on  Free  Schools  123 

The  Lateran  Council  orders  every  Cathedral  to 
provide  Free  Schools  for  the  Clerks  of  the 
Church  a7id  Poor.      1 1  79. 

Of  Masters. 

And  that  nothing  should  be  exacted  for  licence  to  teach. 

A  cathedral  church  ought  to  provide  a  master  with  a 
benefice,  that  he  may  teach  the  clerks  of  the  church  and  other 
poor  persons  gratis ;  and  the  seller  of  a  licence  to  teach,  or 
preventer  of  a  fit  person  from  teaching,  is  to  be  deprived  of  his 

By  the  Lateran  Council. 

Since  the  church  of  God,  like  a  loving  mother,  is  bound  to 
provide  for  the  needy  both  the  things  which  concern  the 
maintenance  of  the  body  and  which  tend  to  the  profit  of 
souls,  in  order  that  the  poor,  who  cannot  be  assisted  by  their 
parents'  means,  may  not  be  deprived  of  the  opportunity  of 
reading  and  proficiency,  in  every  cathedral  church  a  competent 
benefice  shall  be  bestowed  upon  a  master  who  shall  teach  the 
clerks  of  the  same  church  and  poor  scholars  freely,  so  that 
both  the  necessities  of  the  teacher  shall  be  relieved  and  the 
way  to  learning  laid  open  for  the  learners. 

In  other  churches,  too,  or  monasteries,  if  anything  shall 
have  been  in  times  past  assigned  for  this  purpose,  it  shall 
be  restored. 

For  a  licence  to  teach  no  one  shall  exact  money,  even  if  on 
pretence  of  any  custom  he  ask  anything  from  those  who  teach, 
nor  when  a  licence  is  asked  shall  he  prevent  any  one,  who 
is  fit,  from  teaching.  Whoever  presumes  to  contravene  this 
shall  be  put  out  from  any  ecclesiastical  benefice. 

For  it  seems  to  be  right  that  none  should  have  the  fruits  of 
his  labour  in  the  church  of  God,  who  in  the  greediness  of 
his  mind,  by  selling  a  licence  to  teach,  endeavours  to  prevent 
the  proficiency  of  churchmen. 

124  Exhibitions  at  Durham 

Exhibitio7is  for  Durhain  School  in  Durham 
Almonry,     c.    1 1 90. 

[Durham  Cathedral  Muniments.     Liber  Elemosinarii,  fol.  12  /-.] 

Omnibus  Christi  fidelibus  ad  quos  presens  scriptum  per- 
venerit  Magister  Simon  de  Ferlingtone,  Archidiaconus  Dunelm., 
salutem  in  Domino. 

Noveritis  me  dedisse  et  pre.senti  carta  confirmasse  Elemosi- 
narie  domui  Sancti  Cuthberti  in  Dunelmo  villam  de  Kyhou 
cum  pertinenciis,  quam  emi  de  Waltero  de  Monasteriis  et 
heredibus  suis,  in  puram  et  perpetuani  elemosinam,  ad  susten- 
tacionem  trium  scolarium  de  scola  Dunelmensi,  quos  Magister 
beatim  eliget,  et  cum  tabella,  in  honore  Beate  Virginis  et 
Sancti  Cuthberti  confecta,  ad  Elemosinarium  Dunelm.  cotidie 
mittet,  qui  eis  beatim  in  cibo  et  potu  prospiciet,  et  in  domo 
Elemosinarie  pernoctabunt,  et  Elemosinarius  in  lectis  eis 
decenter  prospiciet. 

Et  in  hujus  rei  testimonium  presentem  cartam  sigillo  meo 
roboravi.  Hiis  testibus,  Johanne  de  Insula,  Waltero  monacho 
Dunelm.  [etc.]. 

Cofnprouiise    betiveen    Durhaju     School   and 
Gateshead  Hospital,      c.    1230. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Durham,  Schools,  ii.  _^69,  trum  Durham 
Cathedral  Muniments.     Liber  Elemosinarii,   fol.    12   v.\ 

Ricardus,  Dei  gracia  Dunolmensis  episcopus,  quondam 
Salisburiensis  episcopus,  omnibus  Sancte  Matris  ecclesie  filiis, 
salutem  in  Domino. 

Novcrit  universitas  vestra  quod  cum  aliquando  esset  con- 
vencio  inter  Priorem  et  Conventum  Dunolm.  ex  una  parte,  et 
Radulfum  monachum  procuratorcm  et  fratrcs  Hospitalis  domus 
Sancte  Trinitatis  de  (iatisheucd  e.x  altera  parte,  super  villa  de 
Kyhou  cum  pertinenciis,  que  (juondam  data  fuit  Elemosinarie 

Exhibitions  at  Durham  125 

Exhibitions  for  Durham  School  in  Durham. 
Almonry,     c.    11 90. 

To  all  the  faithful  of  Christ  to  whom  this  present  writing 
shall  come  Master  Simon  of  Farlington,  archdeacon  of  Durham, 
greeting  in  the  Lord. 

Know  ye  that  I  have  given  and  by  the  present  deed 
confirmed  to  the  Almonry  house  of  Saint  Cuthbert  in  Durham 
the  manor  of  Kyo  with  the  appurtenances,  which  I  bought  of 
William  de  Musters  and  his  heirs  in  pure  and  perpetual  alms, 
for  the  maintenance  of  three  scholars  of  Durham  school,  whom 
the  master  shall  charitably  choose  and  send  daily  with  a  tablet 
[tally  ?]  made  in  honour  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  and  St  Cuthbert  to 
the  Almoner  of  Durham,  who  shall  charitably  provide  for  them 
food  and  drink,  and  they  shall  pass  the  night  in  the  almonry 
house,  and  the  almoner  shall  provide  them  properly  with 

In  testimony  whereof  I  have  strengthened  this  deed  with 
my  seal.  Witness,  John  de  I'lsle,  Walter,  monk  of  Durham 

Co77ipromise    betiueen    Durham    School   and 
Gateshead  Hospital,     c.    1230. 

Richard  [le  PoerJ,  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Durham, 
formerly  bishop  of  Salisbury,  to  all  sons  of  holy  mother  church, 
greeting  in  the  Lord. 

Know  ye  all  that  whereas  there  was  a  covenant  between 
the  Prior  and  convent  of  Durham  of  the  one  part,  and  Ralph  a 
monk  the  proctor  and  the  brethren  of  the  Hospital  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  of  Gateshead  of  the  other  part,  over  the  manor 
of  Kyo  with  its  appurtenances,  which  was  formerly  given  to  the 

126  York  School  separately  endoiued 

de  Durem  ad  sustentacionem  trium  clericorum  scolarium 
scolarum  Dunolm.  liberalium  artium,  a  Magistro  Symone  de 
Ferlingtone,  et  postea  ab  Henrico  fratre  suo,  qui  eandem 
terram,  niortuo  fratre  suo,  Magistro  Symone  de  Ferlingtone, 
iure  hereditario  consecutus  est  in  Curia  Uunolm.,  data  fuit 
domui  Sancte  Trinitatis  de  Clatisheuid  ad  sustentacionem  trium 
pauperum  et  unius  capellani,  sicut  in  auctentico  Domini 
episcopi  et  suo  super  hoc  confectis,  plenius  continetur  ;  de 
consensu  parcium  in  hunc  modum  amicabiliter  ordinavimus, 
scilicet,  quod  procurator  et  fratres  domus  Sancte  Trinitatis  de 
Gatisheued  dictam  villam  cum  pertinenciis  suis  a  predict© 
Priore  et  Conventu  Uunolm.  tenebunt  ad  feudalem  firmam, 
reddendo  inde  annuatim  domui  c'lemosinarie  ad  sustentacionem 
dictorum  clericorum  medietatem  tocius  ville  de  Kyhou,  scilicet, 
quadraginta  solidos,  ad  duos  terminos,  scilicet,  xx  solidos 
ad  festum  Sancti  Martini  in  yeme,  et  xx  solidos  ad  Pentecosten. 
Hiis  testibus,  Magistro  W'illelmo  de  Lanum  tunc  Archi- 
diacono  Dunolm.,  Magistro  Helia  de  Derham,  Domino  Johanne 
de  Rumeseye,  Reginaldo  de  Calna,  Willelmo  filio  Roberti, 
militibus,  Ada  de  Merlege,  et  multis  aliis. 

Earliest    separate    Endowment    of  York    School, 
c.    1 1 80. 

[A.  F.   Leach,  Early    Yorkshire  Schools,  i.    13.  from   Kc^;.  Magn.  Alb. 
III.   3.      Raine's  Hist.   Ch.  of  York  (Rolls  .Series),   lu.    75.] 

R[ogerus],  Dei  gracia  Eboracensis  archiepiscopus,  H[enrico], 
decano  et  capitulo  Sancti  Petri  Eboracensis,  salutem. 

Donavi  ad  feodum  scole  vestre  centum  solidos  per  annum, 
et  constituo  illos  per  archidiaconos  nostros ;  ita,  viz.,  de  archi- 
diaconatu  de  Austreing  xb.,  de  synodo  post  Pascha  et  de 
Rumpening  ;  de  archidiaconatu  de  Westrcing  xxxi-.  :  et, 
de  archidiaconatu  de  Notinghamschira,  ad  festum  Sancti 
Michaelis,  xxxi'. 

York  School  separately  endowed         1 2  7 

Almonry  of  Durham  for  the  maintenance  of  three  clerks,  scholars 
of  Durham  School  in  the  liberal  arts,  by  Master  Symon  of 
Farlington,  and  afterwards  was  given  by  Henry  his  brother,  who 
obtained  the  same  land  on  the  death  of  his  brother,  Master 
Symon  of  Farlington,  by  right  of  inheritance  in  the  court  of 
Durham,  to  the  House  of  the  Holy  Trinity  at  Gateshead  for 
the  maintenance  of  three  poor  men  and  a  chaplain,  as  in  a  deed 
of  the  lord  bishop  and  himself  therein  made  is  more  fully 
contained  ;  by  consent  of  the  parties  we  have  made  a  friendly 
order  in  this  way,  namely,  that  the  proctor  and  brethren  of  the 
house  of  Holy  Trinity  of  Gateshead  shall  hold  the  said  manor 
with  its  appurtenances  of  the  prior  and  convent  of  Durham 
aforesaid  in  fee  farm,  rendering  therefore  yearly  to  the  Almonry 
house  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said  clerks  a  moiety  of  the 
whole  manor  of  Kyo,  namely,  ^os.  at  two  terms,  namely,  20s.  at 
Martinmas  in  winter,  and  20s.  at  Whitsuntide. 

Witness,  Master  William  of  Laneham,  then  archdeacon  of 
Durham,  Master  Elias  of  Dereham,  Sir  John  of  Romsey, 
Reginald  of  Calne,  William  Fitzrobert,  knights,  Adam  of 
Morley,  and  many  others. 

Earliest    separate   Endowment    of    York    School. 
c.   I  1 80. 

Roger,  by  the  grace  of  God  archbishop  of  York,  to  Henry, 
Dean,  and  the  chapter  of  St  Peter's,  York,  greeting. 

I  have  given  to  the  fee  of  your  school  \oos.  a  year  and 
I  establish  this  through  our  archdeacons ;  thus,  from  the 
archdeaconry  of  the  East  Riding,  405.,  from  the  convocation 
after  Easter  and  Rome-penny  [i.e.  Peter's  pence]  ;  from  the 
archdeaconry  of  the  West  Riding,  305'. ;  and  from  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Nottinghamshire  at  Michaelmas,  2>^s. 

128     York  and  Bu7y  St  Edmunds  Schools 

Confirviation  of  School  Endoiv?nent  to  the 
Chancelloi'  of  York.     c.    1 1 9 1 . 


(i[alfridus],  Dei  gracia  archiepiscopus  Eboracensis,  Anglie 
primas,  dilectis  sibi  in  Christo  omnibus  archidiaconis  per 
Eboracensem  provinciam  constitutis,  salutem  in  Domino. 

Mandamus  vobis  firmiter  iniungentes,  quatenus  de  cetero 
Johanni  de  Sancto  Laurencio,  cancellario  Eboracensis  ecclesie, 
centum  solidos  de  sinodalibus  vestris  annuatim,  ad  duos 
terminos  secundum  consuetudinem  Eboracensis  ecclesie,  sine 
difficultate  solvatis,  scilicet,  ad  ?ascha  1  solidos,  et  ad  festum 
S.   Michaelis  \s.     Valete. 

Bury  S.   Edmunds  School.      iiSo  to   11 98. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Suffolh,  Schools,  ii.  from  Chron.  Jocelyn 
de  Brakclonde  (Camden  Soc.    1840),   p.   3,   32.] 

Capellanum  quendam,  qui  eum  [Samsonem  abbatem] 
sustinuerat  in  Scholis  Parisiis  quaestu  aquae  benedictae, 
quando  pauper  fuerat,  mandari  fecit  ;  et  ei  ecclesiasticum 
beneficium,  quo  sustentari  possit,  affectu  vicario,  contulit. 

Magistro  Waltero,  filio  Magistri  W'illelmi  de  Dice,  petenti 
caritative  vicariam  ecclesie  de  Cheventon  respondit :  '  Pater 
tuus  Magister  Scholarum  erat  ;  et  cum  pauper  clericus  eram, 
concessit  mihi  introitum  scholae  suae  siiiepacto  et  caritative,  et 
usum  discendi ;  et  ego,  causa  Dei,  concede  tibi  (juod  postulas.' 

In  villa  S.  Edmundi  domos  lapideas  emit  Abbas,  et  eas 
scholarum  regimini  assignavit,  hac  occasione,  ut  pauperes  clerici 
in  perpetuum  ibi  quieti  essent  de  conduccione  domus  ;  ad  quam 
conducendam  denarium  vel  obolum  singuli  scholares,  tarn  in- 
potentes  quam  potentes,  bis  in  anno  conferre  cogebantur. 

Postquam  convenit  inter  Abbatem  Samsonem  et  Robertum 
de  Scalis  super  medietate  advocacionis  ecclesiae  de  U'etterdene, 

given  separate  Endowments  129 

Confirmation  of  School  Endowment  to  the 
Chancellor  of  York.     c.    1 1 9 1 . 

Geoffrey,  by  the  grace  of  God  archbishop  of  York,  primate 
of  England,  to  his  beloved  in  Christ,  all  the  archdeacons 
established  in  the  province  of  York,  health  in  the  Lord. 

We  command  and  firmly  enjoin  you  to  pay,  for  the  future, 
to  John  of  St  Lawrence,  chancellor  of  the  church  of  York,  loos. 
from  your  synodals  yearly,  at  two  terms  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  church  of  York,  without  making  any  difficulties, 
namely,  50^.  at  Easter  and  50.^.  at  Michaelmas.     Farewell. 

Bury  S.  Ed?mmds  School.      11  So  to   1198. 

[After  Samson  became  abbot  c.  1182]  He  caused  to  be 
summoned  a  chaplain  who  had  maintained  him  in  the 
University  of  Paris  when  he  was  poor,  by  the  sale  of  holy 
water,  and  collated  him  to  an  ecclesiastical  benefice,  which 
could  maintain  him  as  vicar.... 

When  Master  Walter,  son  of  Master  William  of  Disse, 
asked  by  way  of  charity  for  the  vicarage  of  Chevington  church, 
he  answered  :  'Your  father  was  schoolmaster;  and  when  I  was 
a  poor  clerk  he  granted  me  admission  to  his  school  and  the 
means  of  learning  by  way  of  charity  and  without  any  payment ; 
so  I,  for  God's  sake,  grant  you  what  you  ask.' 

The  abbot  bought  a  stone  house  in  the  town  of  St 
Edmunds,  and  assigned  it  for  teaching  school,  for  this  pur- 
pose, that  poor  clerks  should  be  for  ever  free  of  the  rent  of 
the  house  ;  for  the  hire  of  which  every  scholar,  whether  able  to 
pay  or  not,  was  compelled  to  pay  a  penny  or  a  halfpenny  twice 
a  year. 

After  [in  1198]  an  agreement  was  made  between  Abbot 
Samson  and  Robert  of  Scales  as  to  one  moiety  of  the  advowson 
of  Wetherden,  and  the  said  Robert  had  recognized  the  rights 

L.  Q 

1 30  Endowment  of  Bury  St  Edmunds  School 

et  idem  R,  recognovisset  S.  Edmundo  et  abbati  jus  suum  ; 
Abbas,  nulla  conventione  prius  habita,nullo  prius  facto  promisso, 
dedit  illam  ecclesiae  nicdietatem  Magistro  Rogero  de  Scalis 
fratri  cjusdeni  militis,  hac  conditione,  ut  annuam  pensionem 
trium  uiarcarum  per  manum  nostri  sacristae  redderet  magistro 
scolarum,  quicumque  legeret  in  villa  S.  Edmundi. 

Hoc  autem  fecit  Abbas  memorandae  pictatis  ductus  affectu, 
et  sicut  prius  emerat  domos  lapideas  ad  scolas  regendas  ut 
pauperes  clerici  quieti  essent  a  conductione  domus,  ita  de 
cetero  essent  quieti  ab  omni  exactione  denariorum,  quos 
magister  scholarum,  ex  consuetudine,  exigebat  pro  eruditione 
sua.  Domino  autem  Deo  volente,  et  abbate  vivente,  tota 
medietas  predictae  ecclesiae,  quae  valet,  sicut  dicitur,  centum 
solidos,  ad  tales  usus  converteretur. 

lib.  from  B.  M.  llarl.  MS.   1005,  f.  130.] 

Tempore  quo  Abbas  Samson  domum  scolarum  propriis 
fecit  expensis  et  redditum  trium  marcarum  annuatim  red- 
dendarum  Magistro  Scolarum  fecit  confirmari,  causam  sui 
facti  in  pleno  capitulo  ostendit  et  statuit ;  scilicet,  ut  omnes 
scolares  tarn  divites  quam  pauperes  ibi  essent  (juicti  in 
perpetuum  a  conducci(;nc  domus,  et  XL  pauperes  clerici  essent 
quieti  ab  omni  exaccione  versus  magistrum  propter  suam 
erudicionem.  In  (]uorum  nuniero  primo  dcbent  computari 
consanguinei  monachorum  nostrorum  dumniodo  addiscere 
volunt  ;  et  residuus  numerus  debet  suppleri  pro  arbitrio 
magistri  scolarum. 

Et  hac  de  causa  concessum  est  ut  magister  semper  habeat 
duos  clericos  in  Elemosinaria  comedentes,  (jui  debent  tribus 
terminis  anni  venire  ad  scolas  magistro  incipicnte  legere, 
scilicet  ad  festum  Sancti  Michaelis,  ct  post  Natalc  Domini 
et  post  Pascha ;  et  eo  cessante  debent  recedere,  nisi  ante 
Pascha,  tjuia  tunc  ibi  debent  esse  usque  ad  cenam  Domini. 

Et  eadem  est  consuctudo  de  ostiario  scolarum.  Clerici 
omnes  qui  comedunt  in  Elemosinaria  (juieti  debent  esse  in 
scolis  predicto  dicto  modo  ;  sed  computari  debent  in  predicto 
numero  ne  magister  nimis  gravetur. 

Endowment  of  Bury  St  Edmunds  School  1 3 1 

of  St  Edmund  and  the  abbot ;  the  abbot,  without  a  previous 
covenant  or  any  promise,  gave  that  half  of  the  church  to 
Master  Roger  of  Scales,  the  knight's  brother,  on  condition 
of  his  paying  an  annual  pension  of  three  marks  to  our  sacrist 
for  the  schoolmaster  who  for  the  time  being  taught  in  the  town 
of  St  Edmunds. 

This  the  abbot  did  through  gratitude  for  the  kindness 
above  related,  and,  as  he  had  first  bought  the  stone  house  for 
the  school,  so  that  poor  clerks  might  be  quit  of  the  rent  of 
a  house,  so  now  they  might  be  henceforth  quit  of  all  payment 
of  fees  which  the  schoolmaster,  according  to  custom,  exacted 
for  his  teaching.  And,  by  the  will  of  God,  in  the  lifetime 
of  the  abbot  the  whole  moiety  of  the  aforesaid  church,  worth, 
as  it  is  said,  looi-.,  was  converted  to  these  uses. 

[The  following  passages  are  not  given  in  the  Camden  Society's  volume.] 

At  the  time  when  Abbot  Samson  made  the  schoolhouse  at 
his  own  expense  and  caused  a  rent  of  three  marks  a  year  to 
be  paid  to  the  schoolmaster,  he  showed  the  reason  for  doing 
so,  and  established  it  in  full  chapter ;  that  all  the  scholars,  both 
rich  and  poor,  should  be  quit  for  ever  of  hiring  the  house,  and 
that  40  poor  clerks  might  be  free  of  all  fees  to  the  master  for 
their  instruction.  Among  the  40  ought  to  be  first  reckoned 
the  relations  of  our  monks  so  long  as  they  wish  to  learn,  and 
the  remainder  ought  to  be  supplied  at  the  discretion  of  the 

And  for  this  reason  the  master  was  allowed  always  to  have 
two  clerks  boarded  in  the  almonry,  who  are  bound  to  attend 
the  school  at  three  terms  of  the  year  when  the  master  begins  his 
lectures,  viz.  at  Michaelmas,  after  Christmas  and  after  Easter; 
and  when  his  lectures  stop  they  must  retire,  except  before  Easter, 
as  then  they  ought  to  stay  to  the  Lord's  Supper  [i.e.  Maundy 

The  same  custom  obtains  for  the  Usher  of  the  School.  All 
the  clerks  who  are  boarded  in  the  almonry  ought  to  be  free  of  the 
school  in  the  same  way ;  but  they  ought  to  be  reckoned  in  the 
aforesaid  number,  that  the  master  may  not  be  overburdened. 


132         The  Master  of  St  Albans  School 

f.  95.  6.  CoUacio  scolarum  quibus  spectat  et  qualiter 
magistri  amovendi  sive  constituendi  sint. 

f.  97.  6,  7.  Collacio  quidcm  scolarum  Sancti  Edmundi 
sic  pertinet  ad  Abbatem  sicut  collacio  ecclesiarum  in  quibus 
conventus  aliquid  percipit  annuum,  et  similiter  conferri  debent 
prefate  scole  et  prefate  ecclesie,  scilicet  per  assensum  con- 
ventus. Scole  vero  maneriorum,  sicut  Mildenhall  et  de  Beccles, 
juris  conferende  sunt  eorum  in  quorum  vel  cujus  custodia 
constituuntur  ipsa  maneria.  Et  notandum  est  hie  quod  rector 
scolarum  amovendus  premuniri  debet  a  datore  earum  ante 
Pentecosten.  Si  vero  sponte  vult  recedere  ipse  datorem,  i.e. 
abbatem,  sacristam,  vicarium  abbatis  et  conventus  in  hoc 
similiter  tenetur  premunire. 

St  Albans  and  Dunstable  Schools,     c.    1183. 

[A.  F.  Leach,   V.  C.  II.  Herts,  ii.;  //;.  i.  194,   1(15,  196.] 

De  Oarino  Abbate. 

(larinus  huic  successit,  de  Cantcbrugia  stirpe  mediocri 
oriundus.  Iste  in  seculo,  ante  suscepcioneni  habitus,  magne 
fame  extitit,  et  Celebris  nominis,  propter  honeste  vite  sue 
reverenciam,  litterature  excellentem  periciam,  et  corporalis 
elegancie  pulchritudineni.  Hie  cum  fratre  suo,  Magistro 
Mattheo,  similibus  dotibus,  etsi  non  tantum,  insignito,  in 
physica  apud  Salernum  eleganter  atcjue  efficaciter  erudito,  in 
claustro  Sancti  Albani  habituni  religionis  suscepit :  et  infra 
breve  tempus  idem  Magister  (iarinus,  propter  vite  excellenciam 
virtuose,  et  litterature  copiosam  periciam,  et  persone  clcganciam, 
in  Priorem  electus  et  creatus  est. 

Habuerunt  eciam  hii  duo  (scilicet,  Abbas  et  Prior),  (jueni- 
dam  nepotem,  Magistrum,  videlicet,  (Jarinum,  in  Decretis 
lectorem  nominatissimuni.  ICrat  enim  avunculis  suis  in 
venerabili  gestu,  et  vita  honesia,  et  litteratura,  consiniilis,  ut 
vere  nepos  talium,  ininio  potius  frater,  dici  mereretur,  et  agnosci. 
Hii  tres,  quantjuam  seculares,  conversacionis  honeste  et  vite 

The  Master  of  St  Albans  School        133 

To  whom  the  collation  of  schools  belongs  and  how  masters 
are  to  be  removed  or  appointed. 

The  collation  of  the  school  of  Bury  St  Edmunds  belongs 
to  the  abbot  in  the  same  way  as  the  collation  of  churches  out 
of  which  the  convent  receives  a  yearly  payment,  and  the  said 
school  and  the  said  churches  ought  to  be  conferred  in  the 
same  way,  namely,  with  the  assent  of  the  convent.  But  the 
schools  on  manors,  such  as  those  of  Mildenhall  and  Beccles, 
are  to  be  conferred  in  right  of  those  or  him  in  whose  custody  the 
manors  themselves  are.  And  it  is  to  be  observed  here  that  if  a 
schoolmaster  is  to  be  removed  he  ought  to  be  given  notice  by 
the  grantor  before  Easter.  If  a  master  wishes  to  retire  volun- 
tarily he  is  bound  to  give  notice  to  the  grantor,  i.e.  the  abbot, 
sacrist,  or  deputy  of  the  abbot  and  convent,  in  the  same  way. 

St  Albans  a?id  Dunstable  Schools,     c.    1183. 

Of  Abbot  Warren. 

Warren  succeeded  him,  born  at  Cambridge  of  the  middle 
class.  In  the  world,  before  he  took  the  habit,  he  was  of  great 
repute  and  celebrity  because  of  the  reverence  paid  to  his 
upright  life,  his  excellence  in  learning,  and  his  handsome 
figure.  He,  with  his  brother  Master  Matthew,  who  was  dis- 
tinguished, though  not  so  much,  by  similar  qualities,  and  had 
become  a  learned  and  elegant  doctor  of  medicine  at  Salerno, 
took  the  religious  habit  in  St  Albans'  cloister;  and  in  a  short 
time  Master  Warren  [Matthew],  for  his  virtuous  life  and  his 
style  in  literature  and  elegant  person,  was  elected  and  created 

Moreover  these  two,  the  abbot  and  prior,  had  a  nephew, 
also  named  Master  Warren,  a  most  distinguished  lecturer  on 
canon  law.  He  was  like  his  uncles  in  his  majestic  carriage, 
his  upright  life  and  in  learning,  so  that  he  truly  deserved  to 
be  called  and  recognized  as  their  nephew,  or  rather  as  their 
brother.     For  these  three,  although  they  were  seculars,  deserved 

134        Anecdotes  of  Alexander  Neckham 

puritate,  monachi  censeri  promeruerunt.  Iste  Magister  Garinus, 
et  fratcr  ejus,  Magister  Mattheus,  et  eoriim  nepos,  Magister 
Garinus,  et  duo  eorum  discipuli  et  socii,  Fabianus  et  Robertus 
de  Salerno,  voverunt  se  fore  apud  Sanctum  Albanum  habitum 
religiosum  suscepturos,  admoniti  visione  speciali  et  spirituali. 
Omnes(|ue  hii  votuni  iniplererunt,  preter  Magistrum  Garinum, 
nepotem  Abbatis  Garini :  ille  tamen  ([uod  habitu  oniisit,  vita 
honesta  complevit.  Obiit  Magister  Mattheus  [Garinus], 
secularis,  apud  Sanctum  Albanum,  videlicet,  juxta  domum 
Sanctimonialium  de  Sopwelle. 

Hie,  de  (juo  sermo  fit,  Mattheus  [Garinus],  pluribus  annis 
scolam  rexit  in  burgo  Sancti  Albani,  cjua  tunc  temporis  non 
inveniretur  in  Anglia  scola  melior  vel  fructuosior,  aut  scolaribus 
utilior  vel  copiosior.  Quod  bene  testabatur  et  sensit  Magister 
Alexander, cognomento  'Netjuam,' qui  eundemCiarinum  in  scole 
regimine  precesserat.  Hie  cum  temporis  anno,  scilicet  proximo 
transacto,  apud  Dunestaple  scolam  rexisset,  vocavit  eum  Abbas 
(}arinus  hiis  litteris  breviter  et  jocose  scriptis  ; — petiverat  enim 
idem  Alexander  Necjuam  scolam  Sancti  Albani  instanter  ; — 
'Si  bonus  es,  venias :  si  necjuam,  nequacjuam.'  Cui  tarn 
breviter  et  jocose  rescribens  Alexander  ait,- — 'Si  velis  veniam  : 
sin  autem,  tu  autem  ' ;  acsi  diceret ; — '  Non  multum  euro.' 

Hie  Magister  Garinus  ad  leges  et  decreta  se  transtulit  ; 
avunculis  suis  sibi  librorum  copiam  et  alia  subsidia  fraterno 
affectu  liberaliter  ministrantibus. 

Exhibition  at  Oxford  for  a  Hungarian   Clerk. 

[I'ipe  Roll,  7  and  X  Kic.  I,  lo;  Oxoii.     O.xf.  //I'st.  Soc.  Colicc/aina,  ii.  1.S4.] 

Nicolao,  clerico  de  Hungria,  viii'  et  xvii''  et  viii''  ad  susten- 
tandum  se  in  scolis  a  festo  Sancti  Miehaelis  anni  preteriti  uscjue 
ad  Pascham  per  breve  Regis. 

and  Warren,  schoolmasters  of  St  Albans   135 

to  be  reckoned  as  monks  for  the  uprightness  of  their  behaviour 
and  purity  of  their  Hves,  This  Master  Warren  and  his  brother 
Matthew  and  their  nephew  Master  Warren  and  two  of  their 
pupils  and  companions,  Fabian  and  Robert  of  Salerno,  being 
warned  by  a  special  and  spiritual  vision,  vowed  to  take  the 
religious  habit  at  St  Albans.  And  they  all  fulfilled  their  vow 
except  Master  Warren,  the  nephew  of  Abbot  Warren,  and  he 
made  up  for  any  deficiency  in  his  habit  by  the  purity  of  his 
habits.  Master  Matthew  [\Varren]  died  a  secular  at  St  Albans 
near  Sopwell  nunnery. 

This  Matthew  [Warren]  of  whom  we  are  speaking  for  many 
years  kept  the  school  in  the  borough  of  St  Albans ;  and  at  that 
time  there  could  scarcely  be  found  a  better  or  more  productive 
school  in  England,  or  one  more  useful  to  its  scholars  or  more 
abounding  with  them.  This  was  fully  admitted  and  perceived 
by  Master  Alexander,  nicknamed  Neckham  [in  Latin  nequam, 
i.e.  wicked],  who  had  preceded  this  Warren  in  the  mastership 
of  the  school.  This  [Alexander  Neckham]  after  he  had  for  a 
time,  for  the  year  previous,  in  fact,  taught  the  school  at 
Dunstable,  asked  urgently  for  the  school  at  St  Albans,  and 
was  invited  by  Abbot  Warren  in  this  terse  and  witty  letter, 
'  If  you  are  good,  you  may  come  ;  if  wicked,  by  no  means.'  To 
which  Alexander  wrote  back,  equally  tersely  and  wittily,  '  If 
you  wish  me  to  come,  I  will  come  ;  if  not,  you  must  excuse  me  ' 
[play  on  the  word  veniam],as  much  as  to  say  'I  don't  much  care.' 

This  Master  Warren  afterwards  transferred  himself  to  the 
civil  and  canon  law,  his  uncles,  in  their  brotherly  affection, 
liberally  supplying  him  with  plenty  of  books  and  other 

Exhibition  at  Oxford  for  a  Htmgarian   Clerk. 
1 195-7- 

To  Nicholas,  a  clerk  of  Hungary,  ;^8.  i^s.  Sd.,  to  maintain 
himself  in  the  schools  from  Michaelmas  of  the  past  year  to 
Easter  by  the  king's  writ. 

136  Foreign  Exhibitioner  at  Oxford 

Nicolao  clerico  de  Hungeria  v*  et  ix**  de  liberacione  sua 
quam  habet  ex  dono  Regis,  videlicet  a  die  lune  proxima  ante 
festum  Sancti  Andree  usque  ad  Purificacionem  per  breve  Regis; 
et  eidem  Nicolao  Ivi^  et  viii^  de  liberacione  sua  a  festo  Sancti 
Petri  ad  Vincula  usque  ad  festum  Sancti  Michaelis,  scilicet 
dimidiam  niarcam  per  ebdomadam  per  idem  breve. 

Exhibition  at  Oxford.      1 198-9. 

\_Ib.,  Pipe  Roll,  10  Ric.  I,  lo.] 

Roberto  de  \^ermeilles  x  marcas  ad  sustentacionem  suam 
in  scolis,  per  breve  H[uberti]  Cantuariensis  Archiepiscopi. 

Mathematics  taught  at  Oxford,  c.    1 200. 

[//'.  188,  from  letter  of  1243  in  Marteiie,  Thesaiir.  III.  col.  1839.] 

Clementissimo  patri  suo  et  domino  Innocencio,  Dei  gracia 
summo  Pontifici,  sue  sanctitatis  grex  humilis,  Universitas 
Magistrorum  et  Scolarium  Oxonie  commorancium,  cum  uni- 
versa  multitudine  fratrum  Prcdicatorum  ct  Minorum,  cetero- 
rumque  religiosorum  ibidem  habitanciuni,  devota  pedum  oscula 
cum  obediencie  humili  famulatu. 

Quod  scimus  loquimur,  et  quod  vidimus  testamur  dc  con- 
versacione  vcnerabilis  patris  nostri  Edmundi  bone  memorie, 
nuper  Cantuariensis  Archiepiscopi,  cjui  in  nostra  fuit  Uni- 
versitatc  non  modico  tempore  disciimlus  et  magister 

Porro  transactis  fere  sex  annis,  cjuihus  in  Artihus  rexerat  ;... 
ipso  adhuc  cursim  legente  arithmeticam  (luibusdam  sociis  suis, 
apparuit  ei  in  somniis  pia  mater  eius,  paulo  ante  defuncta, 
dicens :  '  Fili,  ([uid  legis  ?  (jue  sunt  ille  figure  quibus  tam 
studiose  intendis?'  Quo  respondente  :  '  Talia  lego,'  ostensis 
protraccionibus,  ([ue  in  ilia  solent  fieri  facultate,  ilia  niox  dextram 
manum  eius  arri{)uit,  et  in  ilia  tres  circulos  depinxit,  in  (juibus 

Mathematics  at  Oxford  137 

For  Nicholas,  a  clerk  of  Hungary,  55-.  c)d.  for  his  livery 
which  he  has  by  the  king's  gift,  viz.  from  Monday  before 
St  Andrew's  day  [30  Nov.]  to  the  Purification  [2  Feb.]  by 
the  king's  writ ;  and  to  the  same  Nicholas  56^.  8^.  for  his 
livery  from  St  Peter  ad  Vincula  [i  Aug.]  to  Michaelmas,  viz. 
half  a  mark  [6.r.  8^.]  a  week  by  the  same  writ. 

Exhibition  at  Oxfoi'd,      1 198-9. 

To  Robert  of  Vermeilles    10   marks  for  his  maintenance 
in  the  schools  by  writ  of  H[ubert],  Archbishoi)  of  Canterbury. 

Mathematics  taught  at  Oxford,  c.    1 200, 

To  their  most  kindly  father  and  lord,  Innocent  [IV],  by  the 
grace  of  God  supreme  pontiff,  his  holiness'  humble  flock,  the 
University  of  Masters  and  Scholars  residing  at  Oxford,  with 
the  whole  crowd  of  friars  preachers  and  friars  minors  and 
other  religious  inhabiting  there,  devoutly  kiss  his  feet  as  his 
humble  and  obedient  servants. 

We  speak  what  we  know  and  we  bear  witness  to  what  we 
have  seen  of  the  life  of  our  venerable  father  Edmund  of  good 
memory,  late  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  was  in  our 
University  no  little  time  as  scholar  and  master 

Further,  after  nearly  six  years'  regency  in  arts... while  still 
lecturing  cursorily  on  arithmetic  to  some  of  his  colleagues,  his 
pious  mother,  who  had  died  a  short  while  before,  appeared  to  him 
in  a  dream,  saying,  'Son,  what  are  you  reading?  what  are  those 
figures  you  are  studying  so  intently  ? '  and  when  he  answered 
'  Such  and  such,'  showing  the  processes  usual  in  that  faculty,  she 
immediately  seized  his  hand  and  drew  three  circles  on  it,  in  which 

138  English  Provincial  Councils 

hec  tria  nomina  per  ordinem  inscripsit :  '  Pater,  Filius,  Spiritus 
Sanctus,'  et  hoc  facto,  sic  ait :  '  Fili  carissime,  talibus  figuris, 
et  non  aliis,  de  cetero  intendc.'  Quo  somnio,  quasi  per 
revelacionem  edoctus,  statini  ad  studium  theologie  se  trans- 
tulit,  in  quo  tam  mirabiliter  in  brevi  profecit,  quod  cito  post 
paucos  annos,  suadontibus  niultis,  cathedram  magistralem 

The  Council  of  London  fo7'bid  Fees  for  Licence 
to  teach,      i  200. 

[VVilkins,  Concilia,  i.  ]5.  506.] 

X'lII.      Nihil  exigendum  pro  sacranientis  administrandis. 

Sicut  in  Lateranensi  concilio  salul)ritcr  a  Sanctis  patril)us 
est  provisum,  inhibemus  nt;  a  pcrsonis  ecclesiasticis  deducen- 
dis  ad  sedem,  vel  saccrdotibus  vel  aliis  clericis  instituendis,  aut 
sepeliendis  mortuis,  aut  bencdicendis  nubentibus,  seu  pro  chris- 
mate,  seu  tjuibuslibet  aliis  sacranientis  aliquid  exigatur.  Si 
quis  autem  contra  hoc  venire  presumpserit,  portionem  cum 
Gehazi  se  noverit  habiturum,  cuius  factum  exaccione  turpi  mune- 
ris  imitatur.  His  adiicimus,  ne  pro  licencia  celebrandi  divina 
a  sacerdotibus,  vel  docendi  a  magistris  aliquid  exigatur ;  et, 
si  solutum  fuerit,  repetatur. 

Schools  at  the  Council  of  Westniijister.      i  200. 

[Wilkins,  Concilia,  I.  p.  270.] 
De  scholis  in  ccclesiis. 

XIX.  Si  quis  presbyter  velit  nepotem  suum  vel  quendam 
consanguineum  suum  erudiendum  mittere  ad  ecclesias,  quae 
nobis  ad  gubernandum  concreditae  sunt,  concedimus  ei  hoc 

XX.  Ut  presbyteri  per  villas  scholas  habeant,  et  gratis 
parvulos  doceant. 

on  free  Schools  and  Licences  to  teach     139 

she  wrote  these  three  names  in  order,  *  Father,  Son,  Holy  Ghost,' 
and  then  said, '  Dearest  son,  henceforth  be  intent  on  these  figures, 
not  the  others.'  Thus  taught  by  a  dream  as  if  by  revelation 
he  at  once  transferred  himself  to  the  study  of  theology,  in 
which  in  a  short  time  he  made  such  wonderful  progress,  that 
after  a  very  few  years,  at  the  persuasion  of  many,  he  ascended 
the  doctor's  chair. 

The  Council  of  Lo7idon  forbid  Fees  for  Lice^tce 
to  teach.      1200. 

8.    Nothing  to  be  exacted  for  administering  the  sacraments. 

As  it  was  in  the  Lateran  Council  beneficially  provided  by 
the  holy  fathers,  we  forbid  anything  to  be  exacted  by  ecclesi- 
astical dignitaries  for  induction  or  institution  of  priests  or  other 
clerks,  for  burying  the  dead,  or  blessing  marriages,  or  the  Chrism 
or  any  other  sacraments.  If,  however,  anyone  presume  to 
contravene  this,  let  him  know  that  he  will  have  his  portion  with 
Gehazi,  whose  deed  in  the  disgraceful  exaction  of  a  gift  he 
imitates.  To  this  we  add,  Let  nothing  be  exacted  from  priests 
for  a  licence  to  perform  divine  service  or  from  masters  for 
licence  to  teach  ;  and  if  anything  has  been  j)aid  it  may  be 

Schools  at  the  Council  of  Westminster.      i  200. 

Of  schools  in  churches. 

19.  If  any  priest  wishes  to  send  his  nephew  or  other  relation 
to  be  taught  in  the  churches,  which  are  entrusted  to  us  to 
govern,  we  grant  him  this  most  willingly. 

20.  That  priests  shall  keep  schools  in  their  towns  and 
teach  little  boys  gratis. 

140     Secession  from   Oxford  to  Cambridge 

Presbyteri  semper  debent  in  domibus  suis  ludimagistroruni 
scholas  habere,  et  si  quis  devotus  [homo]  parvulos  sues  eis  ad 
instructionem  concredcre  vclit,  illos  quam  libentissime  susci- 
pere  et  benigne  docere  debent.  Cogitare  debetis,  quod  scrip- 
turn  sit,  quod  '  Qui  docti  sunt,  fulgebunt  sicut  splendor  caeH  ' ; 
et  (]uod  'qui  multos  ad  justitiam  erudiverunt  et  docuerunt, 
splendel)unt  sicut  stellae  in  aeternum.'  Attamen  non  debent 
pro  instructione  eorum  ali(]uid  a  consanguineis  ipsorum  ex- 
pectare,   nisi  quod  propria  voluntate  facere  voluerint. 

A   Royal  Exhibitioner  at    Winchester.      1205. 

[A.  F.  Loach, ///>/'.  Win.  Coll.  ham  Lit.  Claus.,  6  Jolin  (Kec.  Com.)  27  !)•] 

Rex  Willelmo  de  CornhuU. 

Mandamus  tibi  quod  (laufridum  latorem  presencium  scolas 
apud  Wintoniam  frequentare  facias,  ac  ei  necessaria  raciona- 
biliter  invenias,  et  custum  quod  in  eo  posueris  nobis  scire 
facias  et  id  tibi  computabitur. 

Teste  me  ipso  apud  Londinium  13  Aprilis 
per  Petruni  de  Stoks. 

Secession  from  Oxford  to  Cambridge  and  Reading. 

I  209. 

{Chroii.  Roger  of  ]Vi'?uiover  (Rolls  Serio),  84.  11.  \).  51.) 

Per  idem  tempus  clericus  (luidam,  apud  O.xoniam  liberalibus 
vacans  disciplinis,  mulierem  quandam  casu  interfecit,  cjuam 
cum  mortuam  deprehendisset.  per  fugam  sibi  consuluit.  Pre- 
fectus  autem  urbis  et  multi  alii  accurrentes,  cum  mulierem 
exanimem  invenerunt,  ceperunt  tjucrerc  homicidam  ilium  in 
hospicio  suo,  (juod  cum  tribus  sociis  suis  clcricis  locaverat, 
et  facti  reum  non  invenientes  ceperunt  tres  socios  eius  clericos 
memoratos  et  de  homicidio  penitus  nescios,  et  eos  in  carcerem 
retruserunt  :  deinde  post  dies  paucos,  rege  Anglorum  iubente, 

Secession  from  Oxford  to  Cambridge     141 

Priests  ought  always  to  have  a  school  of  schoolmasters  in 
their  houses,  and  if  any  devout  person  wishes  to  entrust  his 
little  ones  to  them  for  instruction,  they  ought  to  receive  them 
willingly  and  teach  them  kindly.  Ye  ought  to  think  that  it 
is  written,  '  The  learned  shall  shine  like  the  brightness  of  the 
firmament,'  and  'Those  who  have  instructed  and  taught  many 
to  righteousness  shall  shine  like  stars  for  ever.'  But  they 
ought  not  to  expect  anything  from  the  relations  of  the  boys 
for  their  instruction,  except  what  they  are  willing  to  do  of  their 
own  will. 

A  Royal  Exhibitioner  at    Winchester.      1205. 

The  King  to  \Villiam  of  Cornhill. 

We  command  you  to  cause  Geoffrey,  the  bearer  hereof,  to 
attend  school  at  Winchester  and  find  him  necessaries  on  a 
reasonable  scale,  and  let  us  know  the  costs  you  expend  on  him 
and  it  shall  be  credited  to  you. 

Witness  myself  at  London,  13  April, 
By  Peter  of  the  Stocks. 

Secession  from  Oxford  to  Cambridge  and  Reading. 


About  the  same  time  a  clerk,  who  was  studying  the  liberal 
arts  at  Oxford,  by  accident  killed  a  woman,  and  when  he  found 
she  was  dead,  sought  safety  in  flight.  But  the  bailiff  of  the 
town  and  others  who  came  up  and  found  the  woman  dead, 
began  to  try  and  find  the  murderer  in  his  hostel,  which  he  had 
hired  with  three  other  clerks,  and  not  finding  the  criminal, 
took  his  three  friends,  who  knew  almost  nothing  about  the 
murder,  and  threw  them  into  prison.     A  few  days  afterwards. 

142        Lateran  Council  orders  Grammar 

in  contemptum  ecclesiastice  libertatis,  extra  villam  educti  sus- 
pendio  perierunt.  Quod  cum  factum  fuisset,  recesserunt  ab 
Oxonia  ad  tria  millia  clericorum,  tarn  magistri  quam  discipuli, 
ita  (luod  nee  unus  ex  omni  universitate  remansit ;  quorum 
quidam  apud  Cantabregge,  quidam  vero  apud  Radingum, 
liberalibus  studiis  vacantes  villam  Oxonie  vacuam  reliquerunt. 

A  Grammar  School  to  be  established  in  every 
Cathedral  and  a  Theological  School  in  every 
Archiepiscopal  Clnirch.      1215. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Early  Yorkshire  Schools,  i.  _v     Decretal  w,  tit.  5.] 

In  qualibet  cathedrali  ccclesia,  vel  alia  in  facultatibus 
sufficienti,  debet  a  praelato  vel  capitulo  unus  magister  eligi, 
cui  reditus  unius  praebendae  debent  assignari  :  in  metropoli- 
tana  vero  ecclesia  etiam  eligi  debet  theologus.  Et  si  ad  gram- 
maticum  et  theologum  non  sufficit,  provideat  ipsi  theologo  ex 
reditibus  suae  ecclesiae,  et  granimatico  faciat  provideri  in  aliqua 
ecclesiarum  suae  civitatis  vel  dioceseos. 

Innocentius  III  in  Concilio  (ienerali. 

Quia  nonnullis  propter  inopiam,  et  legendi  studium  et 
opportunitas  proficiendi  subtrahitur,  in  Lateranensi  concilio 
pia  fuit  constitutione  provisum,  ut  '  per  unamquanujue  cathe-  doctrinam.' 

^■erum  c^uoniam  in  multis  ecclesiis  id  minime  observatur, 
nos,  praedictum  roborantes  statutum,  adjicimus,  ut  non  solum 
in  qualibet  cathedrali  ecclesia  sed  etiam  in  aliis,  quarum 
sufficere  poterunt  facultates,  constituatur  magister  idoneus, 
a  praelato  cum  capitulo,  seu  majori  et  seniore  parte  capituli 
eligendus,  (}ui  clericos  ecclesiarum  ipsarum  [et  aliarum]  gratis 
in  grammatica  facultate  ac  aliis  instruat  juxta  posse. 

Sane    Metropolis    Ecclesia   theologum    nihilominus   habeat 

and  Theological  Schools  143 

on  the  orders  of  the  king  of  the  English,  in  contempt  of  the 
liberty  of  the  church,  they  were  taken  outside  the  town  and 
hung.  On  this  nearly  3000  clerks,  masters  and  scholars  alike, 
left  Oxford,  not  a  single  one  of  the  whole  University  remaining. 
Some  of  them  went  to  study  the  liberal  arts  at  Cambridge, 
some  to  Reading,  but  the  town  of  Oxford  was  left  empty. 

A  Grajnmar  School  to  be  established  in  every 
Cathedral  and  a  Theological  School  in  every 
Archiepiscopal  Church.      1215. 

In  every  cathedral  or  other  church  of  sufficient  means,  a 
master  ought  to  be  elected  by  the  prelate  or  chapter,  and  the 
income  of  a  prebend  assigned  to  him,  and  in  every  metro- 
politan church  a  theologian  also  ought  to  be  elected.  And 
if  the  church  is  not  rich  enough  to  provide  a  grammarian  and 
theologian,  it  shall  provide  for  the  theologian  from  the  revenues 
of  his  church,  and  cause  provision  to  be  made  for  the  grammarian 
in  some  church  of  his  city  or  diocese. 

Innocent  III  in  the  General  Council. 

Because  some  are  deprived  through  want  of  means  of  the 
study  of  learning  and  of  the  opportunity  of  proficiency,  it  was 
provided  by  a  pious  constitution  in  the  Lateran  Council,  that 
'in  every  cathedral... to  learning.' 

And  whereas  in  many  churches  this  is  not  observed,  we, 
confirming  the  statute  aforesaid,  add  that  not  only  in  every 
cathedral  church,  but  also  in  others  whose  means  shall  be 
sufficient,  a  fit  master  shall  be  established  to  be  elected  by 
the  prelate  and  chapter  or  the  greater  and  wiser  part  of  the 
chapter,  to  instruct  the  clerks  of  the  church  and  others  freely 
in  the  faculty  of  grammar  after  his  ability. 

Further,  a  metropolitical  church  shall  nevertheless  have  a 

144  Theological  Schools 

qui  sacerdotes  et  alios  in  sacra  pagina  doceat  et  in  his 
praesertim  informet,  quae  ad  curam  animarum  spectare  nos- 

Assignetur  autem  cuilibet  magistrorum  a  capitulo  unius 
praebendae  proventus,  et  pro  theologo  a  metropolitano  tan- 
tundem  ;  non  quod  propter  hoc  efficiatur  canonicus,  sed  tamdiu 
reditus  ipse  percipiat,  quamdiu  perstiterit  in  docendo. 

Quod  si  forte  de  duobus  Ecclesia  Metropolis  gravetur, 
theologo  juxta  modum  praedictum  ipsa  provideat,  grammatico 
vero  in  alia  ecclesia  suae  civitatis  sive  diocesis  (juae  sufficere 
valeat,  faciat  providcri. 

Non-residence  alloived  to  beneficed  Clergy  f 07"  Sliidy 
of  Theology  at  Universities.      12 19. 

[Decretal  v.  5,  c.  5.] 
Honorius  III. 

Super  si)eculum  Domini  licet  immeriti  constituti....-Volumus 
et  mandamus,  ut  statutum  editum  in  concilio  generali  de  magis- 
tris  theologis  per  singulas  metropoles  statuendis,  inviolabiliter 
observetur,  statuentes  insuper  de  consilio  fratrum  nostroruni 
ac  districte  praecipiendo  mandantes,  ut,  quia  super  hoc  propter 
raritatem  magistrorum  se  possent  forsitan  alic^ui  excusare,  ab 
ecclesiarum  praelatis  et  capitulis  ad  theologicae  professionis 
studium  alicjui  docibiles  destinentur,  (jui,  quum  docti  fucrint, 
in  Dei  ecclesia  velut  splendor  fulgeant  firmamenti,  ex  (|uibus 
postmodum  copia  possit  haberi  doctorum,  (|ui,  velut  stellae, 
in  perpetuas  aeternitates  mansuri  ad  iustitiam  valeant  plurimos 
erudire,  quibus,  si  pro])rii  proventus  ecclesiastici  non  sufficiunt, 
praedicti  necessaria  subministrent.      Docentes  vero  in   theolo- 

Theology  at   Universities  145 

theologian  to  teach  the  priests  and  others  in  the  sacred  page, 
and  inform  them  especially  in  those  matters  which  are  recog- 
nized as  pertaining  to  the  cure  of  souls. 

There  shall  be  assigned  to  each  master  by  the  chapter  the 
revenue  of  a  prebend,  and  by  the  metropolitan  chapter  the 
same  for  the  theologian ;  not  that  he  is  for  this  reason  to  be 
made  a  canon,  but  that  he  is  to  receive  the  income  of  one 
so  long  as  he  continues  teaching. 

If,  however,  the  metropolitical  church  is  overburdened  by 
two  masters,  that  church  shall  provide  for  a  theologian  in  the  way 
before-mentioned,  and  shall  cause  provision  to  be  made  for  the 
grammar  master  in  another  church  of  the  same  city  or  diocese. 

Non-residence  alloivcd  to  beneficed  Clergy  for  Study 
of  Theology  at  Universities.      1219. 

Honorius  III. 

Set  on  the  watch-tower  of  the  Lord  though  unworthy,... 
we  will  and  command  that  the  statute  published  in  the 
general  council  as  to  masters  in  theology  being  established 
in  every  mother-church  be  observed,  enacting  further,  by  the 
advice  of  our  brethren,  and  strictly  enjoining  that  as  through 
the  scarcity  of  masters  some  may  perhaps  excuse  themselves 
from  this,  then  some  capable  of  learning  shall  be  sent  by 
the  prelates  and  chapters  of  the  churches  to  a  school  of 
the  theological  faculty,  so  that  when  they  have  become 
learned,  they  may  shine  in  the  church  of  God  like  the 
splendour  of  the  firmament,  and  from  them  plenty  of  doctors 
may  hereafter  be  created,  who,  like  stars  remaining  to  all 
eternity,  may  instruct  many  in  justice,  and  if  their  own  church 
revenues  do  not  suffice  for  them,  the  said  prelates  and  chapters 
shall    find    them  what    they  need.       Teachers   in   the    fiiculty 

146  Clergy  ordered  to  attend 

gica  facultate,  dum  in  schoHs  docuerint,  et  studentes  in  ipsa 
integre  per  annos  quinque,  percipiant  de  licentia  sedis  aposto- 
licae  proventus  praebendarum  et  beneficiorum  suorum,  non 
obstante  aliqua  alia  consuetudine  vel  statute,  quum  denario 
fraudari  non  debeant  in  vinea  Domini  operantes.  Hoc  autem 
inconcusse  volumus  observari,  firmiter  disponentes,  quod  feri- 
antur  poena  debita  transgressores. 

Datis  Viterbii  vii  Kalendas  Decembris  [)ontificatus  nostri 
anno  iv. 

A   Lincolnshire    Vicar  ordered  to  attend  the 
Theology  School  at  Lincoln.      1219. 

[Kp.  Keg.  Line,  Rot.  Wwg.  de  Wells,  ill.  loi.] 
Lincoln  :    Barton  Vicaria. 

Radulphus  capellanus  presentatus  per  abbatem  et  con- 
ventum  de  Bardeneia  ad  perpetuam  vicariam  ecclesie  de 
Bartona  [super  Humber],  ordinatam  auctoritate  concilii,  facta 
inquisitione  per  W.  archidiaconum  Lincolnie,  i)er  quam  nego- 
tium  fuit  in  expedito,  adniissus  est  et  in  ea  canonice  vicarius 
perpetuus  institutus.... 

Injunctum  est  etiam  ipsi  vicario  ut  per  bienniuni  apud 
Lincolniam  scolas  frequentet  et  theologiam  addiscat,  et  interim 
idoneum  capellanum  in  dicta  ecclesia  de  Barton  innominet 
per  consilium  archidiaconi  Lincolnie. 

A   Parson  ordered  to  attend  Grann?iar  School, 
c.    1225. 

|Kp.  Keg.  Line,  Rot.  Hug.  de  Wells,  i.  147.] 

Lincoln  :   Hancwcrdhc. 

Hugo  de  Scalleby  clericus  presentatus  per  Nigellum 
Costentin   ad   ecclesiam   de   Hanewerdhe,   adniissus   est  et  in 

Schools  on  Admission  to  Benefices        147 

of  theology  while  teaching  in  the  schools,  and  those  wholly 
studying  in  the  same  faculty  for  five  years,  shall  receive  by 
licence  from  the  apostolic  see  the  revenues  of  their  prebends 
and  benefices,  any  custom  or  statute  to  the  contrary  notwith- 
standing, since  those  working  in  the  Lord's  vineyard  ought  not 
to  be  defrauded  of  their  penny.  This  we  will  to  be  unshakenly 
observed,  firmly  directing  that  transgressors  shall  be  stricken 
with  due  penalty. 

Dated  at  Viterbo   25  November,  in  the  4th  year  of  our 

A   Lincolnshire    Vicar  ordered  to  attend  the 
Theology  School  at  Lincoln.      12 19. 

Lincoln  :   Barton  Vicarage. 

Ralph,  chaplain,  promoted  by  the  abbot  and  convent  of 
Bardney  to  the  perpetual  vicarage  of  Barton-on-Humber, 
established  by  authority  of  the  [Lateran]  council,  after  inquiry 
by  W.  Archdeacon  of  Lincoln,  by  which  the  business  was 
expedited,  was  admitted  and  canonically  instituted  in  it  as 
perpetual  vicar 

The  vicar  himself  was  directed  to  attend  the  school  at 
Lincoln  for  two  years  to  learn  theology,  and  meanwhile  to 
appoint  a  fit  chaplain  in  the  said  church  of  Barton  with  the 
advice  of  the  Archdeacon  of  Lincoln. 

A   Parson  ordered  to  attend  Graviniar  School, 
c.    1225. 

Lincoln  :  [Potter]  Hanworth. 

Hugh  of  Scawby,  clerk,  presented   by  Nigel  Costentin  to 
the  church  of  [Potter]   Hanworth,  was  admitted  and  canoni- 

148  The  Beginnings  of 

ea  canonice  persona  institutus,  ita  quod  ad  proximos  ordines 
veniat  in  subdiaconum  ordinandus.  Propter  insufficientem 
autem  ipsius  litteraturani  injunxit  eidem  Doniinus  Episcopus 
sub  periculo  beneficii  sui  ut  scolas  frequentet.  Et  mandatum 
est  J.  Decano  de  Wivelinge  ut  ipsum  in  corporalem  prefate 
ecclesie  possessionem  inducat  secundum  formam  premissam, 
et  si  scolas  non  frequentaverit  (juod  illud  Domino  Episcopo 

Earliest    Mention    of  Cambridge    University. 

[Cal.  Close  Rolls,  15  Hen.  Ill,  m.  140!,  p.  586.] 

Rex  vicecomiti  Cantebrigie  salutem. 

Scias  quod  cum  in  villa  nostra  Kantebrigie,  ubi  convenit 
multitude  studcncium,  plures  sunt  clerici  rebelles  et  incor- 
rigibiles,  qui  cum  dclinqunt  a  cancellario  et  magistris  se  corripi 
nolunt  et  castigari,  et  plures  malefactores,  inter  quos  quidam 
sunt  sub  specie  clericali  mentientes  se  esse  quod  non  sunt,  a 
cancellario  et  magistris  scolarum  cum  delinqunt  iuxta  morem 
scolarium  se  iusticiari  non  purmittunt ;  i)ro  eorum  audacia 
coercenda  et  studencium  tranquillitate  de  consilio  nostro 
providimus  quod  quotiens  predicti  cancellarius  et  magistri 
perpenderint  et  invenerint  inter  se  huiusmodi  clericos  rebelles 
et  malefactores,  significent  illud  episcopo,  et  episcopus  postea 
tibi;  ut  tu,  assumptis  tecum  (juos  videris  ad  hoc  assumendos, 
ad  mandatum  eiusdem  episropi  in  propria  persona  tua 
accedas  usque  Cantebrigiam  et  secundum  quod  prcdictus 
episcopus  tibi  significabit  et  predicti  cancellarius  et  magistri 
tibi  dicent,  in  clericos  rebelles  et  malefactores  predictos  manum 
mittas,  et  ipsos  secundum  consilium  predictorum  canccllarii  et 
magistrorum  vel  ipsos  in  j^risona  nostra  retineas  vel  eos  a  villa 
de  Kantebrigia  expelli  facias  et  amoveri. 

Cambridge   University  149 

cally  instituted  in  it  as  parson,  on  condition  that  he  comes 
to  the  next  orders  to  be  ordained  subdeacon.  But  on  account 
of  the  insufficiency  of  his  grammar,  the  lord  bishop  ordered  him 
on  pain  of  loss  of  his  benefice  to  attend  school.  And  the 
Dean  of  Wyville  was  ordered  to  induct  him  into  corporal 
possession  of  the  said  church  in  form  aforesaid,  and  to  inform 
the  lord  bishop  if  he  does  not  attend  school. 

Earliest    Mention    of  Cambridge    University. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Cambridge,  greeting. 

Know  that  whereas  in  our  town  of  Cambridge,  where  a 
multitude  of  students  meet,  there  are  divers  disorderly  and 
incorrigible  clerks  who,  when  they  misconduct  themselves, 
refuse  to  be  arrested  and  punished  by  the  chancellor  and 
masters,  and  there  are  divers  criminals,  among  whom  are  some, 
in  the  guise  of  clerks,  pretending  to  be  what  they  are  not, 
who  when  they  misconduct  themselves  do  not  allow  themselves 
to  be  tried  like  scholars  by  the  chancellor  and  schoolmasters  ; 
we,  with  the  advice  of  our  council,  have  provided,  for  the 
restraint  of  their  audacity  and  the  peace  of  the  students,  that 
whenever  the  aforesaid  chancellor  and  masters  have  examined 
and  found  amongst  them  such  disorderly  clerks  and  criminals, 
they  may  inform  the  bishop,  and  the  bishop  may  inform  you  : 
and  you,  on  the  orders  of  the  bishop,  taking  with  you  such 
as  you  shall  see  fit  to  take  for  the  purpose,  shall  yourself  go 
to  Cambridge  and  arrest  such  of  the  said  disorderly  clerks  and 
criminals  as  the  aforesaid  bishop  shall  certify  in  writing,  and 
the  said  chancellor  and  masters  shall  inform  you  of  by  word 
of  mouth,  and  either  keep  them  in  our  prison  or  cause  them  to 
be  expelled  and  removed  from  the  town  of  Cambridge,  as  the 
chancellor  and  masters  shall  advise  you. 

1 50  Cambridge   University 

Et  ideo  tibi  precipimus  quod  ad  mandatum  episcopi  Eliensis 
de  predictis  clericis  rebellibus  et  malefactoribus  prout  dicti 
cancellarius  et  magistri  tibi  dicent,  in  forma  predicta  pro- 
visionem  nostram  exequaris,  ita  quod  predicti  clerici  rebelles 
et  nialefactores  pro  defectu  coercionis  tue  occasionem  non 
habeant  delinquendi,  propter  quod  decetero  ad  te  nos  graviter 
capere  debeamus. 

Teste  rege  apud  Oxoniam,  iii  die  Maii. 

Rex  viceconiiti  Cantebrigie  salutem. 

Quoniani  ut  audivimus,  plures  morantur  clerici  apud 
Cantebrigiam  (jui  sub  nullius  magistri  scolarum  sunt  disci- 
plina  et  tuitione,  set  potius  mei^'ciuntur  se  esse  scolares  cum 
non  sint,  ut  tutius  et  fortius  visa  ad  hoc  oportunitate  queant 
malignari  ;  tibi  precipimus  (juod  assumptis  tecum  probis  et 
legalibus  honiinibus  de  comitatu  tuo,  accedas  ad  villam  nos- 
tram Cantebrigie  et  per  totam  villam  illam  clamari  facias  ex 
parte  nostra  cjuod  nullus  clericus  moretur  in  villa  ilia  qui  non 
sit  sub  disciplina  vel  tuitione  alicuius  magistri  scolarum  ;  et  si 
aliqui  tales  fuerint  in  villa  ilia,  eam  exeant  infra  xv  dies  post- 
quam  hoc  clamatum  fuerit ;  et  si  ultra  terminum  ilium  inventi 
fuerint  in  eadem  villa  huiusmodi  clerici,  capientur  et  in  prisona 
nostra  mittentur. 

Teste  ut  supra. 

Et  mandatum  est  H.  Elyensi  episcopo  quod  quotiens 
cancellarius  et  magistri  scolarum  Cantebrigie  perpenderint  et 
invenerint  inter  se  huiusmodi  clericos  rebelles  et  malefactores 
et  illud  eidem  episcopo  significaverint,  ipse  viceconiiti  Cante- 
brigie per  literas  suas  istud  significet  ut  assumptis  secum  etc. 
ut  su])ra. 

Rex  maiori  et  ballivis  Cantebrigie  salutem. 

Satis  constat  vobis  cjuod  apud  villam  nostram  Cantebrigie 
studendi  causa  e  diversis  partibus,  tarn  cismarinis  cjuam  trans- 
marinis,  scolarium  confluit  multitudo,  quod  valde  gratum 
habemus   et   acceptum,    cum   exinde   toto   regno   nostro   com- 

and  Cambridge   Town  151 

And  so  we  command  you  that  on  the  orders  of  the  Bishop 
of  Ely  you  carry  out  this  our  provision  on  the  aforesaid  dis- 
orderly clerks  and  criminals  as  the  said  chancellor  and  masters 
shall  tell  you  in  form  aforesaid,  so  that  the  said  disorderly 
clerks  and  criminals  may  not,  through  want  of  coercion  by 
you,  find  opportunity  of  misbehaviour,  for  which  in  the  future 
we  might  have  occasion  to  deal  severely  with  you. 

Witness  the  king  at  Oxford,  3  May. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Cambridge,  greeting. 

Since,  as  we  have  heard,  many  clerks  are  living  at  Cambridge 
without  being  under  the  discipline  or  guardianship  of  any 
schoolmaster,  and  further  pretend  to  be  scholars  when  they 
are  not,  seeing  an  opportunity  of  thus  being  able  to  commit 
crimes  in  greater  safety  and  with  greater  ease ;  we  command 
you  that,  taking  with  you  good  and  lawful  men  of  your  county, 
you  go  to  our  town  of  Cambridge,  and  cause  proclamation  to 
be  made  on  our  behalf  through  the  whole  town  that  no  clerk 
shall  live  there  who  is  not  under  the  discipline  and  guardian- 
ship of  a  master  in  the  school ;  and  that  if  there  are  any  such 
in  the  town  they  shall  leave  it  within  15  days  after  this  pro- 
clamation is  made ;  and  if  after  that  time  any  such  clerks 
shall  be  found  in  the  same  town  they  shall  be  taken  and  sent 
to  our  prison. 

Witness  as  before. 

And  orders  were  sent  to  H.,  Bishop  of  Ely,  that  when- 
ever the  chancellor  and  masters  of  the  schools  of  Cambridge 
have  enquired  and  found  amongst  them  such  disorderly  clerks 
and  criminals  and  have  informed  the  bishop  thereof,  he  shall 
inform  the  sheriff  of  Cambridge  thereof  by  his  letters  so  that 
taking  with  him  etc.  as  above. 

The  king  to  the  mayor  and  bailiffs  of  Cambridge,  greeting. 

You  are  aware  that  a  multitude  of  scholars  from  divers 
parts,  as  well  from  this  side  the  sea  as  from  overseas,  meets 
at  our  town  of  Cambridge  for  study,  which  we  hold  a  very 
gratifying  and  desirable  thing,  since  no  small  benefit  and  glory 

152      Cambridge  and  Oxford  Universities 

modum  non  modicum  et  honor  nobis  accrescat ;  et  vos 
specialiter  inter  quos  personaliter  conversantur  studentes,  non 
mediocriter  guudere  debetis  et  letari. 

Audivimus  autem  quod  in  hospiciis  vestris  locandis  tam 
graves  et  onerosi  estis  scolaribus  inter  vos  commorantibus, 
quod  nisi  mensurabilius  et  modestius  vos  habueritis  erga  ipsos 
in  hac  parte,  exaccione  vestra  faciente,  oportebit  ipsos  villam 
vestram  exire  et  studio  suo  relicto  a  terra  nostra  recedere,  quod 
nullatenus  vellemus. 

Et  ideo  vobis  mandamus  firmiter  iniungentes  quatinus, 
super  predictis  hospiciis  locandis  vos  mensurantes  secundum 
consuetudinem  universitatis,  per  duos  magistros  et  duos  probos 
et  legales  homines  de  villa  vestra  ad  hoc  assignandos  hospicia 
predicta  taxari,  et  secundum  eorum  taxacionem  ea  locari 
permittatis,  taliter  vos  gerentes  in  hac  parte,  ne,  si  secus 
egeritis  propter  quod  ad  nos  debeat  clamor  pervenire,  ad  hoc 
manum  apponere  debeamus. 

Teste  ut  supra. 

Consimiles  literas  habet  universitas  Oxonie  directas  vice- 
comiti  Oxonie,  maiori  et  ballivis  Oxonie,  hoc  mutato,  quod  ubi 
ponitur  in  primo  brevi  directo  vicecomiti  Cantebrigie,  '  ad 
mandatum  episcopi  Elyensis,'  hie  ponitur,  'ad  mandatum 
cancellarii  et  magistrorum  Oxonie.'  Et  ubi  ponitur  in  brevi 
directo  maiori  et  ballivis  Cantebrigie,  '  taliter  vos  gerentes  in 
hac  parte,'  ponitur  hie,  'in  hoc  et  in  aliis  (]ue  predictos  scolares 

The  Master  of  MarH)orouo-li  ScJiool  a  Papal 
Delegate.      II    June   1232. 

\Saniiii   Ch.  and  Do<.  (Rolls  Series),    250.] 
Gregorius,   episcopus,    servus   servorum   Dei,    Dilectis   filiis 
Priori  de  Sancta  Margareta,  Decano  Christianitatis  et  Magistro 
Scolarum   de   Merleberge,   Saresberiensis   dioce.sis,   salutem   et 
apostolicam  benediccionem. 

Marlborough  School  153 

accrues  therefrom  to  our  whole  realm  ;  and  you,  among  whom 
these  students  personally  live,  ought  especially  to  be  pleased 
and  delighted  at  it. 

We  have  heard,  however,  that  in  letting  your  houses  you 
make  such  heavy  charges  to  the  scholars  living  among  you, 
that  unless  you  conduct  yourselves  with  more  restraint  and 
moderation  towards  them  in  this  matter,  they  will  be  driven 
by  your  exactions  to  leave  your  town  and,  abandoning  their 
studies,  leave  our  country,  which  we  by  no  means  desire. 

And  therefore  we  command  and  firmly  enjoin  you  that  in 
letting  the  aforesaid  houses  you  follow  University  custom  and 
allow  the  said  houses  to  be  valued  by  two  masters  and  two  good 
and  lawful  men  of  your  town  assigned  for  the  purpose,  and 
allow  them  to  be  let  according  to  their  valuation,  so  conducting 
yourselves  in  this  matter  that  no  complaint  may  reach  us  through 
your  doing  otherwise,  which  may  compel  us  to  interfere. 

Witness  as  above. 

The  University  of  Oxford  has  like  letters  directed  to  the 
sheriff  of  Oxford,  and  the  mayor  and  bailiffs  of  Oxford,  with 
this  difference,  that  where  it  is  put  in  the  first  writ  directed  to 
the  sheriff  of  Cambridge,  '  on  the  orders  of  the  bishop  of  Ely,' 
it  is  put  '  on  the  orders  of  the  Chancellor  and  Masters  of 
Oxford.'  And  where  it  is  put  in  the  writ  directed  to  the  mayor 
and  bailiffs  of  Cambridge,  '  so  conducting  yourselves  in  this 
matter,'  it  is  put  '  so  conducting  yourselves  in  this  and  other 
matters  which  concern  the  said  scholars.' 

The  Master  of  Marlborouoh  School  a  Papal 
Delegate.      11  June    1232. 

Gregory,  bishop,  servant  of  the  servants  of  God,  to  his 
beloved  sons  the  prior  of  St  Margaret,  the  dean  of  Christianity 
and  the  schoolmaster  of  Marlborough  in  the  diocese  of 
Salisbury,  health  and  apostolic  blessing. 

154     Northampton  and  Salisbury   Universities 

Magister  Elia  de  Derham  conquerendo  monstravit  quod 
Lucas  archidiaconus  Surreye  et  quidam  alii  Wintoniensis 
diocesis  super  deciinis  ad  ecclesiam  de  Poterne,  que  prebende 
sue  Sarisberie  pertinet,  injuriantur  eidem. 

Ideoque  discrecioni  vestre  per  apostolica  scripta  mandamus 
quatinus  partibus  convocatis  audiatis  causam. 

Datis  S|)oleti  iij  Idus  Junii  pontificatus  nostri  anno  vj'°. 

A  Northampto}i    Vicar  ordered  to  attend 
Northampton  School.      1230. 

[Ep.    Reg.   Line,    Rot.    Hug.   dc  Wells,   ii.    171.] 

Johannes  de  Dustone,  capellanus,  presentatus  per  priorem 
et  conventum  Sancti  Andree  Northamptonie  ad  ecclesiam 
Sancti  Bartholomei  Northamptonie,  facta  prius  inquisicione  per 
Johannem  archidiaconum   Northamptonie,  per  quam  etc.,  ad 

eandem  admissus  etc Injunctum  est  eciani  ipsi  Johanni  ut 

scolas  Northamptonie  frecjuentet,  et  addiscat,  et  hoc  anno 
revoluto  redeat  archidiacono  ostensurus  cjualiter  profecerit  in 

Universities  at  Northampton  aitd  Salisbury. 

[Th.   \V;ilsinghain,    Ypodignia  Ncustriac  (Rolls  Series).    141. J 

Anno  1238  Otho,  apostolicae  sedis  legatus,  cum  ad  abba- 
thiam  de  Osney  juxta  Oxon.  receptus  fuisset,  insultum  passus  a 
scholaribus  ad  campanile  transfugit.  Qui  postea  Londoniis  in 
.scholares  Oxonie  sententiam  excommunicationis  fulminavit, 
studiamque  dispersit.  Unde  factum  est  ut  quidam  villam 
Northamptonie,  (]uidam  novam  civitatem  Sarum  ad  studium 

Northampton  and  Salisbury   Universities     155 

Master  Elias  of  Dereham  complaining  has  shown  us  that 
Luke,  archdeacon  of  Surrey,  and  others  of  the  diocese  of 
Winchester,  do  him  wrong  in  the  matter  of  the  tithes  belonging 
to  the  church  of  Potterne,  which  belongs  to  his  prebend  at 

Therefore  we  commend  it  to  your  discretion  by  apostolic 
writ  that  you  summon  the  parties  before  you  and  hear  the  case. 

Dated  Spoleto  1 1  June  in  the  6th  year  of  our  bishopric. 

A  Northampton    Vicar  ordered  to  attend 
Northampton  School.      1230. 

John  of  Dustone,  chaplain,  presented  by  the  prior  and 
convent  of  St  Andrew's,  Northampton,  to  the  church  of  St 
Bartholomew,  Northampton,  inquiry  having  been  first  made  by 
John,  archdeacon  of  Northampton,  by  which  etc.  was  admitted 
to  the  same  etc. ...And  the  said  John  was  ordered  to  attend 
Northampton  School  and  learn,  and  that  at  the  end  of  a  year 
he  should  return  to  the  archdeacon  to  show  how  he  had  got 
on  in  it. 

Universities  at  Northampton  and  Salisbury. 

In  the  year  1238,  Otto  the  legate  of  the  apostolic  see,  was 
received  at  Oseney  abbey  near  Oxford,  but  being  assaulted  by 
the  scholars  took  refuge  in  the  bell-tower.  Afterwards  at  London 
he  published  sentence  of  excommunication  on  the  scholars  of 
Oxford  and  broke  up  the  University.  So  it  came  to  pass  that 
some  chose  the  town  of  Northampton,  and  others  the  new  city 
of  Salisbury  for  the  University. 

156  Newa7'k  School 

Newark  Grammar  School.      1238. 

[A.    F.    I.cacli,    Mem.  of  Southwell  Minster  (Camden  Society,    1891), 
XI.I.-II.,   from  Liher  Allms,   f.   136.] 

Littera  de  jure  presentacionis  Scolarum  de  Newark. 

Noverint  universi  Matris  Ecclesie  filii  ad  quorum  noticiam 
presentes  littere  pervenerint,  (juod  cum  lis  est  mota,  auctori- 
tate  Domini  Pape,  inter  Stephanum  titulo  Sancte  Marie 
transtiberine  presbyterum  cardinalem  canonicum  Suwell  ex  una 
parte,  et  Priorem  et  conventum  Canonicorum  Sancte  Katharine 
ex  altera,  super  collacione  scolarum  de  Newark,  tandem  dicta 
lis  inter  Dominum  Abbatem  De  Rupe  procuratorem  ipsius 
Cardinalis  in  Anglia  de  consensu  capituli  Suwell  amicabile 
composicione  conquievit  in  hunc  modum,  anno  scilicet 
Incarnacionis  Dominice  millesimo  ducentesimo  tricesimo 
octavo ;  videlicet,  quod  dicti  Prior  et  conventus  clericum  ad 
regimen  scolarum  predictarum  ad  instruendum  pueros  in  arte 
grammatica  ydoneum  canonico  sive  custodi  dicte  prebende 
quicunc[ue  pro  tempore  fuerit,  si  canonicus  presens  non  fuerit, 
quotienscuncjue  eas  vacare  contigcrit  in  Capitulo  Suwell  pre- 
sentabunt.  Qui  quidem  clericus  canonico  vel  custodi  dicte 
prebende  et  Capitulo  obedienciam  canonicam  jurabit.  Si  vero 
dictus  clericus  in  aliquo  contra  libertates  Ecclesie  Suwell  vel 
dicte  prebende  deliquerit,  si  incorrigibilis  existat,  et  dicti 
Prior  et  conventus  in  corripiendo  eum  fuerint  necligentes  super 
excessibus  ipsius  corrigendis,  recepto  prius  mandato  super  hiis 
a  Canonico  ipsius  prebende  sive  a  Capitulo  predicto,  per 
eosdem  Priorem  et  conventum  amovebitur,  et  alius  per 
eosdem   loco   ipsius  presentatus  reci{)ietur. 

Ut   vero   hec   concessio   perpetue  firmitatis  robur  optineat 

Newark  School  157 

Newark  Granwtar  School.      1238. 

Letter  on  the  right  of  presentation  to  Newark  School. 

Let  all  sons  of  mother  church  to  whose  knowledge  the 
present  letters  come,  know  that  when  a  suit  had  been  brought 
with  the  authority  of  the  lord  Pope,  between  Stephen,  cardinal 
priest  of  the  church  of  St  Mary  Trastevere,  canon  of  Southwell, 
of  the  one  part,  and  the  prior  and  convent  of  the  canons 
of  St  Katharine  [by  Lincoln]  of  the  other,  as  to  the  collation 
of  Newark  School,  at  length  the  said  suit  was  brought  to  an 
end  by  the  lord  abbot  of  Roche,  the  same  cardinal's  proctor 
in  England,  with  consent  of  the  cha])ter  of  Southwell,  by  a 
friendly  agreement  in  this  manner,  in  the  year  of  the  Incarna- 
tion of  the  Lord  i  238  ;  viz.  that  the  said  prior  and  convent  shall 
in  chapter  at  Southwell  present  a  fit  clerk  to  keep  the  said 
school  for  the  instruction  of  boys  in  the  art  of  grammar,  to  the 
canon,  or  to  the  guardian  of  the  said  prebend  for  the  time  being, 
if  the  canon  is  not  present,  as  often  as  the  school  falls  vacant; 
which  clerk  shall  swear  canonical  obedience  to  the  canon  or 
guardian  of  the  said  prebend  and  to  the  chapter.  If  the  said 
clerk  shall  commit  any  offence  against  the  liberties  of  the 
church  of  Southwell  or  of  the  said  prebend,  if  he  is  incorrigible, 
and  the  said  prior  and  convent  shall  be  negligent  in  punishing 
him  and  correcting  his  offences,  after  receiving  orders  on  the 
matter  from  the  canon  of  the  same  prebend  or  the  chapter 
aforesaid,  he  shall  be  removed  by  the  same  prior  and  convent 
and  another  presented  by  them  shall  be  admitted  in  his 

That  this  grant  may  obtain  the  strength  of  perpetual  con- 

158      Grammar  and  Logic  Schools  at  Southwell 

Capitulum  Suwell   et  predicti  Prior  et  conventus  sigilla   sua 
autentica  huic  scripto  hinc  inde  apposuerunt  etc. 

[Marginal  note  in  later  hand.] 
Quia  collaciones  scolaruni  grammaticalium  per  totum 
Archidiaconatum  Notyngham  solum  et  in  solidum  pertinent  ad 
prebendarium  de  Normanton  in  collegiata  ecclesia  Suthwell 
ut  cancellarium  eiusdem  ecclesie,  et  quamvis  aliqua  pretensa 
composicio  super  collacione  scolarum  grammaticalium  villa  de 
Newerk  fuerit  facta,  ilia  tamen  nullius  potest  existere  auctori- 
tatis,  ut  liquet  ex  tenore  eiusdem,  quia  peccat  in  pluribus. 

Grammar  aiid  Logic  Schools   at    Southwell  and 
on  the  Prebends  of  the  Canoits.       i  248. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Mcvi.  of  Sont/tzccll  Minster,  p.  205,  from  Chapter  Act 

Acta  generali  convocacione  singulorum  fratrum  et  cano- 
nicoruni  Suthwell  Ecclesie,  die  lune  proximo  post  festum 
Annunciacionis  Beate  Marie  Virginis,  incipiente  anno  Domini 
millesinio  ducentesimo  quadragesimo  octavo,  de  communi 
consilio  et  unanimi  consensu  Canonicorum  ibimet  presencium, 
et  procuratorum  Canonicorum  absenciuni. 

Ordinatum  fuit  et  statutum.... 

Item,  quod  non  teneantur  Scole  de  (Irammatica  vel  Logica 
infra  prebendas  Canonicorum,  nisi  secundum  consuetudinem 

N^ortiuDJipton    University.      i    Feb.    1261  — 
I    Feb.    1265. 

[A.  F.  Leach,    V.  C.  //.  Xorlhants,  w.  234.     Pat.  45  Hen.  IlL  m.  17.] 

Rex  etc.  dilectis  ct  fidelibus  suis  niaiori,  ballivis  et  ceteris 
probis  hominibus  suis  Norham])ton,  salutcm. 

Cum  quidam  magistri  et  alii  scolares  proponant  in  municipio 

Grammar  and  Logic  Schools  at  Southwell     1 59 

firmation  the  chapter  of  Southwell  and  the  said  prior  and 
convent  have  put  their  authentic  seals  to  this  deed  on  one  side 
and  the  other  etc. 

[Marginal  note  in  later  hand.] 
Whereas  the  collations  of  grammar  schools  throughout  the 
archdeaconry  of  Nottingham  belong  solely  and  wholly  to  the 
prebendary  of  Normanton  in  the  collegiate  church  of  Southwell 
as  chancellor  of  the  same  church,  although  some  alleged  agree- 
ment may  have  been  made  as  to  the  collation  to  the  grammar 
school  of  the  town  of  Newark,  it  cannot  be  of  any  authority,  as 
appears  from  the  text  of  the  same,  as  it  is  wrong  in  many  points. 

Grammar  and  Logic    Schools  at  Southwell  and 
on  the  Prebeiids  of  the  Cations.       1248. 

Acts  of  the  general  Convocation  of  all  the  brethren  and 
canons  of  the  church  of  Southwell,  on  Monday  after  the  feast  of 
the  Annunciation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  at  the  beginning 
of  the  year  of  the  Lord  1248,  by  the  common  counsel  and 
unanimous  consent  of  the  canons  there  present  and  the 
proctors  of  absent  canons. 

It  was  ordered  and  decreed 

Also,  that  vSchools  of  Orammar  or  Logic  shall  not  be  held 
in  the  canons'  prebends,  except  in  accordance  with  the  custom 
of  York. 

Northampton    University.      i   Feb.    1261  — 
I   Feb.    1265. 

The    king    etc.    to    his    beloved    and    faithful    the    mayor, 
bailiffs,  and  his  other  good  men  of  Northampton,  greeting. 
Whereas    certain    masters    and    others,    scholars,    propose 

1 6o  Northampton   University 

vestro  morari  ad  scolasticatn  disciplinam  ibidem  excercendam, 
ut  accepimus,  nos  cultum  divinum  et  regni  nostri  utilitatem 
niaiorem  ex  hoc  attcndentcs  adventum  predictorum  scolarium 
et  niorum  suam  ibidem  acceptamus,  volentes  et  concedentes 
(juod  predicti  scolares  in  municipio  predicto  sub  nostra 
proteccione  et  defensione  salvo  et  secure  morentur,  et  ibidem 
excerceant  et  faciant  ea  que  ad  huiusmodi  scolares  pertinent. 
Eg  ideo  vobis  mandamus  firmiter  precipientes  quod  ipsos 
scolares  cum  ad  vos  venerint  commoraturi  in  municipio 
supradicto  recommendatos  habentes  ipsos  curialiter  recipiatis, 
et  prout  statum  decet  scolasticum  manuteneatis :  Non 
inferentes  eis  aut  inferri  permittentes  impedimentum  molestiam 
aut  gravamen. 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium  etc.  Teste  rege  apud  Windes- 
[oram]  primo  die  Februarii. 

Et  mandatum  est  universis  magistris  et  aliis  scolaribus 
Venturis  ad  municipium  predictum  quod  Rex  adventum  suum 
in  municipium  predictum  ad  scolasticam  disciplinam  ibidem 
excercendi  affectat,  et  Rex  vult  et  concedit  quod  sub  sua 
proteccione  et  defensione  saluo  et  secure  morentur  in  muni- 
cipio predicto,  et  ibidem  exerceant  et  faciant  que  ad  ipsos 
pertineant.     Teste  ut  supra. 

The  Oxford  Scholars  at  the  Defence  of  Northampton.      1264. 

[Knyghton.   Dt   c:-tntibiis  Aiii^lic.   11.,  ed.  T\\ys(len,    1652,   \).    244S.] 

Clerici  vcro  universitatis  Oxoniensis,  quae  quidem  uni- 
versitas  jussu  baronum  ibidem  translata  fuerat,  ipsis  ingredi- 
entibus  et  insultantibus  majora  fecerunt  mala  quam  cacteri 
baroncs  cum  fundis  ct  arcubus  et  balistis.  Habebant  enim 
vexillum  per  se  et  in  sublime  contra  regem  erectum,  unde 
iratus  rex  juravit,  (|uod  in  ingressu  suspendercntur  onines. 
Quo  audito  raserunt  capita  multi  et  fugani  cjui  poterunt  veloccm 

I'acificata  tamcn  urbc  jussit  rex  cxecjui  quod  juraverat.     Et 

Northampton   University  1 6 1 

to  live  in  your  borough  to  pursue  school  learning  there  as 
we  are  informed,  we,  expecting  therefrom  increase  of  divine 
worship  and  the  greater  advantage  of  our  realm,  accept  the 
coming  of  the  aforesaid  scholars  and  their  living  there, 
wiUing  and  granting  that  the  said  scholars  may  live  in  the 
borough  aforesaid  safely  and  securely  under  our  protection 
and  defence,  and  there  pursue  and  do  whatever  concerns 
such  scholars.  Therefore  we  command  you  firmly  ordering 
that  you  hold  the  scholars  when  they  come  to  live  in  the 
borough  aforesaid  as  recommended  by  us,  and  receive  them 
courteously,  and  maintain  them  as  the  estate  of  scholars  de- 
mands ;  not  putting  nor  allowing  to  be  put  any  impediment, 
molestation  or  grievance  upon  them. 

In  witness  whereof  etc.  Witness,  the  king  at  Windsor, 
I  February  [1260-1]. 

And  a  mandate  issued  to  all  the  masters  and  other  scholars 
who  were  going  to  the  borough  aforesaid,  that  the  king  favours 
their  coming  to  the  said  borough  to  practice  school  learning 
there,  and  the  king  wills  and  grants  that  they  may  live  safely 
and  securely  under  his  protection  and  defence  in  the  borough 
aforesaid,  and  there  practice  and  do  whatever  concerns  them.. 
Witness  as  above. 

The  Oxford  Scholars  at  the  Defence  of  Northampton.      1264. 

The  clerks  of  Oxford  University,  which  by  the  barons'  orders 
had  been  transferred  there,  inflicted  greater  losses  on  the 
attacking  force  which  came  in  through  the  breach  than  the 
rest  of  the  barons,  by  their  slings  and  bows  and  balistas.  They 
had  their  own  flag,  which  they  held  up  on  high  against  the 
king,  which  so  enraged  him  that  he  swore  that  when  he  got  in 
he  would  hang  them  all.  On  hearing  this  many  of  them  shaved 
their  heads  and  fled  as  quickly  as  possible. 

When  the  town  was  quiet,  the  king  ordered  the  execution 

L.  IT 

1 62  Nortkanipion   University 

dixerunt  ei,  Absit  hoc  a  te,  rex,  nam  filii  magnatorum  tuorum  et 
caeteroruni  hominum  de  regno  tuo  hue  cum  universitate  tua 
convenerunt,  quos  si  suspend!  feceris  seu  detruncari,  insurgent 
in  te  tui  qui  modo  tecum  sunt,  non  permittentes  pro  posse 
sanguinem  fiHorum  suorum  seu  proximorum  effundi.  Placatus- 
que  est  rex  et  contra  clericos  (juievit  ira  ejus. 

Suppression  of  Northampton  University,      i  Feb.  1265. 
[Cldsc   Roll,  49  Hen.   Ill,  m.    10  d.] 

Rex  maiori  et  civibus  suis  Northamptonie,  salutem. 

Occasione  cuiusdam  magne  contencionis  in  villa  Canta- 
brigiensi  triennio  iam  elapso  suborte  nonnulli  clericorum  tunc 
ibidem  studencium  unanimiter  ab  ipsa  villa  recessissent,  se 
usque  ad  villam  nostram  predictam  Xorthamjjtonie  transferentes 
et  ibidem  (studiis  inherendo)  novam  construere  Universitatem 
cupientes:  nos  illo  tempore  credentes  villam  illam  ex  hoc 
posse  nieliorari,  et  nobis  utilitatem  non  modicani  inde  pro- 
venire,  votis  dictorum  clericorum  ad  eorum  requisicionem 
annuebamus  in  hac  parte.  Nunc  autem  cum  ex  relatu  multorum 
fide  dignorum  veracitc-r  intcllcximus  quod  ex  huiusmodi 
Universitate  (si  permaneret  ibidem)  municipium  nostrum 
Oxonie  (jucjd  ab  anticjuo  creatum  est,  et  a  progenitoribus  nostris 
regibus  Anglie  confirmatum,  ac  ad  commoditatem  studencium 
communiter  approbatum,  non  mediocriter  lederetur,  quod 
nulla  racione  vellemus,  maxime  cum  universis  episcopis  terre 
nostre  ad  honorem  Dei  et  utilitatem  ecclesie  Anglicane  et 
profectum  studencium  videatur  expedire,  quod  Universitas 
amoveatur  a  villa  predicta,  sicut  per  literas  suas  patentes 
accepimus.  \'ol)is  de  consilio  magnatum  nostrorum  firmiter 
inhibemus  nc  in  villa  nostra  de  cetero  aliciuam  Universitatem 
esse,  nee  alicjucjs  studentes  ibidem  manere  permittatis,  aliter 
([uam  ante  creacionem  dicte  Universitatis  fieri  consuevit. 
Teste  ruge  apud  W'estmonaslerium  primo  die  Februarii  anno 
regni   (luadragesimo  nono. 

Northarnpton    University  163 

of  his  oath.  But  they  said  to  him,  'Far  be  this  from  you, 
king,  for  the  sons  of  your  great  men  and  others  of  your  realm 
came  here  with  your  University,  and  if  you  hang  or  behead 
them,  those  who  are  now  on  your  side  will  rise  against  you,  as 
they  will  not  allow  the  blood  of  their  sons  and  relations  to 
be  shed  if  they  can  help  it.'  So  the  king  was  pacified  and  his 
anger  against  the  clerks  cooled. 

Suppression  of  Northampton  University,      i  Feb.  1265. 

The  king  to  his  mayor  and  citizens  of  Northampton, 

On  account  of  a  great  contest  which  arose  in  the  town 
of  Cambridge  three  years  ago  some  of  the  clerks  studying  there 
unanimously  left  that  town  and  transferred  themselves  to  our 
said  town  of  Northampton  and  desired,  with  a  view  to  adhering 
to  their  studies,  to  establish  a  new  University  there  :  we,  be- 
lieving at  the  time  that  town  would  be  benefited  by  this,  and 
that  no  small  benefit  would  accrue  to  us  therefrom,  assented 
at  their  request  to  the  wishes  of  the  said  clerks  in  this  behalf. 
But  now,  as  we  are  truly  informed  by  the  statements  of  many 
trustworthy  persons  that  our  borough  of  Oxford,  which  is  of 
ancient  foundation,  and  was  confirmed  by  our  ancestors  kings 
of  Fngland,  and  is  commonly  commended  for  its  advantage 
to  students,  would  suffer  no  little  damage  from  such  Univer- 
sity, if  it  remained  there,  which  we  by  no  ineans  wish,  and 
especially  as  it  appears  to  all  the  bishops  of  our  realm,  as  we 
learn  from  their  letters  patent,  that  it  would  be  for  the  honour 
of  Ood,  and  the  benefit  of  the  Church  of  England,  and  the 
advancement  of  students  that  the  University  should  be  re- 
moved from  the  town  aforesaid ;  we,  by  the  advice  of  our 
great  men,  firmly  order  that  there  shall  henceforth  be  no 
University  in  our  said  town,  and  that  you  shall  not  allow  any 
students  to  remain  there  otherwise  than  was  customary  before 
the  creation  of  the  said  University.  Witness,  the  king  at 
Westminster,    i    Feb.   in  the  49th  year  of  his  reign. 

II — 2 

1 64  The  University  College  of  the 

The  Earliest    University   College  in   England  at 
Salisbury.      1262. 

\SarH/ii    C/i.    and   Doc.    (Rolls    Series,    No.    9I.    p.    3,^4,    from    Mini. 
Salishiiiv,    Lib.    W  404,   C  420;   Keg.   Ruhr.    4O4  ] 

Carta  super  ordinatione  donius  Vallis  Scholariuni  Sarum. 

In  nomine  doniini  no.stri  Jesu  Christi,  Amen.  Nos 
Egidius,  Dei  patientia  Sarum  episcopus,  ad  honorem  ejusdem 
Domini  et  gloriosae  virginis  Mariae  et  beati  Nicholai,  pro 
.salute  animae  nostrae  et  pro  animabus  benefactorum  nostrorum 
et  omnium  eorum  pro  quibu.s  quocuncjue  titulo  vel  modo 
sumus  astricti,  duximus  fundare,  instituere,  aedificare,  et 
construere  domum  in  usum  et  proprietatem  scholarium,  quae 
Vallis  Scholarium  beati  Nicholai  vocabitur,  in  perpetuum,  de 
consensu  et  assensu  domini  Roberti  decani  et  capituli  Sarum, 
magistri  et  fratrum  hospitalis  beati  Nicholai  Sarum,  in  prato 
juxta  ecclesiam  cathedralem  Sarum  et  viam  regiam  ante  dictum 
hospitale,  ad  perpetuas  receptiones,  receptationem,  et  sustenta- 
tionem  unius  custodis  pro  tempore,  duorum  capellanorum, 
et  viginti  pauperum,  egenorum,  honestorum  et  docibilium 
scolarium  ibidem  Deo  et  beato  Nicholao  servientium,  et  inibi 
amodo  viventium,  in  divina  pagina  et  liberalibus  artibus 
studentium  et  proficientium  ;  cjuem  quidem  locum  cum 
omnibus  pertinentiis  suis,  pro  nobis  et  succcssoribus  nostris, 
dictis  custodi  et  successoribus  suis,  dictis  capellanis,  et 
scolaribus  successoribusque  eorum  per  dictum  custodem  qui 
pro  tem|)ore  fuerit  recipiendis,  damus  et  concedimus,  in  liberam, 
puram,  et  perpetuam  eleniosinam  in  perpetuum  duraturam  ;  et 
ipsum  locum  cum  suis  ibidem  pertinentiis  ab  omni  exactione 
et  censu  nuindano  et  ecclesiastico,  sectis  curiarum  et  hun- 
dredorum,  et  secjuelis  quibuscunque,  et  ab  omni  seculari 
servitio  et  denianda,  pro  nobis  et  successoribus  nostris  in 
perpetuum  constituimus,   immunem,   liberum  et  quietum. 

Valley  Scholars  at  Salisbury  i6' 

The   Earliest    University   College  in  England  at 
Salisbury.      1262. 

Deed  of  ordinance  of  the  House  of  the  Valley  Scholars  at 

In  the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  Amen.  We,  Giles 
[of  Bridport],  by  the  sufferance  of  God  bishop  of  Salisbury,  to 
the  honour  of  the  same  Lord,  the  glorious  Virgin  Mary  and 
Blessed  Nicholas,  for  the  health  of  our  soul  and  for  the  souls  of 
our  benefactors  and  all  those  for  whom  we  are  under  whatso- 
ever title  or  manner  bound,  have  thought  fit  to  found,  establish, 
build  and  construct  a  house  for  the  use  and  ownership  of 
scholars,  which  shall  be  called  the  house  of  the  Valley  Scholars 
of  the  Blessed  Nicholas,  for  ever,  with  the  consent  and 
assent  of  Sir  Robert,  dean,  and  the  chapter  of  Salisbury,  of  the 
master  and  brethren  of  the  Blessed  Nicholas'  Hospital  of 
Salisbury,  in  a  meadow  near  the  cathedral  church  of  Salisbury 
and  the  king's  way  in  front  of  the  said  hospital,  for  the  perpetual 
reception  and  maintenance  of  a  warden  for  the  time  being,  two 
chaplains  and  20  poor,  needy,  well-behaved  and  teachable 
scholars  serving  God  and  the  Blessed  Nicholas  there,  and 
there  living,  studying  and  becoming  proficient  in  the  Holy 
vScriptures  and  the  liberal  arts ;  which  place  with  all  its  appur- 
tenances we  for  ourselves  and  our  successors  give  and  grant 
to  the  said  warden  and  his  successors  and  the  said  chaplains 
and  scholars  and  their  successors  to  be  received  by  the  said 
warden  for  the  time  being,  in  free,  pure  and  perpetual  alms 
to  endure  for  ever  ;  and  the  same  place  we  with  its  appur- 
tenances there  for  ourselves  and  our  successors  make  immune, 
free  and  quit  for  ever  from  all  exaction  and  tax,  secular  or 
ecclesiastical,  from  suit  of  court  and  hundred,  and  all  their 
(■onseciuences,  and  from  all  secular  service  and  demand. 

1 66  The   University  College  of  the 

Item,  habitis  [in]super  deliberatione  et  tractatu  diligenti, 
statuimus,  constituimus,  ct  statuendo  ordinamus,  quod  custos 
praedictae  domus,  capcllanorum  et  scolarium  praedictorum, 
post  cessioncm  vel  decessum  domini  Johannis  de  Holteby, 
canonici  Sarum,  nunc  ejusdem  domus  custodis,  de  communi 
nominatione  supradicti  solius  decani  et  capituli,  et  de  gremio 
ejusdem  capituli  in  posterum  assumatur,  et  eorum  duntaxat 
praeficiatur  approbatione,  assensu,  et  voluntate ;  hoc  etiam 
adjecto,  quod  si  eum  ex  causa  viderint  ammovendum,  causa  in 
coiimiuni  inter  eos  absque  judiciaria  solemnitate  examinata  et 
approbata,  eundem  ammoveant,  nullo  sibi  contra  hujus 
ammotionem  ex  appellationis  beneficio  remedio  competituro. 
Ya  ut  cautius  in  his  prospiciatur,  statuimus  et  ordinamus  quod 
idem  custos  in  administrationis  susceptione  paciscatur  et  juret 
se  a  praedicta  ammotionis  sententia  non  appellaturum. 

Item,  statuimus,  constituimus,  et  statuendo  ordinamus, 
quod  idem  custos  correctionem  plenariam  habeat  tam  in 
temporalibus  quam  in  spiritualibus  infra  ambitum  praedictae 
domus  et  ibidem  pertinentia,  salva  gravatis  ad  eundem 
decanum  duntaxat,  et  non  ultra,  appellandi  facultate. 

Item,  statuimus,  constituimus,  et  ordinamus,  quod  supradicti 
decanus  et  capitulum  dictae  domus  sint  in  perpetuum  patroni, 
etipsius  domus  i)atronatum  cum  pertinentiis  habitis  et  habendis 
eisdem  decano  et  capitulo  tenore  praesentium  damus  et 
confirmamus  in  perpetuum. 

Et  ut  supradictae  fundatio,  institutio,  donationes  et  con- 
cessiones,  statuta  et  ordinationes,  ratae  et  stabiles  maneant 
in  j)erpetuum,  tam  nos  quam  praedicti  decanus  et  capitulum, 
magister  et  fratres  supradicti  praesentem  scripturam  ad  per- 
petuam  supradictorum  memoriam  omnium  et  singulorum 
approbationem,  sigillorum  nostrorum  impressionibus  robora- 
vimus  et  confirmavimus. 

His  testibus  :  magistro  Radulfo  de  Hegham,  cancellario, 
Radulfo  de  Eboraco,  Rogero  de  la  (Irene,  archidiacono  Wyltes 

Valley  Scholars  at  Salisbury  167 

Also,  after  diligent  consultation  and  consideration  we 
decree,  establish  and  by  statute  ordain  that  the  warden  of  the 
said  house,  chaplains  and  scholars  aforesaid,  after  the  cession  or 
decease  of  Sir  John  of  Holtby,  canon  of  Salisbury,  now  warden 
of  the  same  house,  shall  thereafter  be  chosen  by  the  joint 
nomination  of  the  dean  and  chapter  only  and  from  the  bosom 
of  the  same  chapter,  and  be  preferred  by  their  sole  approval, 
consent  and  will ;  this,  too,  is  to  be  added,  that  if  they  shall  see 
cause  for  removing  him,  after  the  cause  has  been  examined 
and  approved,  though  without  judicial  solemnity,  by  them  in 
common,  they  may  remove  him,  without  any  remedy  being 
open  to  him  against  such  removal  by  way  of  appeal.  And  that 
greater  caution  may  be  exercised  in  this  matter,  we  decree  and 
ordain  that  the  same  warden  on  taking  up  the  administration 
shall  promise  and  swear  that  he  will  not  appeal  from  the  said 
sentence  of  removal. 

Also  we  decree  and  establish  and  by  statute  ordain  that  the 
same  warden  shall  have  full  power  of  correction  both  in 
temporal  and  spiritual  matters  within  the  circuit  of  the  same 
house  and  its  appurtenances,  saving  to  those  aggrieved  a  right 
of  appeal  to  the  same  dean  only  and  not  further. 

Also  we  decree,  establish  and  ordain  that  the  aforesaid 
dean  and  chapter  shall  be  perpetual  patrons  of  the  same  house, 
and  we  give  and  confirm  the  patronage  of  the  same  house 
with  all  that  is  held  or  to  be  held  as  appurtenant  thereto  by  the 
tenor  of  these  presents  to  the  same  dean  and  chapter  for  ever. 

And  that  the  aforesaid  foundation,  institution,  gifts  and 
grants,  statutes  and  ordinances  may  remain  ratified  and 
established  for  ever,  we  and  the  aforesaid  dean  and  chapter 
and  the  master  and  brethren  before  mentioned,  have  ratified 
and  confirmed  this  {)resent  writing  in  perpetual  remembrance 
of  all  and  singular  the  premises  by  impressions  of  our  seals. 

These  being  witnesses  :  Master  Ralf  of  Heigham,  chan- 
cellor, Ralf  of  York,  Roger  of  the  (keen,  the  archdeacon  of 
\\'iltshire  |etc.]. 

1 68  The  Chancellor  of  Salisbury  s 

Dispute  as  to  Jurisdiction  of  Chancellor  and  Sub- 
dean  of  Salisbujy  over  University  Scholars 
there.      1278. 

[H.    Rashdall,    Univ.  of  Europe,   li.,    pi   ii.    765,    from   Salisbury  Lih. 
Ruber,  f.  99.] 

De  iurisdictione  Cancellarii  Sarum. 

Die  mercurii  viij  Idus  Martii  anno  domini  mcc"*''  septua- 
gesimo  viij,  cum  de  iurisdictione  inter  scolares  in  Ciuitate 
Saresberiensi  studiorum  causa  commorantes  exercenda  inter 
cancellarium  et  subdecanum  predictos,  quorum  uterque  iuris- 
dictionem  ipsam  ad  suum  officium  pertinere  dicebat,  dissentio 
quedam  exorta  fuisset,  tandem  habito  super  hoc  tractatu  in 
capitulo  die  ipsa  de  utriusque  expresso  consensu  conuenerunt 
in  hunc  modum  — uidelicet  quod  dictus  dominus  cancellarius, 
ad  cuius  officium  pertinet  scolas  regere,  inter  omnes  scolares, 
cuiuscumque  facultatis  existant,  studiorum  causa  in  ciuitate 
ipsa  commorantes,  qui  tanquam  scolares  certi  doctoris,  cuius 
scolas  frctjucntant,  recommendationem  et  testimonium  habeant, 
de  contencionibus  ciuilibus  ct  personalibus  que  pecuniarum 
interesse  respiciunt,  et  scolasticis  omnibus  contractibus  et  eciam 
si  laicus  aliquem  huiusmodi  scolarium  in  consimilibus  causis 
impetere  uoluerit,  cognoscat  et  difrniat,  et  presbyteri  ciuitatis 
decreta  et  preapta  eiusdem  cancellarii  in  hiis  exequi  teneantur. 
De  aliis  uero  clericis  et  qui  extra  studium  certi  doctoris  scolas 
minime  frequentantes  ibidem  moram  fccerint,  et  de  scolaribus 
ipsis,  si  forsan  de  lapsu  carnis  seu  delicto  alio  ibidem  comniisso 
(juod  ad  correccionem  pertineat  et  salutem  respiciat  animarum, 
uocati  fuerint,  subdecanus  ipse,  (jui  est  archidiaconus  ciuitatis, 
iurisdiccionem  et  correccionem  habeat,  excei)tis  tamen  uicariis 
et  clericis  maioris  ecclesie  tam  studentibus  ([uam  aliis,  in  quos 
decanuscum  capitulo  et  non  alius  ipso  [)resente,  et  subdecanus 
similiter  cum  capitulo  decano  absente,  secundum  hactenus 
obtentam  ecclesie  consuetudinein,  c^mnimodam  iurisdiccionem 
et  cohercionem  exercebunt  :  ita  quod  cancellarius  ipse  per  se 
nullatenus  intromittat  de  eisdem. 

Ju7'isdiction  over  University  Scholars      169 

Dispute  as  to  Jurisdiction  of  Chancellor  and  Sub- 
dean  of  Salisbury  over  University  Scholars 
there.      1278. 

Of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Chancellor  of  Salisbury. 

On  ^^''ednesday,  8  March  1278,  whereas  a  dispute  had 
arisen  between  the  chancellor  and  the  subdean  as  to  the 
jurisdiction  over  the  scholars  living  in  Salisbury  for  the  sake  of 
pursuing  their  studies,  each  of  them  saying  that  the  jurisdiction 
was  appurtenant  to  his  office,  after  debate  in  the  chapter  on  the 
matter,  an  agreement  was  come  to  on  the  same  day  with  the 
express  consent  of  both  parties  in  these  terms  ;  viz.  that  the 
said  sir  chancellor,  whose  office  it  is  to  rule  schools,  shall  have 
the  cognizance  and  determination  of  all  civil  and  personal 
actions  which  concern  any  pecuniary  interest  and  all  scholastic 
contracts,  even  if  a  layman  want  to  implead  any  scholar  in 
cases  of  that  kind,  between  all  scholars  of  whatever  faculty  they 
may  be,  who  are  living  in  the  same  city  and  have  the  recom- 
mendation and  testimonial  of  a  particular  doctor,  whose  school 
they  attend,  and  the  city  priests  shall  be  bound  to  obey  the 
decrees  and  orders  of  the  chancellor  in  such  matters.  But 
the  subdean,  who  is  archdeacon  of  the  city,  shall  have  the 
jurisdiction  over  and  punishment  of  other  clerks  and  those 
outside  the  University  who  are  living  there  without  attending 
the  school  of  a  particular  teacher,  and  of  scholars  themselves 
if  they  are  summoned  for  fornication  or  other  crime  there  com- 
mitted which  is  a  matter  of  the  cure  of  souls  ;  except,  however, 
the  vicars  and  clerks  of  the  cathedral,  both  students  and  others, 
over  whom  the  dean  and  chapter  and  no  one  else  if  the  dean  is 
present,  and  the  subdean  and  chapter  if  the  dean  is  absent,  shall, 
according  to  the  custom  of  the  church  heretofore  observed, 
exercise  the  sole  jurisdiction  and  power  of  punishment  :  and 
the  chancellor  as  such  shall  not  interfere  at  all  with  them. 

1 70     First  Foundation  of  Me7^ton  College, 

Foundation  of  the  House  of  Scholars  of  Merton, 
at  Maldon.      1264. 

\Stat.  Coll.  Oxford,  I.,  printed  by  University  Commissioners,  185.^] 

In  nomine  Dei,  omnipotentis  Patris,  et  Filii  et  Spiritus 
Sancti,  in  honore  ejusdem  Sanctae  et  Individuae  Trinitatis  et 
Beatissimae  Dei  Genetricis  Mariae,  et  Beati  Johannis  Baptistae 
Christi  praecursoris,  atque  Sanctorum  omnium,  ego  Walterus 
de  Merton,  illustris  domini  Henrici  Regis  Angliae,  filii  Regis 
Johannis,  quondam  Cancellarius,  tarn  auctoritate  mihi  a  dicto 
domino  meo  Rege  concessa,  quam  ratione  juris  et  potestatis 
quae  mihi  in  meis  maneriis  de  Maudon  et  de  P'arleigh  cum 
eorum  pertinentiis  competunt,  do,  assigno  et  concedo  maneria 
ipsa,  cum  omnibus  pertinentiis  suis,  quocunque  nomine  censeri 
possint,  ad  fundationem  Donms,  quam  dici  volo  et  nuncupari 
Domum  Scholarium  de  Merton,  quam  et  ego,  in  profectum 
Ecclesiae  sanctae  Dei,  pro  salute  animae  domini  mei  Regis 
praedicti  et  animaruni  domini  Richardi  quondam  Dunelmensis 
Episcopi,  Richardi  quondam  Comitis  Gloverniae  et  Hereford, 
Gilberti,  filii  ejus,  Willelmi  de  Whatevill  et  Petri  de  Codynton, 
necnon  parentum  et  benefactorum  meorum  omnium,  auctoritate 
venerabilis  patris  Johannis  \\'intoniensis  Episcopi  loci  dioecesani 
interveniente,  necnon  et  consensu  capituli  sui,  in  dicto  manerio 
de  Maudon  statuo,  fundo  et  stabilio,  ad  perpetuam  sustenta- 
tionem  viginti  scholarium  in  scholis  degentium  Oxoniae,  vel 
alibi  ubi  studium  vigere  contigerit,  et  ad  sustentationem  duorum 
vcl  trium  ministrorum  altaris  Christi  in  dicta  Donio  residen- 
tium:  sub  conditione  et  modo  subscriptis,  tarn  circa  scholares 
(juam  ministros  praedictos,  Domino  largicnt(!,  inposterum 

Circa  scholares  siquideni  praedictos  banc  statuo  con- 
ditionem.  Succcssionem,  scilicet  (juae  meis  haeredibus, 
secundum  regni  consuetudinem,  in  dictis  maneriis  debcbatur, 
in  profectum  Ecclesiae  sanctae  ct  nostri  generis  sempiternum, 

Oxford,  at  Maldon,  Surrey  1 7  i 

Foundation  of  the  HoiLse  of  Scholars  of  Merton, 
at  Maldon.      1264. 

In  the  name  of  God,  the  Almighty  Father,  and  the  Son 
and  the  Holy  Ghost,  in  honour  of  the  same  Holy  and  Un- 
divided Trinity  and  of  God's  most  blessed  mother  Mary,  and  of 
the  blessed  John  the  Baptist,  the  forerunner  of  Christ,  and  of 
all  Saints,  I,  Walter  of  Merton,  late  chancellor  of  the  illustrious 
lord  Henry,  king  of  England,  son  of  King  John,  both  by 
the  authority  granted  me  by  my  said  lord  the  king,  and  by 
reason  of  the  right  and  power  which  belong  to  me  in  my 
manors  of  Maldon  and  Farleigh  with  their  appurtenances,  give, 
assign  and  grant  the  same  manors  with  all  their  appurtenances, 
by  whatsoever  name  they  may  be  called,  for  the  foundation  of 
a  house  which  I  wish  to  be  called  and  named  '  The  House  of 
Merton's  scholars,'  which  too  I,  for  the  profit  of  the  holy 
church  of  God,  for  the  health  of  the  soul  of  my  lord  the  king 
aforesaid,  and  of  the  souls  of  the  lord  Richard,  late  bishop  of 
Durham,  of  Richard,  late  earl  of  Gloucester  and  Hereford,  and 
Gilbert  his  son,  of  William  of  Whatvill  and  Peter  of  Codyngton, 
also  of  all  my  parents  and  benefactors,  with  the  authority  of  the 
venerable  father  John,  bishop  of  Winchester,  the  diocesan  of 
the  place,  and  also  the  consent  of  his  chapter,  in  the  said 
manor  of  Maldon,  constitute,  found,  and  establish  for  the 
perpetual  maintenance  of  20  scholars  living  in  the  schools  at 
Oxford,  or  elsewhere  where  a  University  may  happen  to  flourish, 
and  for  the  maintenance  of  two  or  three  ministers  of  the  altar 
of  Christ  living  in  the  said  house ;  on  the  condition  and 
in  the  manner  underwritten,  to  be  hereafter  observed,  by  the 
largesse  of  God,  as  well  about  the  scholars  as  about  the 
ministers  aforesaid. 

As  to  the  scholars  aforesaid  I  establish  this  condition. 
The  succession,  which  was  due  to  my  heirs  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  realm  in  the  said  manors,  I,  under  the  eye  of 
God,  change  for  the  everlasting  profit  of  holy  Church  and  my 

1 7  2      First  Foundation  of  Merton  College, 

ad  laudem  nostri  conditoris  perpetuam,  quam  in  ipso  genere 
augeri  et  continuari  cupio  et  exopto,  sic,  Deo  inspectore,  com- 
muto,  ut  scholares  supradicti  de  nostra  sint  parentela,  quamdiu 
honesti  et  habiles  ac  proficere  volentes  in  ipsa  reperiantur. 
Ubi  autem  in  ea  tales,  usque  ad  complementum  numeri  supra- 
dicti, reperiri  non  poterunt,  alii  honesti  et  habiles,  maxime 
de  Wintoniensi  dioecesi,  loco  eoruni  qui  de  nuniero  supradicto 
defuerint,  subrogentur. 

Habebunt  autem  singuli  scholarium  ipsorum  annis  singulis 
quadraginta  solidos  sterlingorum  ad  minus,  vel  quinquaginta 
solidos  seu  quatuor  marcas,  si  ad  hoc  res  sufficere  possit  ;  quos 
per  manus  Custodis  ejusdem  Domus  terminis  competentibus 
recipiant  annuatim.  In  hospitio  quoque,  quantum  sine  im- 
pedimento  suae  instructionis  fieri  poterit,  simul  habitabunt, 
indunientis  se  consiniilibus,  in  signum  unitatis  ac  dilectionis 
mutuae,  vestientes. 

Hanc  autem  sustentationem  plenc  et  integrc  habeant 
scholares  supradicti  dum  bene  et  honeste  se  habuerint :  ita 
quoque  (juod  si  eorum  aliqui  in  fata  concedant,  vel  religionis 
habitum  assumant,  aut  ad  aliorum  obsequia  se  transferant, 
beneficia  uberiora  sortiantur,  a  studio  recesserint,  aut  studio 
pro  suo  modulo  se  applicare  noluerint,  de  turpitudine  aliqua 
publice  notati  fuerint,  vel  alias  minus  bene  et  honeste  se 
habuerint.  et  de  hoc  per  suos  socios  sufficienter  constare 
possit,  subtrahatur  cis  sustcntutio  pracdicta,  et  alii  de  genere 
praedicto  vel  de  aliis,  ut  praedictum  est,  loco  ipsorum  libere 
subrogentur,  qui  per  scholares  praedictos  sub  debito  fidclitatis 
suae  nominal)untur  de  genere  i)raedicto,  dum  in  eo  habiles 
et  honesti  reperiantur,  vel  de  aliis  si  in  ipso  hujusmodi 
nequeant  re[)eriri. 

Y\  si  forte  in  hujusmodi  nominatione  minime  Concordes 
inveniantur,  tunc  ("ancellarius  seu  Rector  Universitatis  ubi 
ipsos  agere  contigerit.  aut  Custos  dictae  Domus,  si  C'ancellarius 
aut  Rector  praedicti  id  infra  mensem  efficere  non  curaverint, 
illos  ad  dictam  sustentationem  admitti  decernat,  (juos  ])er  sex 

Oxford,  at  Maldon,  Surrey  i ']}, 

family  to  the  perpetual  praise  of  our  founder,  which  I  wish 
and  hope  will  be  increased  and  continued  in  the  same  family, 
so  that  the  scholars  aforesaid  shall  be  of  my  family,  as  long 
as  in  the  same  there  shall  be  found  men  upright  and  able 
and  desirous  of  proficiency.  But  when  such  cannot  be  found 
in  it  for  the  completion  of  the  number  aforesaid,  other  honest 
and  able  persons,  especially  from  the  diocese  of  Winchester, 
shall  be  substituted  in  the  place  of  those  who  fall  short  of 
the  number  aforesaid. 

Each  of  the  same  scholars  shall  have  40^.  sterling  at  least, 
or  ^os.  or  4  marks  [;i^2.  13^.  4^^.],  every  year,  if  there  are 
means  to  provide  this ;  which  they  shall  receive  at  proper 
terms  yearly  from  the  warden  of  the  same  house.  They  shall 
live  together  in  their  inn,  so  far  as  this  can  be  done  without 
hindrance  to  their  learning,  clothing  themselves  in  similar 
clothes  as  a  mark  of  their  union  and  mutual  affection. 

This  maintenance  the  scholars  aforesaid  shall  have  fully 
and  wholly  as  long  as  they  behave  themselves  well  and  like 
gentlemen;  on  condition,  however,  that  if  any  of  them  yield 
to  fate,  or  take  the  religious  habit,  or  transfer  themselves  to 
other  duties,  obtain  better  benefices,  depart  from  the  University, 
or  refuse  to  apply  themselves  to  study  after  their  capacity,  are 
publicly  defamed  of  anything  disgraceful,  or  otherwise  behave 
themselves  badly  or  in  an  ungentlemanly  way,  and  this  can 
be  sufficiently  proved  by  their  colleagues,  then  the  aforesaid 
maintenance  shall  be  taken  away  from  them,  and  others  of  the 
family  aforesaid,  or  of  the  others,  as  is  aforesaid,  shall  be  freely 
substituted  in  their  place,  being  nominated  by  the  scholars 
aforesaid  as  their  faculty  requires  from  the  family  aforesaid,  so 
long  as  able  and  well-behaved  persons  can  be  found  in  it, 
or  from  others  if  none  such  can  be  found  in   the  family. 

And  if  by  chance  they  cannot  agree  in  such  nomination, 
then  the  chancellor  or  rector  of  the  University  where  they  may 
happen  to  be,  or  the  warden  of  the  said  house,  if  the  chancellor 
or  rector  aforesaid  have  not  taken  care  to  do  it  within  a  month, 
shall   order    to   be   admitted  to    the   said   maintenance,   those 

I  74     First  Foundation  of  Merton  College, 

vel  septem  de  provectiorihus  et  discretioribus  scholarium 
ipsorum,  sub  debito  juramenti  eorundeni,  honestiores  in- 
tellcxcrint  ct  hubiliores.  IlHs  autem  (juibus  dicta  sustentacio 
ex  culpa  sua  vel  ex  causis  aliis  praedictis  subtracta  fuerit,  nulla 
competat  actio  contra  Custodem  Domus  supradictae  vel 
alios  ;  dum  tamen  liqueat  quod  ex  sua  culpa  aut  ex  causis  aliis 
praedictis  dicta  fuerint  sustentatione  privati. 

Si  vero  parvuli  aliqui  de  parentela  praedicta,  suis  orbati 
parentibus,  aut  alias  pro  exilitate  parentuni  suorum,  sustentatione 
careant  dum  in  puerilibus  rudimentis  primitus  instruantur, 
tunc  Custos  ipse,  si  facultates  sufficiant.  eos  erudiri  faciat  in 
Domo  praedicta,  donee  in  scholis  proficere  possint  si  ad  hoc 
habiles  inveniantur :  et  de  illis  in  subrogationem  superius 
expressam  sumantur,  cjui  ad  hoc  habiles  et  idonei  reperientur. 

Annis  autem  singulis,  in  festo  videlicet  Exaltationis  Sanctae 
Crucis,  decem  vel  octo  de  provectiorihus  et  discretioribus 
scholarium  ipsorum  apud  Domum  supradictam  vice  omnium 
conveniant,  ibidem  })er  octo  dies,  si  velint,  in  signum  pro- 
prietatis  et  dominii  quod  eis  gratia  dictae  sustentationis  ibi 
competit,  utpote  (juorum  nuncu[)atione  Domus  ipsa  nomen 
sortitur,  moram  facturi.  Quibus  etiam  licebit  modis  quibus 
poterunt  incjuirere  diligenter  utrum  Custos  Domus  supradictae 
in  administratione  rerum  et  possessionum  ejusdem  bene  se 
habuerit,  honeste  et  circumspecte  :  et  si  aliud  reperiatur  hoc 
ei  denuntiare  ad  quern  rei  hujusmodi  correctio  pertinebit. 
Similiter  autem,  et  aliis  anni  tem[)oribus,  si  de  Custode 
praedicto  sinistrum  aliciuod  audiatur,  licebit  duobus  vel  tribus 
ex  dictis  scholaribus  hujusmodi  investigationem  ac  denuntia- 
tionem  facere  quotiens  viderint  expedire.... 

Custos   autem    dictae    Domus    et   ministri    altaris    Domini 

Oxford,  at  Maldon,  Surrey  175 

whom  they  shall  learn  from  six  or  seven  of  the  more  ad- 
vanced and  discreet  of  the  same  scholars  under  oath  to  be 
of  the  best  character  and  ability.  Those  from  whom  the  said 
maintenance  is  taken  away  through  their  own  fault  or  any  of  the 
causes  before-mentioned,  shall  have  no  cause  of  action  against 
the  warden  of  the  house  aforesaid  or  others,  as  long  as  it  appears 
that  they  were  deprived  of  the  said  maintenance  through  their 
own  fault  or  from  one  of  the  other  causes  before-mentioned. 

If  there  are  any  little  boys  of  the  kinship  aforesaid,  who, 
through  being  orphans,  or  otherwise  through  the  poverty  of 
their  parents,  are  in  want  of  maintenance  while  they  are  being 
instructed  in  the  rudiments  of  primary  education,  then  the 
warden  himself,  if  means  suffice,  shall  cause  them  to  be 
educated  in  the  house  aforesaid  until  they  can  become  pro- 
ficient in  the  schools,  if  they  are  found  fit  for  this;  and  those 
to  be  substituted  as  before  expressed  shall  be  taken  from  them, 
if  they  shall  be  found  able  and  fit  for  it. 

Every  year,  on  the  Exaltation  of  the  Holy  Cross  [14  Sept.], 
ten  or  eight  of  the  older  and  more  discreet  scholars  shall,  on 
behalf  of  them  all,  meet  at  the  said  house,  and  stay  there  for 
eight  days,  if  they  wish  it,  in  sign  of  the  property  and  ownership 
which  belongs  to  them  there  for  their  said  maintenance,  as  it 
is  from  them  that  the  house  itself  obtains  its  name.  They  may 
inquire  in  all  possible  ways  whether  the  warden  of  the  house 
aforesaid  has  properly  conducted  the  administration  of  its 
goods  and  possessions ;  and  if  anything  shall  be  discovered 
shall  report  it  to  him  whose  business  it  is  to  put  it  right.  In 
like  manner  if  at  any  other  time  of  the  year  anything  adverse 
is  reported  of  the  warden  aforesaid,  two  or  three  of  the  said 
scholars  may  make  such  inquiry  and  report  as  often  as  they 
shall  consider  it  expedient... 

[Provision  to  be  made  for  the  warden  when  superannuated 
among  the  brethren  of  the  house. 

Provision  for  tlie  number  of  scholars  being  increased  if  the 
revenues  increase.] 

'i'he   warden   of  the  said  house  and  the  ministers   of  the 

I  76     First  Foundation  of  Merton  College, 

ibidem  conimorantes,  necnon  et  scholares  ipsi,  cum  ibi  modo  et 
occasione  praedictis  convenerint,  pane  et  cervisia  et  uno  ferculo 
carnium  sen  piscium  sibi  competente  absque  murmure  sint  con- 
tent! ;  ita  tamen  ciuod  gratia  hospitum  aut  aliarum  necessitatum 
de  dicta  domo  uberius  liceat  providendum  :  tamen  dictorum 
scholarium  nunicrus  exinde  non  minus  amplictur;  sed  respectum 
semper  liabeant  Custos  et  fratres  ibi  commorantes  ad  fructum 
ex  huJLismodi  scholarium  exhibitione  perpetuis  temporibus 
profuturum,  et  eam  potius  augere  studeant  quam  suae  voluptati 
aliquid  tribuere,  quod  eis,  quorum  sunt  procuratores  et  ministri, 
ex  ordinatione  praesenti  seu  hac  institutione  debeatur. 

Si  autem  incurabilis  sit  aegritudo  praedicta,  per  quod 
scholaris  ille  in  studio  vel  alibi  ad  victum  suum  honeste  con- 
sequendum  sufficere  non  possit,  et  ipse  de  nostro  genere 
existat,  tunc  gratia  successionis  meae,  quam  in  scholares 
praedictos  transfundo,  ministrentur  ei  victus  et  vestitus  ad 
totam  vitam  suam  in   Domo  supradicta. 

Custos  vero  Domus  supradictae,  cum  ibi  ponendus  fuerit, 
nominetur  per  duodecim  provectiores  scholarium  praedictorum, 
de  consilio  fratrum  dictae  Domus  :  qui,  sub  obtentu  felicitatis 
aeternae,  omni  favore  humano  postposito,  talem  studeant 
nominare  (}ui  melior  et  fidelior  in  administratione  rerum  et 
negotiorum  dictae  Domus  haberi  poterit,  Domino  largiente. 
Et  ipse  postmodum  Domino  Wyntoniensi  Episcopo,  loci 
dioecesano  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit,  per  ipsos  praesentetur,  qui 
ei  custodian!  Domus  praedictae,  si  ad  hoc  idoneus  extiterit, 

Injungo  autem  scholaribus  praedictis,  in  virtute  Dei  et  sub 
obtentu  vitae  praesentis  et  futurae,  ut  cum,  praestante  Domino, 
ad  uberiorem  forlunam  devenerint,  Domum  praedictam  in 
licitis  et  honestis  promovere  studeant,  ac  ejus  defensioni, 
necnon  et  eorum  quae  ad  eam  pertinent,  cum  opus  fuerit, 
diligenter  insistant. 

Oxford,  at  Maldon,  Surrey  177 

altar  of  the  Lord  living  there  and  the  scholars  themselves, 
when  they  shall  meet  there  in  the  manner  and  on  the  occasion 
mentioned,  shall  be  content  with  bread  and  beer  and  one 
appropriate  dish  of  flesh  or  fish,  without  grumbling;  on  the 
understanding,  however,  that  better  provision  may  be  made 
for  guests  or  other  necessary  reasons ;  so,  however,  that  the 
increase  in  the  number  of  the  scholars  shall  not  be  thereby 
lessened.  But  the  warden  and  brethren  living  there  shall  al- 
ways have  regard  to  the  fruit  which  will  always  accrue  from 
the  maintenance  of  such  scholars,  and  shall  rather  be  zealous 
to  increase  that  than  to  contribute  to  their  own  pleasure,  as 
this  is  due  by  the  present  ordinance  or  institution  to  them, 
whose  proctors  and  servants  they  are. 

[A  scholar  becoming  ill  during  visitation  of  the  house  may 
be  kept  there  for  not  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  year.] 

If,  however,  his  illness  is  incurable,  so  that  the  scholar 
cannot,  at  the  university  or  elsewhere,  'earn  an  honest  living, 
and  he  is  of  my  kin,  then  in  recognition  of  the  succession 
to  me  which  I  transform  into  the  scholars  aforesaid,  food  and 
clothing  shall  be  given  him  all  his  life  in  the  house  aforesaid. 

[Any  freeman  in  Merton's  service  when  he  dies  unable  to 
earn  his  living  to  be  also  maintained  in  the  house  according  ta 
his  station.] 

The  warden  of  the  house,  when  one  is  to  be  placed  therein, 
shall  be  nominated  by  the  twelve  seniors  of  the  scholars 
aforesaid,  with  the  advice  of  the  brethren  of  the  house ;  and 
they  shall  endeavour  to  nominate,  in  view  of  their  eternal 
happiness,  putting  aside  all  favour  to  man,  the  one  who  shall  be 
found,  by  the  grace  of  the  Lord,  the  best  and  most  faithful 
administrator  of  the  property  and  business  of  the  said  house. 
And  he  shall  then  be  presented  to  the  lord  bishop  of  \Vinchester, 
the  diocesan  of  the  place  for  the  time  being,  who  shall  commit 
to  him  the  guardianship  of  the  house  aforesaid,  if  he  shall  be  fit 
for  it. 

[The  bishop  of  Winchester  to  be  patron  and  protector  of  the 
house  and  scholars.] 

I  enjoin  the  scholars  aforesaid  in  virtue  of  (lod  and  having 
regard  to  this  and  the  future  life,  that  when,  by  the  aid  of  the 
Lord,  they  have  come  to  ampler  fortune,  they  shall  endeavour 
to  promote  the  house  aforesaid  in  all  lawful  and  honest  ways 
and  diligently  assist  in  its  defence  and  that  of  everything 
belonging  to  it,  when  need  shall  be. 

L.  12 

lyS     First  Foundation  of  Merton  College, 

Domui  etiam  Sancti  Johannis  Baptistae  de  Basingestoke, 
quam  dominus  Rex  supradictus,  in  meo  territorio  et  fundo,  ad 
sustentationem  niinistrorutn  altaris  Christi  et  pauperum  in- 
firmantium,  precum  mearuni  instantia,  fundavit  et  stabilivit, 
obnoxii  semper  sint  et  devoti,  et  earn  augeant,  secundum  quod 
eis  Dominus  gratiam  inspiraverit  ac  sibi  concesserit  facultatem. 
Domui  insuper  de  Merton,  a  qua  nomen  sortiuntur,  grati 
semper  sint,  et  earn  utpote  hujus  operis  adjutricem  studeant 

Singulis  etiam  annis  semel  vel  bis,  in  locis  ubi  eos  agere 
contigerit,  conveniant,  et  pro  suo  Fundatore  atque  aliis  suis 
benefactoribus  vivis  et  defunctis  divina  celebrari  procurent  ; 
horumque  tenorem,  pro  meinoria  et  conservatione  hujus 
^leemosinae,  ibidem  recitari  faciant,  et  suas  intentiones  in 
profectum  Ecclesiae  sacrosanctae  dirigant,  ac  sui  Conditoris 
honorem  et  nominis  sui  laudem  totis  affectibus  studeant 

Illud  quoque  insuper  attendendum  est  quod  si  pro  dictorum 
scholarium  et  fratrum  commoditate  locus  habitationis  apud 
Farleigh,  aut  alibi  in  suo  territorio,  pro  situ  loci  aut  causis  aliis 
emergentibus  sit  competentior,  et  ad  locum  hujusmodi  ipsi  se 
transferant,  vel  per  alium  hujus  adjutorem  operis  transferantur, 
nihil  eis  idcirco  juris  seu  possessionis  depereat  in  dictis  maneriis 
seu  rebus  aliis  sibi  assignatis,  vel  deinceps  ex  pia  largitione 
fidelium  assignandis  ;  dum  tamen  banc  institutionem,  tam  re 
quam  nomine,  teneant  et  observent,  et  se  suasque  possessiones 
alteri  collegio  non  adjungant. 

Ad  memoriam  rei  hujus  sempiternam,  et  ut  haec  ordinatio 
et  provisio  salubris  robur  obtineant  perpetuae  firmitatis,  sigilla 
praedictorum  domini  Henrici  Regis  et  domini  Johannis 
Wyntoniensis  Episcopi,  necnon  et  Capituli  sui,  in  sui  consensus 
et  approbationis  suae  testimonium,  praesentibus,  una  cum 
sigillo  meo,  apponi  procuravi.  Datis  anno  Domini  M"cc" 
sexagesimo  quarto. 

Oxford,  at  Maidon,  Surrey  179 

They  shall  also  always  be  aiding  and  devoted  to  the  House 
of  Saint  John  the  Baptist  of  Basingstoke,  which  the  aforesaid 
lord  the  king  at  my  petition  founded  and  established  in  my 
domain  and  property,  for  the  maintenance  of  ministers  of 
Christ's  altar  and  infirm  poor,  and  shall  augment  it  as  the 
Lord  shall  inspire  them  and  give  them  means  to  do  so.  To 
the  House  of  Merton,  too,  from  which  they  take  their  name, 
they  shall  be  ever  grateful,  and  be  zealous  to  honour  it  as  a 
helper  in  this  work. 

Also  once  or  twice  in  every  year  they  shall  meet  in  the  places 
where  they  are  studying  and  procure  service  to  be  celebrated 
for  their  founder  and  other  their  benefactors,  living  and  dead; 
and  shall  cause  the  tenor  of  these  presents  to  be  read  aloud 
there  in  memory  and  for  the  preservation  of  this  charity,  and 
shall  direct  their  minds  to  the  profit  of  the  most  holy  church, 
and  endeavour  to  enhance  the  honour  of  their  Creator  and  the 
praises  of  His  name  with  all  their  strength. 

[To  do  their  fealty  to  the  lord  of  the  manor,  unless  he 
releases  it.] 

This  also  is  to  be  borne  in  mind,  that  if,  by  reason  of  the 
site  or  other  causes,  a  better  place  for  the  dwelling  of  the  said 
scholars  and  brethren  be  found  at  Farleigh  or  elsewhere  on 
their  demesne,  and  they  transfer  themselves  there  or  are 
transferred  there  by  another  helper  in  this  work,  they  shall  not 
therefore  lose  any  right  or  possession  in  the  said  manors  or 
other  property  assigned  to  them,  or  hereafter  to  be  assigned  to 
them  by  the  generosity  of  the  faithful ;  so  long  as  they  keep  and 
observe  this  foundation  in  word  and  deed,  and  do  not  annex 
themselves  and  their  possessions  to  another  college. 

In  everlasting  remembrance  of  this  matter,  and  that  this 
healthful  ordinance  and  provision  may  obtain  the  strength 
of  perpetual  confirmation,  I  have  procured  the  seals  of  the 
aforesaid  lord  King  Henry  and  the  lord  John,  bishop  of 
Winchester,  and  his  chapter,  to  be  affixed,  together  with  my 
own,  to  these  presents,  in  witness  of  their  consent  and  approval. 
Given  a.d.  1264. 

i8o  Merton   College  Statutes 

Statutes  of  Merton  College  in  the  University 
of  Oxford.      1274. 

iib.  1. 23.] 

Cap.  I.     l)e  concessione  manerioruni  Maldon  et  Farlegh. 

In  nomine  gloriosissimac  et  indivicluae  Trinitatis,  Patris,  et 
Filii,  et  Si)iritus  Sancti.     Amen. 

Ego,  Walterus  de  Merton,  clericus,  illustris  domini  Regis 
Angliae  quondam  Cancellarius,  de  Summi  rerum  et  bonorum 
Opificis  bonitate  confisus,  ejusdem  gratiae  qui  vota  hominum 
pro  sua  voluntate  ad  bonum  disponit  et  dirigit  fidenter  invisus, 
animique  revolutione  saepe  sollicitus  si  quid  sui  nominis  honori 
retribuam  pro  hiis  quae  mihi  in  hac  vita  abundanter  retribuit, 
Domum,  quam  Scholarium  de  Merton  intitulari  seu  nuncupari 
volui  et  mandavi,  et  quam  in  meo  solo  proprio  meis  laboribus 
acquisito,  videlicet,  apud  Maldon  in  comitatu  Surriensi,  ad 
perpetuam  sustentationem  scholarium  in  scholis  degentium, 
pro  salute  animae  meae  [and  other  souls]  ante  turbationem 
in  Anglia  nuper  subortam,  fundavi  et  stabilivi,  nunc,  pace 
Angliae  reformata  ac  pristina  turbatione  sedata,  animi  stabili- 
tate  perpetua  approbo,  stabilio  et  confirmo,  locumque  sibi 
habitationis  et  domum  Oxoniae,  ubi  Universitas  vigct  stu- 
dentium,  in  meo  territorio  proprio,  ecclesiae  Sancti  Johannis 
contermino,  concedo  et  assigno.  Quam  sicjuidem  Domum 
scholarium  de  Merton  nuncupari  volo,  atquc  in  ea  scholares 
perpetuo  moraturos  esse  decerno.  Cui  siquidem  Domui,  seu 
scholaribus  in  eadem,  Altissimo  concedente.  impcrpetuum 
moraturis,  mancria  mea  de  Maldon  et  de  Farlegh  cum  suis 
pertinentiis,  quae  pro  ii)sorum  scholarium  et  ministrorum 
altaris,  (jui  in  ea  resideiitcs  crunt,  sustenlatione  jierpetua, 
tempore  dictae  turbationis  contuli,  etiam  in  praesenti,  pace 
regni  reformata,  concedo,  ipsamcjue  collationem  spontanea  et 
libera    voluntate    approbo,    ac    delibcrato    judicio    ratifico    et 

Merton  College  Statutes'  i8i 

Statutes  of  Merton  College  in  the   University 
of  Oxford.      1 2  74. 

Chapter   i.     Of  the  grant  of  the  manors  of  Maldon  and 

In  the  name  of  the  most  glorious  and  undivided  Trinity, 
Father,  and  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost.     Amen. 

I,  Walter  of  Merton,  clerk,  formerly  chancellor  of  the 
illustrious  lord  the  King  of  England,  trusting  in  the  goodness 
of  the  Great  Maker  of  property  and  possessions,  confidently 
relying  on  the  grace  of  Him  who  disposes  the  desires  of  men 
to  good  and  directs  them  at  His  will,  and  after  anxiously  turn- 
ing over  in  my  mind  what  I  can  contribute  to  the  honour  of 
His  name  in  return  for  those  things  which  He  has  abundantly 
contributed  to  me  in  my  life,  before  the  disturbances  that  lately 
arose  in  England  founded  and  established  a  house,  which  I 
wished  and  directed  should  be  entitled  or  called  'of  the 
Scholars  of  Merton,'  in  my  own  property  acquired  by  my  own 
labours  at  Maldon  in  the  county  of  Surrey,  for  the  perpetual 
maintenance  of  scholars  studying  in  the  schools,  for  the  health 
of  my  soul  [etc.],  now  when  the  peace  of  England  has  been 
re-established  and  the  former  disturbances  have  been  quieted, 
with  stable  mind  I  approve,  establish  and  confirm,  and  grant 
and  assign  to  them  the  place  of  their  habitation  and  house  at 
Oxford,  where  a  university  of  students  flourishes,  on  my  own 
land  adjoining  St  John's  church  ;  which  I  will  shall  be  called 
'the  House  of  the  Scholars  of  Merton'  and  in  it  I  decree  the 
scholars  shall  dwell  for  ever.  And  to  this  house,  or  to  the 
scholars  for  ever  dwelling  in  the  same,  by  the  grant  of  the 
Highest,  I  have  transferred  my  manors  of  Maldon  and  Farleigh 
with  their  appurtenances,  which  I  gave  in  the  time  of  disturb- 
ance, for  the  perpetual  maintenance  of  the  same  scholars  and 
the  ministers  of  the  altar  who  shall  reside  therein,  and  now 
when  the  peace  of  the  realm  has  been  restored  grant  and 
approve,  and  with  deliberate  judgment  ratify  and  confirm  the 

i82  Merlon  College  Slatutes 

confirmo.  Quae  etiam  maneria  dictis  scholaribus,  una  cum  aliis 
per  me  sibi  acquisitis  et  acquirendis,  apud  eosdem  scholares  et 
fratres  perpetuo  permanere  decerno,  sub  forma  et  conditionibus 
infrascriptis,  tarn  circa  personas  quam  circa  regulam  eorundem, 
annuente  Domino,  futuris  temporibus  jugiter  observandis. 

('ap.  2.     De  legistis  et  scholaribus  in  Domo  degentibus. 

Hanc  igitur  formam  statuo  (quam  et  imperpetuum  obser- 
vandam  decerno),  ut  in  ipsa  Domo,  quae  Scholarium  de  Merton 
nuncupatur,  perpetuo  sint  scholares  literarum  studio  deputati, 
qui  artium,  seu  philosophiae,  canonuni  seu  theologiae,  studio 
vacare  tenebuntur.  Quorum  pars  major  artium  liberalium  et 
philosophiae  studio  vacent,  donee  de  sui  Custodis  et  Sociorum 
arbitrio,  tanquam  in  hiis  laudabiliter  provecti,  ad  studium  se 
transferant  theologiae.  Quatuor  autem  vel  quinque  ex  sui 
superioris  providentia,  quos  ipse  habiles  et  ad  hoc  aptos  de- 
creverit,  in  jure  canonico  licenter  studeant.  Cum  quibus 
etiam  ipse  Superior,  ut  jura  civilia  ad  tempus  audiant,  quatenus 
expedire  viderit,  poterit  dispensare.  Sit  etiam  in  ipsa  congre- 
gatione  grammaticus  unus  qui  studio  grammaticae  totaliter 
vacet,  sibique,  de  bonis  Domus  ipsius,  librorum  copia  et  alia 
necessaria  ministrentur ;  et  eorum  qui  studio  grammaticae 
fuerint  applicati  curam  habeat ;  et  ad  ipsum  etiam  provectiores 
in  dubiis  suae  facultatis  habeant  absque  rubore  regressum  ; 
sub  cujus  etiam  magisterio  scholares  ipsi,  de  quibus  et  ubi 
expedire  videbitur  pro  suae  promptitudinis  commodo,  Latino 
fruantur  elocjuio  seu  idiomate  vulgari,  et  ipse  pro  viribus 
singulos  fideliter  instruere  tencatur. 

Cap.  7.     De  officio  decanorum  etc. 

De  scholaribus  autem  supradictis  aliqui  de  discretioribus 
eligantur,  qui  sub  ipso  Custode,  tanquam  ejus  coadjutores, 
minus  provectorum  curam,  qualiter  in  studio  et  morum  hones- 
tate   proficiant,    agere    teneantur.     Adeo    ut    numero    cuilibet 

Merton  College  Statutes  183 

same  transfer  of  my  own  free  will.  And  I  decree  that  these 
manors  with  other  property  acquired  or  to  be  acquired  by  me 
for  them  shall  always  remain  with  the  same  scholars  and 
brethren  in  the  form  and  on  the  conditions  underwritten  to 
be  continually  observed  in  time  to  come,  the  Lord  willing,  as 
well  as  regards  the  persons  as  their  rule  of  life. 

Chapter  2.  Of  the  lawyers  and  scholars  living  in  the  house. 
This  form  then  I  constitute  and  decree  to  be  for  ever 
observed  that  in  this  house,  called  the  House  of  the  Scholars 
of  Merton,  there  shall  be  for  ever  scholars  devoted  to  learning, 
and  bound  to  devote  their  time  to  the  study  of  arts,  philosophy, 
canon  law  or  theology.  And  the  greater  part  of  them  shall 
devote  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  liberal  arts  and  philosophy, 
until  at  the  will  of  the  warden  and  fellows,  as  being  persons 
who  have  been  laudably  proficient  in  them,  they  transfer  them- 
selves to  the  study  of  theology.  But  four  or  five  of  them  shall 
be  allowed  by  the  provision  of  their  superior,  he  declaring  that 
they  are  able  and  apt  for  this,  to  study  canon  law.  And  the 
same  superior  may  dispense  them  for  a  time  to  hear  lectures 
in  civil  law  if  it  shall  appear  expedient.  There  shall  be  also 
in  the  assembly  a  grammarian  who  shall  devote  his  whole  time 
to  a  grammar  school,  and  books  and  other  necessaries  shall  be 
provided  for  him  from  the  possessions  of  the  house ;  and  he 
shall  have  the  care  of  those  who  are  applying  themselves  to 
the  study  of  grammar;  and  even  the  seniors,  if  they  have  any 
doubts  in  their  own  faculties,  shall  have  resort  to  him  without 
blushing ;  and  under  his  mastership  the  scholars  themselves, 
if  and  when  it  shall  seem  to  be  for  the  benefit  of  their  own 
readiness,  shall  speak  Latin  or  the  vulgar  idiom  [French],  and  he 
shall  be  bound  to  instruct  each  of  them  faithfully  to  the  utmost 
of  his  capacity. 

Chapter  7.     Of  the  deans'  duties  etc. 
Some  of  the  more  discreet  of  the  aforesaid  scholars  shall  be 
elected  to  take  charge,  under  the  warden  and  as  his  assistants, 
of  the    less   advanced  as  to  their  progress   in   learning   and 

184        Merton  College  Grammar  School 

vicenario  vel  etiam  decenario,  si  necesse  fuerit,  praesit  unus, 
et  lis,  dum  aliorum  curam  diligenter  expleverint  in  aliquo, 
caeteris  provideatur  uberius,  prout  videatur  honestum.  Sit 
nihilominus  in  qualibet  camera,  in  qua  praefati  commanent 
scholares,  unus  caeteris  maturitate  provectior,  qui  etiam  aliis 
superintendat  sociis,  et  per  quem  de  ipsorum  moribus  et  studiis 
profectu  ipsi  Custodi  Domus,  caeterisque  in  hujusmodi  cura 
praepositis,  ac  ipsi  congregationi  scholarium,  si  opus  fuerit, 

Cap.  8.     De  mensa  scholarium. 

Porro  scholares  sub  ipso  Custode  et  aliis  praepositis,  vice- 
nariis  videlicet  et  Decanis,  in  ipsa  Domo  studendi  ofificio 
deputati,  mensam  communem  habeant,  et  etiam  habitum 
conformum  quantum  possunt. 

Cap.  40.      De  educatione  parvulorum  etc. 

Caeterum,   cum  successionem   quae   meis  haeredibus    seu 
parentelae    meae,    secundum    regni    consuetudinem,    in    meis 
feodalibus  debebatur,  in  banc  eleemosynam,  Deo  inspectore, 
commutaverim,  ut  supradictum  est,  volo  et  statuo,  ut,  si  par- 
vuli  aliqui  de  parentela  praedicta,   suis  orbati  parentibus,  aut 
alias  pro  exilitate  parentum  suorum  sustentatione  careant,  dum 
in  puerilibus  rudimentis  primitus  instruantur,  tunc  Custos  ipse 
eos  usque  ad  tredecim  numerum  erudiri  faciat  in  Domo  prae- 
dicta,   donee   in    scholis   proficere   possint,    si   ad  hoc   habiles 
inveniantur  ;  et  de  illis,  in  subrogationem  scholarium  superius 
expressam,  sumantur  qui  ad  hoc  habiles  reperientur  et  idonei. 
Et,  ne  in  dicta  Domo  vel  societate  praedicta  pestis  pullulet, 
quae  per  carnis  illecebras  toties  vexat  incautos,  singula  prae- 
dictae  Domus  ministeria,  ad  minus  infra  septa  curiae  Domus 
scholarium  necnon  et  manerii  de  Maldon,  et  alibi,   (juatenus 

alibi  fieri  potcrit,  i)erpetuis  temporibus  fuint  j)er  mares. 

Ad  horum  autem  omnium  memoriam  et  securitatem  sempi- 

ternam,  sigillum   serenissimi  Principis  domini   Kdwardi    Regis 

Merton  College  Grammar  School        185 

conduct.  So  that  over  every  twenty,  or  ten,  if  necessary,  there 
shall  be  a  president,  and  more  ample  provision  as  appears 
proper  shall  be  made  for  them  while  they  diligently  fulfil  their 
charge  of  the  rest.  Also  in  each  chamber  in  which  the  afore- 
said scholars  live  there  shall  be  one  more  mature  than  the  rest, 
who  shall  superintend  his  fellows,  and  shall  report  to  the  warden 
of  the  house  himself  and  the  rest  of  the  prepositors  having 
charge  and  to  the  assembly  of  scholars  itself,  if  necessary,  on 
their  progress  in  morals  and  studies. 

Chapter  8.     Of  the  scholars'  table. 

Moreover,  the  scholars  studying  in  the  house  shall  have 
a  common  table  under  the  warden  and  other  prepositors,  the 
twenty-men  and  deans,  and  also  as  far  as  possible  a  uniform 

Chapter  40.     Of  the  education  of  the  boys  etc. 

But  whereas  I  have  exchanged  the  succession  to  which  my 
heirs  and  kindred  were  entitled  in  my  freehold  property  by  the 
custom  of  the  realm  for  this  charity,  under  the  eye  of  God, 
as  is  aforesaid,  I  will  and  decree  that  if  any  little  ones  of  the 
kindred  aforesaid  becoming  orphans  or  otherwise  through  their 
parents'  poverty  want  maintenance  while  they  are  receiving 
primary  instruction  in  the  rudiments,  then  the  warden  shall 
have  them  educated  up  to  thirteen  in  number  in  the  house 
aforesaid,  until  they  can  become  proficient  in  the  university, 
if  they  shall  be  found  to  be  of  ability  for  it :  and  from  them 
those  who  are  found  able  and  fit  shall  be  taken  to  fill  the 
places  of  the  scholars,  as  above  set  out. 

And  lest  there  should  break  out  in  the  said  house  or  society, 
the  plague,  which  through  the  temptations  of  the  flesh  so  often 
vexes  the  incautious,  all  service  in  the  said  house,  at  least  in  the 
court  of  the  house  of  the  scholars  and  of  the  manor  of  Maldon 
and  elsewhere,  as  fur  as  may  be,  shall  always  be  done  by  males. 

In  remembrance  and  everlasting  security  of  all  which,  the 
seal  of  the  most  serene  Prince  the  lord  Edward,  the  illustrious 

1 86        Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes 

Anglorum  illustris,  in  sui  consensus  et  approbationis  testi- 
monium, una  cum  sigillo  meo,  praesentibus  est  appensum. 
Actum  mense  Augusti,  anno  Domini   1274. 

Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes.      ^2>^h  century. 

[H.  Anstey,  Alun.  Acad.  Oxoii.  11.,  from  Southern  Proctor's  Book,  f.  38  b.] 

Antiquae  ordinationes  pro  Magistris  in  Grammatica,  sed  non 
sunt  in  moderno  usu. 

Oath   of  Inceptors. 

Item,  debent  fide  media  astringi,  quum  incipiunt,  quod 
observabunt  statuta  et  consuetudines  a  Domino  Cancellario 


Item,  si  contingat  aliquem  eorum  in  fata  discedere,  debent 
omnes  Magistri  grammaticales  illius  interesse  exequiis  et  missae 
in  crastino  celebrandae  pro  anima,  et  praecipue  sepulturae  :  in 
nocturnis  etiam  vigiliis  debent  omnes  interesse  et  psalteria  sua 
devote  psallere. 

Similiter,  et,  si  fuerit  Scholaris  alicujus  eorum  defunctus, 
omnes  Magistri  debent  interesse  exequiis,  et  praecipue  sepul- 
turae illius. 

Terminal  meetings. 

Item,  debent  convenire  in  singulis  terminis,  praecipue  in 
principio  et  in  fine,  ad  tractandum  de  iis  quae  conferunt  ad 
statum  suum  conservandum,  et  alias  cum  necesse  fuerit. 


Item,  cum  illi,  qui  sunt  sub  una  professione,  debent  eandem 
regulam  observare,  provisum  est,  ijuod  festos  dies  simul  obser- 
vent,  sicut  est  in  kalendario  eorum  de  conimuni  eorum  con- 
sensu et  provisione  ordinatum,  nisi  forte  aliquis  propter 
parochiam  suam  cjuandoque  singulariter  cogatur  feriare. 

Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes        187 

King  of  the  English,  in  witness  of  his  consent  and  approval, 
is  affixed  to  these  presents  together  with  mine.  Done  in  the 
month  of  August,  a.d.  1274. 

Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes,      i  ■^th  century. 

Ancient  ordinances  for  masters  in  grammar,  but  they  are 
not  in  use  now. 

Oath  of  Inceptors. 

Also  they  ought  to  be  bound  by  sureties  when  they  incept 
to  observe  the  statutes  and  customs  ordered  by  the  lord 


Also,  when  it  happens  that  any  of  them  depart  this  life, 
all  the  grammar  masters  ought  to  be  present  at  his  obsequies 
and  at  the  mass  to  be  celebrated  for  his  soul  on  the  morrow, 
but  especially  at  his  burial:  and  they  ought  all  to  be  present 
at  the  wake  overnight  and  devoutly  sing  their  psalters. 

Likewise,  if  a  scholar  of  any  of  them  die,  all  the  masters 
ought  to  be  present  at  his  obsequies,  and  especially  at  his 

Terminal  meetings. 

Also  they  ought  to  hold  meetings  every  term,  chiefly  at  the 
beginning  and  end,  to  treat  of  matters  relating  to  the  preserva- 
tion of  their  estate,  and  at  other  times  when  necessary. 


Also,  whereas  those  who  are  under  one  profession  ought 
to  observe  the  same  rule,  it  is  provided  that  they  keep  the 
same  feast  days  together,  as  is  ordered  in  their  calendar  by  their 
common  consent  and  provision,  unless  it  happen  that  one  of 
them  by  reason  of  his  diocese  be  obliged  to  make  holiday  by 

1 88         Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes 

De  modo  disputandi  in  grammatica. 

Item,  statutum  est,  quod  Magistri  scholarum  grammati- 
calium  teneantur  die  Veneris  grammaticalia  duntaxat  disputare. 

Quamdiu  debuit  habere  scolas  grammaticales. 

Item,  statutum  est,  (juod  nullus  Regens  in  artibus  obtineat 
scholas  grammaticales  simul  ultra  triennium. 

De  rotulo  faciendo. 

Item,  nomina  Scholarium  grammaticalium  notorum  et 
ignotorum  [in  rotulis  magistrorum  suorum  contineantur,  MS.  C] 
in  rotulo  Magistri  regentis  in  gr^.mmatica,  cum  aliquis  talis  in 
hac  Universitate  fuerit,  inscribantur ;  quern  quidem  rotulum 
in  suis  scholis  teneatur  Magister  quilibet  regens  illius  facultatis 
in  principio  cujuslibet  termini  et  etiam  posterius  omni  termino 
bis  publice  recitare,  ut  ad  exclusionem  falsorum  fratrum  ap- 
pareat  qui  Scholares  continui  fuerint  et  veraces.  Et  caveat 
bene  Magister  quicumque  facultatis  illius,  sub  poena  viola- 
tionis  sacramenti  praestiti,  ne  alicujus  nomen  scribat  in  suo 
rotulo,  nee  tueatur  protegat  aut  defendat  quemcumque  pro  suo 
Scholari  in  morte  seu  in  vita,  cujuscunque  cogniti  vel  ignoti, 
nisi  quem  sciverit,  vel  de  quo  probabilem  suspicionem  habuerit, 
quod  idem  scholas  exerceat  grammaticales  alicujus  licentiati 
per  Cancellarium  ad  docendum  publice  grammaticam  modo 
debito  hactenus  consueto.  Causam  istius  constitutionis  habet 
cjuilibet  Magister  in  suis  scholis  exponere  publice  ;  et  etiam 
quod  quicunque  extra  rotulum  inventus  fuerit,  vel  etiam  in 
rotulo  suo  scholas  tamen  non  frequentans,  tam  in  morte  quam 
in  vita  tuitionibus  carebit  atcjue  privilegiis  Universitatis  istius. 

De  inrotulatione  Scholarium   illorum  (jui   non   sunt  adepti 
magistralem   honorcm. 

Item,  singuli  doccntes  grammaticam  publice,  (juos  magis- 
tralis  status  minime  decoravit,  omnia  nomina  Scholarium 
suorum,   tam   commensalium  quam  aliorum,   Magistro  regenti 

Oxford  Grammar  School  Statutes        189 

Of  the  method  of  disputations  in  grammar. 

Also  it  is  decreed  that  grammar-schoolmasters  are  bound 
to  dispute  in  grammar  only  on  Fridays. 

Of  the  time  for  holding  grammar  schools. 

Also  it  is  decreed  that  no  regent  in  arts  may  keep  a 
grammar  school  for  longer  than  three  years  at  one  time. 

Of  making  rolls. 

Also,  the  names  of  grammar  scholars,  known  and  unknown, 
shall  be  written  [in  the  rolls  of  their  masters]  on  the  roll  of  the 
regent  master  in  grammar  when  there  is  one  in  the  University; 
and  this  roll  every  regent  master  in  that  faculty  shall  be  bound 
to  read  publicly  twice  a  term  in  his  school,  at  the  beginning 
of  each  term  and  afterwards,  so  that,  to  the  exclusion  of  false 
brethren,  it  may  appear  who  are  continuous  and  true  scholars. 
And  let  every  master  of  that  faculty  take  good  care,  on  pain 
of  the  breach  of  his  oath,  that  he  write  the  name  of  no  one  on 
his  roll,  nor  guard,  protect  or  defend  anyone  as  his  scholar, 
alive  or  dead,  whether  he  knows  him  or  not,  unless  he  knows  or 
has  good  reason  to  think,  that  he  attends  the  grammar  school 
of  some  one  licensed  by  the  chancellor  to  teach  grammar  pub- 
licly in  the  way  heretofore  usual.  Every  master  must  expound 
publicly  in  his  school  the  reason  of  this  constitution  ;  and  also 
that  anyone  who  is  not  found  on  the  roll,  or  even  if  on  the  roll 
does  not  attend  school,  shall,  dead  or  alive,  equally  go  without 
the  protection  and  privileges  of  this  university. 

Of  the  enrolment  of  those  scholars  who  have  not  attained 
the  honour  of  the  mastership. 

Also  every  public  teacher  of  grammar  who  is  not  adorned 
by  the  status  of  a  master  is  bound  to  inform  the  regent  master 
or  masters,  if  there  are  more  than  one,   in  grammar,   of  the 

IQO  Curriculum  for  B.A.  degree 

in  grammatica  sive  Magistris  regentibus,  cum  plures  fuerint, 
intimare  tenentur,  atque  ut  in  ejus  rotulo  sive  rotulis  eorumdem 
ad  tuitionem  dictorum  Scholarium  inscribantur,  debite  pro- 

De  diligentia  Regentis  circa  alios  informatores. 

Item,  quilibet  Regens  in  grammatica  compellere  tenetur, 
quantum  in  eo  est,  omnes  alios  publico  docentes  grammaticam 
in  ista  Universitate,  qui  honorem  non  obtineant  magistralem, 
omnia  tacta  superius,  prout  ad  illorum  personas  attinet,  obser- 
vare  fideliter,  quibus  etiam  omnes  alii  docentes,  ut  praemittitur, 
benigne  teneantur  in  istis  omnibus  eo  debite  conformare. 

Oxford  Curricziliwi  in    1267. 

[H.  Anstey,   Muniinenta  Academica   Oxon.    i.  34  (Rolls  Series).    1868.] 

Forma  secundum  quam  Magistri  debent  admittere 

Cum  videretur  expediens  et  honestum  Magistris  et  Bachi- 
lariis  Universitatis  Oxoniae  ut  certa  forma  provideretur,  sub 
qua  Bachilarii  Artium  determinaturi  ad  determinandum  in 
futurum  forent  admittendi,  provisa  erat  quaedam  ordinatio 
super  praedictis  in  forma  infrascripta ;  videlicet, 

Quod  singulis  annis,  hebdomada  quinta  praecedente  diem 
cinerum  ejusdem  anni,  in  congregatione  Magistrorum,  quatuor 
Magistri  Artium,  duo  scilicet  boreales  et  duo  australes  [vel] 
a  Procuratoribus  eligantur,  qui,  per  fidem  qua  Deo  tenentur 
et  Universitati,  in  praesentia  Magistrorum  promittent  quod 
nullum  indignum  ad  determinandum  secundum  formam  pro- 
visam  admittent,  cjui  etiam,  quam  citius  poterint,  ad  admit- 
tendum  determinaturos  pro  se  accedant,  et,  si  aliquo  modo 
commode  poterint,  infra  triduum  omnino  perficiant. 

at  Oxford  in    1267  191 

names  of  all  his  scholars  as  well  boarders  as  others,  and  pro- 
cure their  due  insertion  on  the  roll  or  rolls,  for  the  protection 
of  his  said  scholars. 

Of  the  regent  master's  duties  as  regards  other  teachers. 

Also  every  regent  in  grammar  is  bound,  as  far  as  in  him 
lies,  to  compel  all  other  public  teachers  of  grammar  in  the 
university,  who  have  not  the  honour  of  the  mastership,  to 
observe  faithfully  all  the  matters  above-mentioned  so  far  as 
pertains  to  themselves;  while  all  other  teachers  are,  as  is  above 
mentioned,  in  duty  bound  to  conform  to  his  orders  in  all  such 

Oxford  Cttrriculuvi   in    1267. 

The  order  according  to  which  masters  ought  to  admit 

Whereas  it  seems  to  the  masters  and  bachelors  of  the 
University  of  Oxford  expedient  and  befitting  that  a  certain 
rule  should  be  laid  down  under  which  bachelors  of  arts  who 
are  about  to  determine  shall  in  future  be  admitted  to  deter- 
mine, an  order  was  provided  in  the  premises  in  the  form 
underwritten,  viz. : 

Every  year,  in  the  week  before  Ash  Wednesday,  in  the 
congregation  of  masters,  four  masters  of  arts,  namely,  two 
northerners  and  two  southerners,  shall  be  chosen  by  the 
proctors,  and  shall  promise  before  the  masters,  by  the  fealty 
by  which  they  are  bound  to  God  and  the  university,  not  to 
admit  anyone  who  is  not  worthy  to  determine  according  to 
the  form  provided,  and  also  that  they  will  as  quickly  as  possible 
go  and  admit  those  who  are  going  to  determine  for  themselves, 
and,  if  they  possibly  can,  finish  the  whole  business  within 
three  days. 

192  Curriculum  for  B.A.  Degree 

Coram  quibus  Magistris  cum  laudabili  testimonio  Magis- 
trorum  vel  Bachilariorum  conveniant  Bachilarii  eodem  anno 
determinaturi,  qui,  si  fuerint  pro  seipsis  determinaturi,  jurabunt, 
tactis  sacrosanctis,  (juod  omnes  libros  veteris  logicae  ad  minus 
bis  audierint,  exceptis  libris  Boethii,  quos  semel  sufficiat  audi- 
visse,  praeter  quartum  libruni  Topicorum  Boethii,  quern 
audivisse  non  astringantur.  De  nova  autcm  logica  librum 
Priorum  Topicorum,  Elenchorum,  bis ;  libruni  autem  Pos- 
teriorum,  saltem  una  vice  jurent  se  audivisse. 

De  grammatica  autem,  De  Constructionibus  Prisciani  bis, 
Barbarismum   Donati  semel : 

[Vel]  tres  etiam  libros  naturales,  scilicet  librum  Physicorum, 
librum  Deanima,  librum  De  Generatione  et  Corruptione,  jurent 
se  audivisse. 

Et  sciendum  quod  si  prius  respondent  in  scholis  publico 
de  sophismatibus  per  annum  integre  debent  respondisse,  ita 
(juod  nulla  pars  illius  anni  in  quo  de  quaestione  responderint 
in  dicto  anno  integro  computetur.  De  una  quaestione  debent 
respondisse  ad  minus  in  aestate  praecedente  Quadragesimam  in 
qua  sunt  determinaturi.  Si  autem  de  sophismatibus  publice 
non  responderint,  omnes  libros  praedictos  jurent  se  audisse, 
hoc  adjecto,  quod  bis  audierint  librum  Posteriorum.  Debent 
etiam  in  audiendo  majorem  moram  fecisse  quani  si  in  sophis- 
matibus publice  responderunt. 

Si  autem  fuerint  aliqui,  qui  prius  pro  se  non  determinaverint 
et  pro  aliis  voluerint  determinare,  jurare  tenertur  (}uod  omnes 
libros  praenominatos  modo  praedicto  audierint,  insuper  et 
Prisciani  Magnum  semel,  in  suo  tempore  commode  poterant 
audivisse  ;  tres  etiam  libros  Meteororum  omni  modo  jurent 
se  audivisse. 

Magistri  etiam  vcl  Pachilarii  tale  testimonium  perhihituri 
accedant,  qui  bona  fide  dicant  ipsos  in  rcsponsionibus  secundum 
modum  praedictum  probabiliter  exercitatos  :  illos  autem,  (\\\\ 
prius  non  determinaverint,   laudabiliter  studuisse,  et   quod  in 

Curriculum  for  B. A.  Degree  193 

The  bachelors  who  are  to  determine  that  year  shall  come 
before  the  said  masters  with  the  approved  testimony  of  masters 
or  bachelors  and,  if  they  are  going  to  determine  for  themselves, 
shall  swear  on  the  Gospels  that  they  have  gone  through  all  the 
books  of  the  old  Logic  in  lectures  at  least  twice,  except 
Boethius,  for  which  one  hearing  is  enough,  and  the  Fourth 
Book  of  Boethius'  Topics,  which  they  are  not  bound  to  hear 
at  all ;  in  the  new  logic,  the  book  of  Prior  Analytics,  Topics, 
and  Fallacies  twice  ;  but  the  book  of  the  Posterior  Analytics 
they  shall  swear  that  they  have  heard  at  least  once. 

In  Grammar,  Priscian's  Constructions  twice,  Donatus' 
Barbarisms  once. 

Also  in  Natural  Philosophy  three  books,  viz.  the  Physics, 
the  De  Anima,  the  Generation  and  Corruption. 

And  it  is  to  be  understood  that  if  they  first  answer  publicly 
in  the  schools,  they  must  have  answered  in  sophistry  for  a 
whole  year,  no  part  of  the  year  in  which  they  have  answered 
to  the  question  being  reckoned  in  the  said  whole  year.  To 
the  question  they  ought  to  have  answered  at  least  once  in 
the  summer  before  the  Lent  in  which  they  are  going  \o 
determine.  But  if  they  have  not  answered  in  sophistry^ 
publicly  they  shall  swear  that  they  have  heard  all  the  books 
aforesaid,  with  this  addition,  that  they  have  twice  heard  the 
Posterior  Analytics.  In  hearing  them  also  they  ought  to 
make  a  longer  stay  than  if  they  have  publicly  answered  in 

If,  however,  there  are  any  who  have  not  before  determined 
on  their  own  account  and  want  to  determine  for  others,  they 
are  i)0und  to  swear  that  they  have  heard  all  the  before-mentioned 
books  as  aforesaid,  and  besides  could  have  heard  in  their  own 
time  Priscian's  Great  Grammar  once ;  the  three  books  on 
Meteors  they  shall  anyhow  swear  that  they  have  heard. 

The  masters  or  bachelors  too  who  are  going  to  give  such 

evidence  shall  come  and  say  in  good  faith  that  the  candidates 

are  reasonably  exercised  in  answering  as  aforesaid ;  and  that 

those  who  have  not  before  determined  have  studied  properly, 

L.  13 

194  Curriculum  for  B.A.  Degree 

anno  praecedente  fuerint  in  tali  statu,  quod  secundum  formam 
suprascriptam  pro  se  ipsis  laudabiliter  poterunt  determinasse. 

Et  sciendum  quod  si  aliqui  determinaturi,  libros,  quos 
secundum  formam  suprascriptam  bis  tenentur  audivisse,  semel 
rite  audierint  et  non  omnes  bis,  vel  non  omnes  illos  quos 
secundum  formam  praedictam  semel  deberent  audivisse,  rite 
audierint,  dummodo  alios  libros  qui  non  sunt  de  forma  rite 
audierint,  qui  libri,  secundum  Magistrorum  electorum  ad 
examinationem  aestimationem  in  sacramento  suo  fidelem, 
sufificiunt  ad  faciendum  sufficientem  compensationem,  ad 
officium  determinatorum  admittantur,  sin  autem  penitus  re- 

Haec  autem  ordinatio  provisa  erat  per  decem  Magistros 
electos,  Magistro  Nicholao  de  Ewelme,  tunc  Cancellario,  et 
Magistro  Rogero  de  Plumtone.-.tunc  Procuratoribus  Univer- 
sitatis  Oxoniae,  die  lovis  proximo  ante  festum  S.  Matthaei 
Apostoli,  anno  Domini  millesimo  ducentesimo  sexagesimo  sep- 
timo,  et  confirmata,  omnibus  contravenientibus  excommuni- 
catis  ipsam  denunciando,  atque  signo  Cancellarii  signata, 
eodem  Nicholao  remanente  Cancellario,  et  eisdem  Procuratori- 
bus, anno  Domini  millesimo  ducentesimo  sexagesimo  secundo 
[septimo],  in  vigilia  purificationis  Beatae  Mariae  Virginis. 

Item  consuetudo  est  quod  determinaturi  pro  se  incipiant 
infra  quatuor  dies,  ita  (juod  dies  lunae  primae  septimanae 
quadragesimae  sit  ultimus  dies  inceptionis,  et  tribus  ultimis 
diebus  ante  cessationem  Magistrorum  dcbent  terminare,  ita 
quod  dies  Mercurii  sit  primus  dies  terminationis,  quibus- 
cunque  festis  et  qualitercunque  contingentibus,  sive  inceptione 
sive  in  terminatione. 

Curriculum  for  B.A.  Degree  195 

and  that  in  the  year  before  they  were  in  such  a  stage  that  they 
could  have  properly  determined  for  themselves  according  to 
the  order  aforesaid. 

And  be  it  understood  that  if  any  of  those  who  are  going  to 
determine  have  properly  heard  the  books,  which  according  to 
the  aforesaid  rule  they  are  held  to  have  heard  twice,  only  once 
and  not  all  twice,  or  have  not  heard  properly  all  those  which 
according  to  the  aforesaid  rule  they  ought  to  have  heard  once, 
as  long  as  they  have  heard  other  books  which  are  outside  the 
rule,  and  those  books  are,  in  the  real  opinion  upon  oath  of 
the  masters  elected  to  examine,  adequate  substitutes,  they  shall 
be  admitted  to  the  office  of  determiners,  but  otherwise  shall 
be  utterly  refused. 

This  ordinance  was  made  by  ten  masters  elected  for  the 
purpose.  Master  Nicholas  of  Ewelme  being  chancellor,  and 
Master  Roger  of  Plumpton...then  proctors  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford,  on  Thursday  next  before  the  feast  of 
St  Matthew  the  Apostle  a.d.  1267,  and  confirmed,  and  all  who 
contravene  it  denounced  excommunicate,  and  sealed  with  the 
chancellor's  seal,  the  same  Nicholas  remaining  chancellor  and 
the  same  proctors  a.d.  1267-8,  on  the  eve  of  the  Purification 
of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  [i.e.  i  Feb.]. 

Also  the  custom  is  that  those  determining  for  themselves 
shall  incept  within  four  days,  so  that  Monday  in  the  first  week 
of  Lent  shall  be  the  last  day  of  inception,  and  ought  to  deter- 
mine on  the  three  last  days  before  the  masters'  vacation,  so 
that  Wednesday  is  the  first  day  of  determination,  whatever 
feasts  may  occur,  either  in  inception  or  determination. 


196  First  Introduction  of 

Foundation  of  College  at  Oxford  for  Be?tedictine 
Mo7iks.      1275-87. 

lI5ocll.  MS.  39,  p.  58.] 
Order  of  Benedictine  Chapter  at   Reading.      1275. 

I)e  studiis. 

Et  ut  in  nostra  religione  refloreat  studium  ad  locum  vel 
ad  edificia  idonea  Oxen,  providenda  ubi  nostri  ordinis  fralres 
de  diversis  monasterii.s  causa  studii  transmittendi  decenter 
habitare  valeant,  unanimiter  est  statutum  quod  omnes  pro- 
vincie  Cantuarie  religionis  nostre  prelati  de  omnibus  suis 
spiritualibus  et  temporalibus  bonis  de  singulis  marcis  secun- 
dum taxacionem  quondam  domini  Norwici,  duos  denarios 
conferant  isto  anno;  quod  si  non  fuerint  prius  requisiti  ad 
tardius  in  capitulo  primo  quod  erit  apud  Abindon  in  crastino 
-Santti  Mathei  apostoli  Anno  gracie  1278,  dominis  Malme.s- 
bury,  (jloucestre,  Abindon,  Abbatibus,  (jui  procuratores  huius- 
modi  negocii  deputantur,  exsolvent,  ab  eisdem  super  hoc 
quietancias  recepturi;  annis  vero  sequentibus  de  singulis  marcis 
unum  denarium  contribuent  ad  predicta  loca  et  deinde  in 
eodem  capitulo  providenda.  Interim  autcm  citius  quam 
possunt  sibi  provicicant  de  lectore. 

The  College  founded  and  (Gloucester  Alonks  admitted.      1283. 

[  Mon.  S.  Petri  (ilouccsl.  (Rolls  .Series),  I.  32.] 

Anno  domini  millesimo  ducentesimo  octogesimo  tertio 
fundata  est  domus  nostra  apud  Oxoniam  a  nobili  viro  domino 
Johanne  CyfTorde,  conventu  monachorum  Gloucestriae  in  die 
Sancti  Johannis  ]'>vangelistae  a  venerabili  patre  domino  Regi- 
naldo  tunc  abbate  Ciloucestrensi  tunc  ibidem  solenniter  intro- 
ducto  domino  Johanne  (iyfforde  praesente  ad  idem  et  volente. 

Monks  at  Oxford  197 

Foundation  of  College  at  Oxford  for  Benedictine 
Monks.      1275-87. 

Order  of  Benedictine  Chapter  at  Reading.      1275. 

Of  Universities. 

And  that  study  may  flower  again  in  our  religion,  it  was 
unanimously  decreed,  in  order  to  make  provision  of  a  place 
or  fit  buildings  at  Oxford  where  the  brethren  of  our  order,  to 
be  sent  from  different  monasteries  for  study,  may  be  able  to 
live  properly,  that  all  the  prelates  of  our  order  in  the  province 
of  Canterbury  shall  contribute  in  that  year  twopence  in  every 
mark  of  all  their  spiritual  and  temporal  possessions  according 
to  the  assessment  of  the  former  lord  of  Norwich ;  and  if  this 
is  not  asked  for  before,  shall  pay  it  in  full  at  latest  in  the  first 
chapter  which  will  be  held  at  Abingdon  on  the  day  after  St 
Matthew's  day,  in  the  year  of  grace  1278,  to  the  lord  abbots 
of  Malmesbury,  Gloucester,  Abingdon,  who  are  assigned  as 
proctors  for  this  matter,  and  receive  receipts  from  them  ;  and 
in  following  years  shall  contribute  a  penny  a  mark  to  provide 
for  the  said  places  and  other  things  in  the  same  chapter. 
Meanwhile  they  shall  provide  a  lecturer  as  quickly  as  possible. 

The  College  founded  and  Gloucester  Monks  admitted.      1283. 

In  the  year  1283  our  house  at  Oxford  was  founded  by  the 
nobleman  Sir  John  Giffard,  a  convent  of  Gloucester  monks 
being  then  solemnly  inducted  there,  on  St  John  the  Evan- 
gelist's day,  by  the  venerable  father  the  lord  Reginald,  then 
abbot  of  Gloucester,  in  the  presence  and  at  the  desire  of  Sir 
John  Giffard. 

198  First  Introduction  of 

Bishop  Godfrey  Giffard  of  Worcester  asks  the  University  to 
provide  a  D.I),  to  teach  the  Gloucester  Monks.     1283. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Gloucestershire,  II.  338,  from  Wore.  Ep.  Reg. 
Giffard,  f.  206.] 

Viris  venerabilibus  et  dilectis  in  Christo  Domino... Can- 
cellario  et  Universitati  Magistrorum  Oxonii  Godefridus,  per- 
missione  divina  minister  ecclesie  Wigorniensis,  salutis  pleni 
tudinem  et  felicitatis  eterne. 

Summus  vicarius  Christi  in  ecclesia  Theologie  studium 
censuit  ampliandum,  ut  dilatato  tentorii  loco  funiculos  suos 
faciat  longiores,  sed  ecce  eidem  Christi  vicario  specialiter 
adherentium  fratrum  Abbathie  Beati  Petri  Gloucestrie  nostre 
diocesis  laudabilem  et  inspiratam  a  Deo  devocionem  intellexi- 
mus,  qui  ignoranciam,  matrem  erroris,  deponere,  et  in  luce 
veritatis  incedere  iam  disponunt,  ut  in  sciencia  proficiant  ad 
cumulum  meritorum. 

Nos  igitur  tam  salubrem  intencionem  ipsorum  quibus 
possumus  auxiliis  adjuvantes,  vestre  universitati  preces  attentas 
porrigimus,  tota  affeccione  rogantes  quatenus  velitis  permittere 
ac  concedere  quod  in  domo  quam  optinent  Oxonii  ad  id  idem 
doctorem  in  divina  pagina  sibi  habeant  intendentem,  ut  sapien- 
ciam  sitientibus  via  pateat  ad  doctrinam,  et  ad  honorem  Dei  et 
ecclesie  ipsi  docti,  demum  ad  justiciani  populos  valeant  erudire. 

Vos  in  caritate  perfecta  semper  dirigat  Altissimus  et  sue 
lumine  caritatis. 

Datis  apud  Hembure  v  Idus  Aprilis  anno  supradicto. 

Grant  of  Site  for  (jloucester  (now  Worcester)  College.      1287. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Gloucester  College  in  V.  C.  //.    Gloucestershire,  II.  338, 
from  Wore.  Y,\i.  Keg.,  Giffard,  f.  429.] 

Sciant     presentes     et     futuri    quod    ego    Joannes    (jiffard 
dominus   de    Bremesfeld    pro    salute    anime    mee    et    anime 

Monks  at  Oxford  199 

Bishop  Godfrey  Giffard  of  Worcester  asks  the  University  to 
provide  a  D.D.  to  teach  the  Gloucester  Monks.     1283. 

To  the  venerable  men  and  beloved  in  Christ,  Sir... Chan- 
cellor and  the  University  of  Masters  of  Oxford,  Godfrey,  by 
divine  permission  minister  of  the  church  of  Worcester,  fulness 
of  health  and  eternal  happiness. 

The  high  vicar  of  Christ  in  the  church  thought  that  the 
study  of  theology  should  be  increased,  so  that  by  enlargement 
of  the  space  of  its  tent  it  might  make  its  ropes  longer,  and  lo 
we  hear  of  the  laudable  and  divinely  inspired  devotion  of 
the  brethren  of  the  abbey  of  St  Peter's  Gloucester,  in  our 
diocese,  specially  adhering  to  the  same  vicar  of  Christ,  who 
are  now  disposed  to  put  aside  ignorance,  the  mother  of  error, 
and  to  walk  in  the  light  of  truth,  that  they  may  become  pro- 
ficient in  learning  to  the  augmentation  of  their  merits. 

We  therefore,  helping  all  we  can  their  so  healthful  purpose, 
put  our  earnest  prayers  before  your  University,  asking  you  with 
all  affection  to  permit  and  grant  that  in  the  house  they  possess 
in  Oxford  they  may  have  a  doctor  in  the  sacred  page  to  attend 
them,  so  that  the  way  of  learning  may  lie  open  to  those  thirst- 
ing for  wisdom,  and  so  at  last  they  themselves  becoming  learned 
may  be  able  to  instruct  the  people  in  righteousness  to  the 
honour  of  God  and  the  church. 

May  the  most  Highest  always  direct  you  in  perfect  love 
and  the  light  of  His  love. 

Dated  at  Henbury  9  April  in  the  year  aforesaid  [1283]. 

Grant  of  Site  for  Gloucester  (now  Worcester)  College.      1287. 

Know  ye  present  and  to  come  that  1  John  Giffard,  lord  of 
Brimsfield,  for  the  health  of  my  soul  and  the  soul  of  Maud 

200       Grant  of  Site  for  Gloucester  College 

Matilde  Longespee  quondam  consortis  mee  et  antecessorum 
et  heredum  meoruni  dedi  concessi  ct  hac  present!  carta  mea 
confirmavi  Deo  et  beate  Marie  et  ecclesie  Beatorum  Johannis 
apostoli  et  evangeliste  et  Benedict!  Abbatis  et  confessoris 
Oxonii,  et  Priori  et  conventui  eiusdem  loci,  ordinis  Sancti 
Benedict!,  et  communitati  monachorum  eiusdem  ordinis  pro- 
vincie  Cantuarie  ibidem  causa  studii  transmissorum  seu  trans- 
mittendorum,  sub  forma  debito  modo  provisa  et  statuta  per 
generale  capitulum  ordinis  et  provincie  predicte  Omnes  terras 
et  tenementa  cum  singulis  suis  pertinenciis  que  habui  in  Vico 
de  Stokwelle  strete  in  Suburbio  Oxonii,  videlicet  omnes  terras 
et  tenementa  que  habui  de  dono  et  feoffamento  fratris 
Willelmi  de  Hawvil  tunc  Prions  sancte  domus  hospitalis 
S.  Joannis  Jerusalem  in  Anglia  et  assensu  et  voluntate  omnium 
fratrum  tocius  capituli  sui,  et  omnes  terras  et  tenementa  que 
habui  ex  dono  et  feoffamento  Johannis  de  Langporte,  bur- 
gensis  Oxonii,  et  totum  illud  tcnementum  cjuod  habui  ex  dono 
et  feoffamento  Eue  lotricis,  et  totum  illud  tenementum  quod 
habui  ex  dono  et  feoffamento  Joannis  Watson  et  Ydonee 
uxoris  sue,  et  totum  illud  tenementum  quod  habui  ex  dono  et 
feoffamento  Stephani  de  Coue[lee]  et  Alicie  uxoris  sue  ad 
fundacionem  et  constitucionem  perpetue  sustentacionis  priora- 
tus  et  communitatis  ordinis  predict!  ibidem  in  liberam  puram 
et  perpetuam  eleemosynam  et  quietam  Habenda  et  tenenda 
predictis  Priori  et  Conventui  et  successoribus  suis  et  com- 
munitati predicte... ita  quod  predicto  Priore  cedente  vel  de- 
cedente,  quilibet  Prior  succedens  electus  per  Conventum  diet! 
loci  mihi  et  heredibus  meis  tanquam  patrono  loci  illius  presen- 
tetur,  quem  sine  difificultate  dilacione  seu  calumnia  aliqua 
recipiemus...In  cuius  re!  testimonium  [etc.]. 

Grant  of  Site  for  Gloucester  College       201 

Longsword  formerly  my  wife,  and  of  my  ancestors  and  heirs, 
have  given,  granted  and  by  this  my  deed  confirmed  to  God 
and  the  Blessed  Mary  and  the  church  of  the  Blessed  John  the 
apostle  and  evangelist  and  of  Benedict  the  abbot  and  con- 
fessor of  Oxford,  and  to  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  the  same 
place  of  the  order  of  St  Benedict  and  to  the  community  of  the 
monks  of  the  same  order  of  the  Province  of  Canterbury  sent 
or  to  be  sent  there  to  study,  under  the  form  duly  provided 
and  decreed  by  the  general  chapter  of  the  order  and  province 
aforesaid,  All  the  lands  and  tenements  with  the  appurtenances 
which  I  had  in  Stockwell  Street  in  the  suburb  of  Oxford, 
namely  all  the  lands  and  tenements  which  I  had  of  the  gift  or 
feoffment  of  \Villiam  of  Hawvil,  then  prior  of  the  holy  house  of 
St  John  of  Jerusalem  in  England,  and  by  the  assent  and  will 
of  all  the  brethren  of  his  chapter,  and  all  the  lands  and 
tenements  which  I  had  of  the  gift  and  feoffment  of  John  of 
Langport,  burgess  of  Oxford,  and  all  the  tenement  which  I 
had  of  the  gift  and  feoffment  of  Eve  the  washerwoman,  and  all 
the  tenement  which  I  had  of  the  gift  and  feoffment  of  John 
Watson  and  Idonea  his  wife,  and  all  that  tenement  which  I 
had  of  the  gift  and  feoffment  of  Stephen  of  Cowlay  and  Alice 
his  wife,  for  the  foundation  and  establishment  of  the  perpetual 
maintenance  of  the  Prior  and  Community  of  the  order  afore- 
said there  in  free,  pure  and  perpetual  and  quiet  alms.  To 
have  and  to  hold  to  the  aforesaid  Prior  and  Convent  and  their 
successors  and  the  community  aforesaid... so  that  when  a  Prior 
departs  or  deceases  every  succeeding  Prior  elected  by  the 
convent  of  the  said  place  shall  be  presented  to  me  and  my 
heirs  as  patron  of  that  place,  and  we  will  receive  him  without 
any  difficulty,  delay  or  charge.     In  witness  [etc.]. 

202      furisdidion  of  Grammar  Schoolmaster 

The  Jurisdiction  of  the  Grammar-Schoolmaster, 
Chancellor  of  Cambridge  University,  and 
Archdeacon  of  Ely,  defined.      1276. 

[The  Archdeacon  of  Ely's  book,  Caius  Coll.  Camb.  MS.   204,  f.  48, 
printed  in  Fuller's  Hist.  UniT.  Camd.] 

Uniuersis  Christi  fidelibus  presentes  literas  inspecturis... 
Hugo,  Dei  gracia  Elyensis  episcopus,  salutem  in  Domino. 

Ad  uniuersitatis  uestre  noticiam  tenore  praesencium 
uolumus  peruenire,  quod  nos  affectantes  tranquillitatem  et 
pacem  Uniuersitatis  nostre  Cantabrigiensis  regencium  et 
scolarium  studencium  in  eadem,  uolentesque  ut  tarn  archi- 
diaconus  noster  Elyensis  circa  sibi  subditos  quam  Cancellarius 
Uniuersitatis  eiusdem  circa  scolares  suos  ita  iurisdiccionem 
suam  separatim  exerceant,  ut  uterque  suo  iure  contentus  non 
usurpet  alienum  :  ad  peticionem  et  instanciam  prefati  Archi- 
diaconi  nostri,  Cancellarii,  et  Magistrorum  Uniuersitatis 
predictorum  (ab  utraque  parte  nobis  traditis  articulis),  ad 
eternam  rei  geste  memoriam  super  hiis  ordinamus  infra- 

In  primis  uolumus  et  ordinamus  quod  Magister  Glomerie 
Cantabrigiensis,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit,  audiat  et  decidat 
[causas]  uniuersas  glomerellorum  ex  parte  rea  existencium, 
uolentes  in  hac  parte  prefatum  magistrum  eodem  priuilegio 
gaudere  quod  habent  ceteri  magistri  de  scolaribus  suis  de 
causis  eorum  decidendis,  ita  quod  siue  sint  scolares  siue  laici 
qui  glomerellos  uelint  conuenire,  uel  aliquid  ab  eis  petere,  per 
uiam  iudicialis  indaginis,  hoc  faciat  coram  Magistro  Glomerie, 
ad  quem  deccrnimus  huiusmodi  cause  cognicionem  spectare 
pleno  iure.  Nisi  huiusmodi  cause  cognicio  sit  de  pensionibus 
domorum  j)er  Magistros  et  Burgenses  taxatarum,  uel  de  facinoris 
enormis  cuidencia,  ubi  recjuiritur  incarceracionis  pcna  uel  ab 
Uniuersitate    priuacio.      In    hiis    enim    casibus    et    non    aliis 

and  Chancellor  of  Cambridge  203 

The  Jurisdiction  of  the  Grammar-Schoolmaster, 
Cha?icellor  of  Cambridge  University,  and 
Archdeacon  of  Ely,  defined.      1276. 

[The  translation  is  taken  from  C.  H.  Cooper,  Annals  of  Cambridge, 
I.  56,   1842,  with  some  amendments.] 

To  all  the  faithful  in  Christ  who  shall  see  this  letter... Hugh, 
by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Ely,  health  in  the  Lord. 

We  wish  that  by  the  tenor  of  these  presents  it  shall  come  to 
the  knowledge  of  all  of  you,  that  desiring  the  tranquillity  and 
peace  of  our  University  of  Cambridge,  and  of  the  regents  and 
scholars,  students  in  the  same,  and  being  willing  that  our 
archdeacon  of  Ely  shall  over  his  subjects,  and  that  the  chancellor 
of  the  said  university  shall  over  his  scholars,  severally  exercise 
jurisdiction,  so  that  each  being  contented  with  his  own  rights 
shall  not  usurp  the  other's :  at  the  petition  and  instance  of  the 
aforesaid  our  archdeacon,  of  the  chancellor  and  masters  of 
the  university  (articles  011  either  side  having  been  delivered 
to  us),  we  thereupon,  for  the  perpetual  remembrance  of  the 
matter,  ordain  as  follows  : 

First,  we  will  and  ordain  that  the  Master  of  Glomery 
[grammar  master]  at  Cambridge  for  the  time  being  shall  hear 
and  decide  all  suits  in  which  grammar  scholars  are  defendants, 
willing  that  in  this  particular  the  aforesaid  master  shall  enjoy 
the  same  privilege  as  other  masters  have  with  respect  to  their 
scholars  in  deciding  their  causes,  so  that  whether  they  be 
scholars  or  laymen  who  wish  to  convene  the  grammar  boys  or 
demand  anything  from  them  by  judicial  process,  they  shall  do 
this  before  the  grammar  master,  to  whom  we  decree  that  the 
cognizance  of  such  cause  alone  in  law  belongs ;  unless  the 
cognizance  of  such  cause  relate  to  the  rent  of  houses  assessed 
by  the  masters  and  burgesses,  or  to  the  evidence  of  some 
serious  crime,  which  incurs  the  penalty  of  imprisonment,  or 
of  deprivation  of  the  privilegt;s  of  the  university.     For  in  these 

204  Jurisdictioit  of  Chancellor  of 

respondeant  glomerelli  coram  Cancellario  cuilibet  querelanti, 
qui  iurisdiccionem  suam  exercet  in  hiis  sicut  est  alias  obser- 
uatum.  Si  uero  magister  glomerie  cognoscat  inter  scolarem 
actorem  et  glomerellum  reuni,  et  contigerit  appellari  ab  inter- 
locutoria  uel  a  diffinitiua  sentcncia,  uolumus  etordinamus  quod 
ad  Cancellarium  appelletur,  (]ui  in  ipsa  causa  appellacionis 
procedat  secundum  ordinem  obscruatum,  cum  ab  alio  magistro 
regente  et  de  dicta  causa  sui  scolaris  cognoscente  ab  alterutra 
parcium  ad  cancellarium  appellatur.  I)e  causis  uero  glome- 
rellorum  inter  se,  et  laicorum  et  glomerellorum,  Cancellarius  in 
nullo  se  intermittat,  nisi  causa  sit  de  pensione  domorum 
taxatarum,  uel  de  enormitate  delicti  ut  superius  est  expressum. 

Et  quia  in  statutis  Uniuersitatis  uidimus  contineri  quod  duo 
bedelli  Uniuersitatis  intersint  uirgam  deferentes  omnibus 
uesperis,  principiis,  conuentibus,  defunctorum  exequiis,  et 
omnibus  aliis  conuocationibus,  nullo  alio  in  preiudicio  eorum 
uirgam  delaturo,  precipimus  quod  bedellus  glomerie  in  pre- 
dictis  conuocacionibus  et  locis  coram  cancellario  et  magistris 
uirgam  non  deferat.  In  aliis  autem  locis  quandocunque  et 
ubicunque  uoluerit,  et  maxime  pro  expedicione  sui  officii, 
uirgam  libere  deferat  licenter  et  quiete. 

Et  quia  in  statutis  Uniuersitatis  eiusdem  inter  alia  con- 
tinetur,  quod  familia  scolarium,  scriptores  et  alii  officia  ad 
usum  scolarium  tantum  deputata  exercentes,  eadem  immunitate 
et  libertate  gaudeant  qua  et  scolares,  ut  coram  Archidiacono 
non  respondeant  sicuti  nee  scolares  qui  sunt  eorum  domini. 
Hoc  ita  tenore  presencium  declaramus,  quod  in  hoc  casu 
nomine  familie  solummodo  uolumus  contineri  mancipia 
scolarium  in  domibus  cum  cis  commorancia  dum  personaliter 
deseruiunt  scolaribus  antedictis.  Item  nomine  scriptorum  et 
aliorum  officia  ad  usum  scolarium  tantum  deputata  exercencium, 
uolumus  intelligi  de  scriptoribus,  illuminatoribus,  et  stacionariis 
qui  tantum  deseruiunt  scolaribus,  quod  sub  cancellario 
respondeant,  uxores  tamen  eorum  super  crimine  adulterii  uel 
alia,  cuius  cognicio  et  correccio  ad  Archidiaconum  spcctat  in 
casu  consimili  in   personis  aliis  sibi  subditorum  diflamate,  et 

Cambridge  and  Archdeacon  of  Ely       205 

cases  and  in  no  others,  the  grammarians  shall  answer  to  any 
complainant  before  the  chancellor,  who  exercises  his  authority 
in  these  matters  as  is  elsewhere  observed.  But  if  the  grammar 
master  takes  cognizance  of  a  cause  between  a  scholar  as  plaintiff, 
and  a  grammarian  as  defendant,  and  an  ajipeal  is  made  from 
his  interlocutory  or  definitive  sentence,  \vc  will  and  ordain  that 
the  appeal  shall  be  made  to  the  chancellor,  who  shall  proceed 
in  the  appeal  according  to  the  order  observed  when  an  appeal 
is  made  to  the  chancellor  by  either  party  from  another  regent 
master,  who  has  taken  cognizance  of  the  suit  of  his  scholar. 
But  the  chancellor  shall  not  interfere  in  any  of  the  suits  of 
grammarians  amongst  themselves,  or  between  laymen  and 
grammarians,  unless  the  cause  concerns  the  rent  of  assessed 
houses  or  some  serious  offence  as  is  above  expressed. 

And  whereas  we  have  seen  in  the  statutes  of  the  university, 
that  two  bedells  of  the  university  should  be  present,  bearing 
their  maces,  at  all  vespers,  inceptions,  congregations,  exequies 
of  the  dead,  and  at  all  other  convocations,  no  one  else  being 
allowed  to  bear  a  mace  to  their  prejudice  ;  We  order  that  the 
grammar  bedell  shall  not  bear  a  mace  before  the  chancellor 
and  masters  in  the  aforesaid  convocations  and  places ;  but  in 
other  places  he  is  licensed  to  bear  a  mace,  freely  and  un- 
disturbed, when  and  wherever  he  pleases,  especially  for  the 
execution  of  his  office. 

And  whereas,  in  the  statutes  of  the  same  university,  among 
other  things,  it  is  contained  that  the  household  servants  of  the 
scholars,  writers  and  others  exercising  offices  for  the  exclusive 
use  of  scholars,  shall  enjoy  the  same  exemptions  and  liberties 
as  the  scholars,  so  as  not  to  answer  before  the  archdeacon,  as 
neither  do  the  scholars  who  are  their  masters;  we  interpret  this 
by  these  presents  that  in  this  case  we  will  that  the  term  house- 
hold shall  include  only  the  scholars'  servants  residing  in  houses 
with  them,  and  personally  serving  the  aforesaid  scholars.  Also 
the  term  writers  and  others,  exercising  offices  for  the  exclusive 
use  of  the  scholars,  we  will  to  be  understood  of  writers, 
illuminators,  and  stationers,  who  serve  scholars  only,  and  that 
they  musi  answer  before  the  chancellor  ;  but  their  wives,  if 
charged  with  adultery  or  any  other  crime,  the  cognizance  and 
correction  of  which  pertains  to  the  archdeacon  in  the  case 
of  other  persons  under  his  jurisdiction,  and  the  rest  of  their 

2o6  Jurisdiction  of  Chancellor  of 

reliqua  eorum  familia  ad  officium  scolarium  specialiter  non 
deputata,  Archidiacono  sint  subiecti  in  omnibus  et  singulis  sicut 
ceteri  alii  laici  municipii  Cantabrigie  et  tocius  nostre  diocesis 

[Then  follows  a  recital  of  an  ordinance  made  orally  at 
Barnwell  that  all  parish  priests  and  ministers  of  parish  churches 
in  Cambridge,  including  chantry  priests  and  chaplains  retained 
by  laymen,  are  under  the  archdeacon's  jurisdiction,  even  if  they 
casually  attend  the  schools ;  but  if  study  is  their  principal 
object  in  coming,  they  are  under  the  chancellor's  jurisdiction  ; 
and  if  the  reason  is  in  doubt  the  oath  of  the  person  is  to 
determine  it.  In  any  case,  however,  of  contract  with  a  scholar, 
or  of  default  in  some  scholastic  act,  they  fall  under  the 
chancellor's  jurisdiction.] 

Ad  hec  inter  alia  laudabile  statutum  et  salubre  a  dictis 
cancellario  et  magistris  editum  diligenter  inspeximus,  ne  quis 
aliquem  pro  scolare  tueatur,  qui  certum  magistrum,  infra 
quindecim  dies  postquam  Uniuersitatem  idem  scolaris  ingressus 
sit,  non  habuerit,  aut  nomen  suum  infra  tempus  prelibatum  in 
matricula  sui  magistri  redigi  non  curauerit,  nisi  magistri 
absencia  uel  iusta  rerum  occupacio  idem  impediat.  Immo  si 
quis  talis  sub  nomine  scolaris  latitare  inueniatur,  uel  deiiciatur 
uel  retineatur  iuxta  regiam  libertatem.  Et  licet  quilibet  magister, 
antequam  actualiter  ad  regimen  admittatur,  statutum  huius- 
modi  fide  prestita  firmare  teneatur,  intelleximus  tamen  quod 
plures  magistri  periurii  reatum  sepius  incurrentes  contra  eiusdem 
statuti  tenorem  aliquos  ut  scolares  defendendo,  fidem  suam 
nequiter  uiolarunt :  propter  quod  uolentes  maliciis  hominum 
obuiare,  precipimus  sub  pena  excommunicacionis  nequis 
quenquam  ut  scolarem  contra  memorati  statuti  tenorem  tueri, 
uel  fauorem  sibi  ut  scolari  in  aliquo  prebere  presumat. 

Et  quia  ecclesie  nostre  dyocesis  nobis  et  archidiacono 
nostro  sunt  subiecte,  scolares  uero  Uniuersitatis  eiusdem 
subsunt  Cancellario  memorato,  precipimus  et  mandamus  quod 
sacerdotes  scolares  in   utriusque   presencia  uel  ipsorum   uices 

Cambridge  and  Archdeacon  of  Ely         207 

family,  not  wholly  devoted  to  the  service  of  the  scholars,  shall 
be  under  the  archdeacon's  jurisdiction  in  all  and  singular  cases 
like  other  lay-persons  of  the  town  of  Cambridge  and  our  whole 
diocese  of  Ely. 

[Then  follows  a  recital  of  an  ordinance  made  orally  at 
Barnwell  that  all  parish  priests  and  ministers  of  parish  churches 
in  Cambridge,  including  chantry  priests  and  chaplains  retained 
by  laymen,  are  under  the  archdeacon's  jurisdiction,  even  if  they 
casually  attend  the  schools ,:  but  if  study  is  their  principal 
object  in  coming,  they  are  under  the  chancellor's  jurisdiction  ; 
and  if  the  reason  is  in  doubt  the  oath  of  the  person  is  to 
determine  it.  In  any  case,  however,  of  contract  with  a  scholar, 
or  of  default  in  some  scholastic  act,  they  fall  under  the 
chancellor's  jurisdiction.] 

Moreover,  we  have  diligently  inspected  amongst  other 
statutes  the  commendable  and  beneficial  one  published  by  the 
said  chancellor  and  masters,  that  no  one  shall  defend  as  a 
scholar  anyone  who  has  not  a  definite  master  within  fifteen 
days  after  the  said  scholar  has  entered  the  university,  or  who 
has  not  taken  care  that  his  name  has  been  within  the  time 
aforesaid  inserted  in  his  master's  register  unless  the  master's 
absence  or  legitimate  occupation  with  business  prevent  the 
same.  Further,  if  any  such  person  be  found  concealed  under 
the  name  of  a  scholar,  he  shall  be  either  expelled  or  detained, 
according  to  the  king's  grant.  And  although  every  master 
before  he  is  actually  admitted  to  be  a  regent  is  bound  by  oath 
to  maintain  this  statute,  we  are,  however,  informed  that  many 
masters  often  incur  the  guilt  of  perjury  and  have  wickedly 
violated  their  oath  by  defending  some  persons,  as  scholars, 
contrary  to  the  purport  of  the  said  statute  :  wherefore  we,  being 
desirous  to  obviate  the  malice  of  men,  enjoin  that  no  one,  under 
pain  of  excommunication,  shall  receive  anyone  as  a  scholar 
against  the  purport  of  the  statute  above-mentioned,  or  shall  in 
any  respect  show  favour  to  him  as  a  scholar. 

And  whereas  the  churches  of  our  diocese  are  subject  to  us 
and  to  our  archdeacon,  but  the  scholars  of  the  same  university 
are  subject  to  the  chancellor  above-mentioned,  we  enjoin  and 
order  that  the  priests  scholars  shall  be  examined  as  to  their 
orders  in  the  presence  of  each  of  them,  or  of  their  deputies, 

2o8  Jurisdiction  of  Chancellor  of 

gerencium  super  sua  ordinacione  examinentur,  et  approbentur 
uel  reprobentur,  prout  digni  uel  indigni  reperti  fuerint. 

Et  ne  ius  nostrum  negligere  uideamur  qui  alios  in  sua 
justicia  confouemus,  inhibemus  sub  pena  excommunicacionis, 
quani  ucnicns  in  contrariuni  ipso  facto  incurrat,  ne  memorati 
cancellarius  et  Uniuersitas  diuisim  uel  coniunctim,  clam  uel 
palam  aliquid  ordinet  uel  statuat,  edita  uel  statuta  huiusmodi 
obseruet  uel  seruari  faciat,  in  preiudicium  nostre  iurisdiccionis 
seu  archidiaconi  nostri  Klyensis,  nobis  specialiter  inconsultis 
et  non  prebentibus  assensum  huiusmodi  statutis  uel  eciam 
statuendis  :  decernimus  enim  irritum  et  inane  quicquid  contra 
banc  nostram  prohibicionem  a  quoquam  ipsorum  fuerit 

Ad  hec  quia  iurisdiccio  dicti  Archidiaconi  a  iurisdiccione 
prefati  Cancellarii  tarn  racione  contractuum  quani  personarum 
ac  eciam  causarum  liquido  est  distincta,  ac  constet  vtrumque 
esse  nobis  immediate  subiectum,  nolumus  ipsum  Archidiaconum 
uel  suam  familiam  cancellario  predicto  in  aliquo  subesse,  nee 
ipsum  cancellarium  uel  suam  familiam  in  aliquo  subesse  archi- 
diacono  memorato.  Sed  vterque  uirtute  proprie  potestatis 
suam  propriam  familiam  corrigat,  ipsam  ad  iuris  regulas 
reducendo.  Ita  quod  si  necessarium  fuerit  superioris  auxilium 
in  hiis  de  quibus  ecclesia  iiidicat,  ad  nos  uel  ad  ofificialem 
nostrum  recursus  habeatur  :  salua  nobis  et  successoribus  nostris 
potestate  addendi,  detrahendi,  corrigendi,  mutandi  uel  minuendi 
in  posterum  sicut  nobis  et  ipsis  uisum  fuerit  expedire. 

Data  et  acta  anno  Domini  Mcci.xx  sexto  apud  Dunham 
in  octabis  beati  Michaelis. 

Cambridge  and  Archdeacon  of  Ely       209 

and  be  approved  or  rejected  according  as  they  have  been 
found  competent  or  incompetent. 

And  that  we  may  not  seem  to  neglect  our  own  rights  whilst 
confirming  the  rights  of  others,  we  (on  pain  of  excommunication 
to  be  ipso  facto  incurred  by  anyone  contravening  this)  prohibit 
the  aforesaid  chancellor  and  university  from  ordaining  or 
enacting  anything,  separately  or  jointly,  secretly  or  openly,  or 
from  observing  or  causing  to  be  observed,  such  ordinances  or 
enactments,  to  the  prejudice  of  our  jurisdiction,  or  of  that 
of  our  archdeacon  of  Ely,  if  our  consent  has  not  been  specially 
asked  and  given  to  such  statutes,  enacted  or  about  to  be 
enacted ;  and  we  decree  that  whatever  has  been  attempted  by 
any  of  them  contrary  to  this  our  prohibition  is  of  no  eifect 
and  void. 

Moreover,  whereas  the  jurisdiction  of  the  aforesaid  arch- 
deacon is  clearly  distinguished  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
aforesaid  chancellor  in  the  matter  of  contracts  as  well  as  of 
causes  and  persons,  and  it  is  well  established  that  both  are 
immediately  subject  to  us,  we  will  that  the  said  archdeacon  and 
his  household  shall  not  be  subject  to  the  aforesaid  chancellor 
in  anything,  and  that  the  chancellor  himself  and  his  household 
shall  not  be  subject  to  the  aforesaid  archdeacon  in  anything; 
but  each  of  them  by  virtue  of  his  own  authority  shall  correct 
his  own  household  according  to  the  rules  of  law,  so  that  if  the 
aid  of  a  superior  power  be  required  on  anything  about  which 
the  church  passes  judgment,  recourse  shall  be  had  to  us  or  to 
our  official ;  saving  to  us  and  our  successors,  the  power  of 
adding,  subtracting,  correcting,  changing,  or  diminishing  this 
hereafter  as  shall  seem  expedient  to  us  and  them. 

Given  and  done  in  the  year  of  the  Lord  1276,  at  Downham, 
on  the  octave  of  Michaelmas. 


2IO     Admission  Oath  of  Grammar- Schoolmaster 

Admission  Oath  of  Grammar- Schoolm.aster. 
c.    1276. 

[lb.  127.] 

Juramentum  quod  prestabit  Magister  Glomerye  Archi- 
diacono  Eliensi  et  eius  ministris  in  collacione  scolarum. 

Tu  iurabis  obedienciam  Archidiacono  Ecclesie  Eliensis  et 
eius  ministris  nee  aliquid  contra  iurisdiccionem  Archidiacona- 
lem  per  te  uel  per  alium  atteniptabis  uel  iuxta  posse  permittes 

Jurabis  insuper  quod  onera  Scolarum  Glomerie  Cantabrigie 
incumbencia  iuxta  consuetudinem  hactenus  approbatam  pro 
•tempore  tuo  sine  aliqua  extorsione  a  scolaribus  scolarum  pre- 
dictarum  faciendo  fideliter  sustinebis.  Quod  si  secus  per  te 
uel  per  alium  nomine  tuo  quicquam  attemptatum  fuerit, 
concedis  te  uirtute  iuramenti  prestiti  ipso  facto  ab  ipsis  scolis 
esse  priuatum  quousque  ab  eo  cuius  interest  remedium  poteris 
optinere.  Hec  omnia  promittis  te  fideliter  obseruaturum.  Sic 
Deus  te  adiuuet  etc. 

Extracts  from  Accounts  of  Merton  College 
Grammar-Schoolboys.      1 2  7 7 -  1 3 1  o. 

[Merton  College   Muniments,   3964  a  etc.] 

Computus  Henrici  de  Swanebury  a  domo  Scolarium  de 
Merton  aput  Oxoniam  a  die  Sanctorum  Tiburcii  et  Valeriani 
ad  diem  Veneris  proximum  post  festum  Sancte  Margarete 

Expense  puerorum  in  custodia  Thome  de  Walingford  in 
communis  usque  ad  festum  S.  Margarete. — Talliatur  in  una 
tallia  generali  de  omnibus  expensis  eoruni  usque  ad  festum 
Sancti   Michaelis. 

Admission  Oath  of  Grammar-Schoolmaster     211 

Admission  Oath  of  Grammar-Schoolmaster, 
c.   1276. 

Oath  to  be  taken  by  the  grammar  master  to  the  archdeacon 
of  Ely  and  his  officers  on  collation  to  the  school. 

You  shall  swear  obedience  to  the  archdeacon  of  the  church 
of  Ely  and  his  officers,  and  will  never  attempt  anything,  by 
yourself  or  through  another,  nor  after  your  power  permit  any 
attempt  against  his  archidiaconal  jurisdiction. 

You  shall  swear  further  that  you  will,  during  your  time, 
bear  faithfully  all  the  charges  falling  on  the  Cambridge  Grammar 
School  according  to  the  hitherto  approved  custom,  without  any 
extortion  from  the  scholars  of  the  aforesaid  school ;  and  if 
anything  shall  be  otherwise  attempted  by  you  or  by  another  in 
your  name,  you  grant  that  you  are,  in  virtue  of  the  oath  you 
have  taken,  ipso  facto  deprived  of  the  same  school  until  you 
shall  have  been  able  to  obtain  redress  from  him  whose  business 
it  is.  All  this  you  promise  that  you  will  observe  faithfully. 
So  help  you  God  etc. 

Extracts  from  Accounts  of  Merton  College 
Gram77iar-Schoolboys.      1 2  77  - 1 3 1  o. 

Account  of  Henry  of  Swanbury  of  the  House  of  the 
Scholars  of  Merton  at  Oxford  from  the  day  of  SS.  Tiburtius 
and  Valerian  [14  April]  to  Friday  next  after  the  feast  of 
St  Margaret  [20  July]  [1277].... 

Expenses  for  commons  of  the  boys  in  the  custody  of 
Thomas  of  Wallingford  to  the  feast  of  St  Margaret. — Tallied 
in  one  general  tally  of  all  their  expenses  to  Michaelmas. 


2 1 2         Merton  College  Grammar  School 

Idem  computat  liberatis  Thome  de  Walingford  die 
Veneris  proximo  post  festum  sanctorum  Ti- 
burcii  etc.  pro  se  et  VV.  de  Portesmue,  Roggero 
Dodekin,  Thoma  Dodekin,  lohanne  de  Chir- 
burn,  lohanne  de  Harecourt,  Nicholao  de 
Littlebyr,  Ada  de  Peteresfeud       .         .         .       v^     iiij^. 

Item  2^  septimana         ......       v^     iiij^^, 

[And  so  on,  the  same  amount  each  week  for 
lo  weeks.] 

Item  11=^  septimana  quia  unus  Dodekin  de  villa  in 

media  septimana   ......       v^. 

Kidem  Thome  de  Walingford  eunti  ad  Dominum 

post  computum  per  preceptum  custodis .  viij'' 

Scilicet  in  12  septimana         .....    iiij^    viij'^ 

»         13         »  iiij"-    viij'' 

,,  14    scilicet    die    Veneris    proximo    ante 

festum    Sancte    Margarete    pro   se  et   W.   de 
Portesmue  et  R.  Dodekin  lohanne  de  Chir- 
burn  Nicholao  de  Litlebyr  ....      iij\      iiij*^ 
Summa  iij'',   \f.  viij^. 

Expense  in  necessariis  puerorum   in  custodia  Thome  dt- 
Walingford  usque  ad  festum  Sancte  Margarete. 

Idem  computat  liberatis  Thome  de  Walingford  pro 
j  lintheamine  ad  opus  Willelmi  de  Portesmua 
per  preceptum  Domini  .....  1  5!''. 

Item  liberatis  eidem  die  S.  Marci   Evangeliste  ad 

sotularia  Thome  Dodekin       ....  4^"^. 

Item  liberatis  caligis  Willelmi  de  Portesmue  vigilia 

Pentecostes  .......  S'*. 

Item  in  calciamentis  lohannis  de  Harecourt  et 
calciamentis  Thome  Dodekin  vigilia  Sancti 
Harnabe  Apostoli .  .....  j^*'. 

Founders   Kin  Accounts  213 

The  same  accounts  for  [money]  delivered  to  Thomas 
of  Wallingford  on  P>iday  next  after  the  feast 
of  SS.  Tiburtius  [and  Valerian]  for  himself  and 
W.  of  Portsmouth,  Roger  Dodkin,  Thomas 
Dodkin,  John  of  Sherborne,  John  of  Harcourt, 
Nicholas  of  Littlebury,  Adam  of  Petersfield    .  5     4 

Also  for  the  second  week       .....  54 

[And  so  on,  the  .same  amount  each  week  for 
10  weeks.] 

Also  for  the  eleventh  week  because  one  of  the 
Dodkins  was  away  ffom  town  in  the  middle 
of  the  week  .......  5     o 

To  the  same  Thomas  of  Wallingford  when  he  went 
to  the  lord  [i.e.  Walter  of  Merton,  the  founder] 
after  the  account  by  order  of  the  warden         .  8 

Likewise  in  the  r2th  week     .....  48 

„        13th     „ 48 

,,  „  14th,  viz.  on  Friday  next  before 
St  Margaret's  day  for  himself  and  W.  of  Ports- 
mouth and  R.  Dodkin,  John  of  Sherborne, 
Nicholas  of  Littlebury   .....  34 

Total     .         .  £z'xx  ^8 

Expenses  for  necessaries  of  the  boys  in  the  custody  of 
Thomas  of  Wallingford  till  St  Margaret's  day  [20  July]. 

The  same  accounts  for  [money]  delivered  toThomas 
of  Wallingford  for  a  sheet  for  the  use  of  William 
of  Portsmouth  by  the  lord's  [Merton's]  orders  15^ 

Also  delivered  to  the  same  on  St  Mark  the  Evan- 
gelist's day  [25  April]  for  shoes  for  Thomas 
Dodkin  .......  \\ 

.\lso  for  hose  delivered  for  William  of  Portsmouth 

on  the  vigil  of  Whitsunday     ....  8 

Also  for  boots  of  John  of  Harcourt  and  the  boots 
of  Thomas  Dodkin  on  the  vigil  of  St  Barnabas 
the  apostle     .......  23 

2  14         Merton  College  Grammar  School 

Item  Magistro  Glomerie  pro  lohanne  de  Harecourt, 
lohanne  de  Chirburn  et  duobus  filiis  Willelmi 
Dodekin  et  Ada  de  Peteresfeud 

Item  in  conduccione  hospicii  xii  puerorum  et  ma- 
gistri  eorum  pro  termino  estivali     . 

Item  lotrici  et  garcioni  pro  predictis  pueris     . 
Summa   i2\   \\\^. 

2      8 

Subwarden's  Account.     1 300-1. 

Computus  Magistri  Willelmi  de  Lutegarsal,  Vicecustodis, 
anno  regni  Regis  Edwardi  xxix. 

[Ih.  3964  c] 

Expensis  Bereford. 

In  primis  pro  uno  pari  caligarum  ad  opus  eiusdem  5 

In  cirothecis         .......  2 

Item  pro  una  zona  ad  eundem       ....  2 

Item    in    uno    pari    cirothecarum    emptarum    per 

W.   clavigerum   in   crastino   Nativitatis  Beate 

Virginis  .......  i 

Item  in  i  zona  [MS.  torn]  tunc     ....  2^ 

Item  pro  octo  ulnis  panni  ad  robam  eiusdem 

Item  pro  tonsura  eiusdem  panni    . 

Item  pro  furura  ad  eandem   .... 

Item  pro  sindone  serico  et  ligatura  ad  eandem 

Item  in  curialitate  pro  eadem 

Item  in  sotularibus  eiusdem,  viz.  quinque  paribus 

a   festo    Sancti    Jacobi    usque   ad    festum    S 

Andreae...     ...... 

Item  pro  scolagio  W.   dc   Ber[eford]  pro  termino 

yemali  ....... 

Item  pro  dica  hostiarii  ..... 

Item  pro  caligis  eiusdem  contra  Natalc 

Founders    Kin  Accounts 


Also  to  the  Grammar  Master  for  John  of  Harcourt, 
John  of  Sherborne  and  the  two  sons  of  William 
Dodkin  and  Adam  of  Petersfield    ...  20 

Also  in  hire  of  a  house  for  the  12  boys  and  their 

master  for  the  summer  term  ....  28 

Also  to  the  washerwoman  and  the  serving-man  for 

the  aforesaid  boys  .....  20 

Total  .         .          12   I  if 

Subwarden's  Account.      1 300-1. 

Account  of  Master  William  of  Ludgershall,  Subwarden  in  the 
29th  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward,     [i 300-1.] 

The  Berefords'  expenses. 

First,  for  a  pair  of  hose  for  his  use         ...  5 

In  gloves      ........  2 

For  a  girdle  for  the  same       .....  2 

Also  in  a  pair  of  gloves  bought  by  W.  the  steward 

on  the  morrow  of  the  Nativity  of  the  Blessed 

Virgin  [8  Sept.] i 

Also  in  a  girdle... then  .         .....  2\ 

Also  for  8  ells  c(  clo'.h  for  his  gown       .         .          .  20     o 

Also  for  shearing  the  same  cloth    ....  3 

Also  for  fur  to  the  same        .....  3     <^ 

Also  for  a  silk  hood  and  binding  to  the  same          .  8 

Also  in  gratuity  for  the  same          ....  i 

Also  in  shoes  for  the  same,  viz.   5   pairs  from  St 

James'  [25  July]  to  St  Andrew's  day  [30  Aug.]  2      i 
Also  for  William  of  Bereford's  schoolage  [school 

fees]  for  the  winter  term          ....  4 

Also  for  the  usher's  fee           .....  \ 

Also  for  stockings  for  the  same  against  Christmas  .  7 

2i6         Merton  College  Grammar  School 



Item  pro  cirothecis  eiusdem  contra  Natale  [MS.  torn] 

Item  pro  uno  gallo  ad  opus  eiusdem  contra  carni- 
priuium  ...... 

Item  in  unguento  ad  caput  eiusdem 

Item  in  uno  troco  ..... 

Item  in  scolagio  eiusdem  protermino  quadragesimali 

Item  pro  dica  vicemonitoris  .... 

Item  pro  sutura  caligarum  suarum  et  pro  agulet 

Item  pro  cirothecis  suis  et  pilis  in  vigilia  Pentecostes 

Item  liberatis  pro  scolagio  [MS.  torn] . . 

Item  a  festo  S.  Andreae  usque  ad  festum  S.  Jacobi 
pro  sotularibus  eiusdem,  precii  paris  5^.  et 
fuerunt  xii  paria  in  toto        ....  5     o 

Sumnia  37"^ —  [MS.  torn.] 

Expense  nepotum  fundatoris. 

In  primis  liberatis  Magistro  R.  de  Scharle  pro  vii 

duodenis  perchameni  ad  opus  puerorum  2     o 

Item  pro  sotularibus  parvi  Petri     ....  4 

Item  pro  factura  quinque  camisarum  ad  opus  eorum  3 

Item  pro  factura  duorum  capiciorum  adopusWaleys  1 

[MS.  torn] 
Item  in  sotularibus  triuni  puerorum,  scilicet,  minoris 

Hodiham,  Burton  et  Robert!  de  Hodiham      .  14.'; 

Item   pro   una  libra  candelarum    pro  eisdem   die 

Martis  in  festo  Sancti  Martini  ...  2 

Item  pro  rcparacione  sotularium  Roberti  de  Hodi- 
ham niaioris  et  pro  sotularibus  Durrynton       .  8.', 

Item  pro  mutacionc  manicarum  Roberti  de  Odiham 

maioris  .......  4 

Item  eodcm  tempore  liberatis  Roberto  de  Odiham 

pro  stramine  ad  lectum  suum  ...  i''. 

Founders    Kin  Accounts 


Also  for  gloves  for  the  same  against  Christmas 

Also  for  a  cock  for  his  use  against  the  Carnival 
[Shrove  Tuesday]  .... 

Also  in  ointment  for  his  head 

Also  for  a  hoop     ...... 

Also  in  his  schoolage  for  Lent  Term 

Also  for  the  under-monitor's  fee    . 

Also  for  sewing  his  hose  and  for  an  eylet  (?)  . 

Also  for  his  gloves  and  balls  on  the  vigil  of  Whit- 
sunday ........ 

Also  delivered  for  his  schoolage     .... 

Also  from  St  Andrew's  to  St  James'  days  for  his 
shoes,  at  the  price  of  5^.  a  pair,  and  there 
were  12  pairs  altogether        .         .         .         . 

Total     . 


5     o 
37     o 

Expenses  of  founder's  kin. 

In  the  first  place,  delivered  to  Master  R.  of  Scharle 
for  7  dozen  [skins]  of  parchment  for  the  boys' 
use        ....... 

Also  for  Peterkin's  shoes       .... 

„     for  making  5  shirts  for  their  use     . 
,,  „  2  hoods  for  Wallace's  use 

Also    in   the  shoes   of   3    boys,   namely,   Odiham 

minor.  Burton  and  Robert  of  Odiham   . 

Also  for  I  lb.  of  candles  for  the  same  on  Tuesday 

after  Martinmas     ..... 

Also  for  repairing  the  shoes  of  Robert  of  Odiham 
major,  and  for  shoes  for  Durrington 

Also  for  changing  the  sleeves  of  Robert  of  Odiham 
major    ....... 

Also  at  the  same  time  delivered  to  Robert  of 
Odiham  for  straw  for  his  bed 



2i8         Merton  College  Grammar  School 

Item  pro  scolagio  vii  puerorum  pro  termino  quadra- 
gesimali,  scilicet,  lohannis  et  Roberti  de  Hodi- 
ham,  Willelmi  Say,  Ricardi  Maken,  Thome  de 
Burton,  lohannis  et  Willelmi  de  Berefield       .  2     4 

Item  pro  dica  Vicemonitoris  ....  2 

„     pro  puero     .......  i 

Item  in  xv  ulnis  linee  tele  et  dimidia  emptis  per 
vices  ante  festum  Beatorum  Philippi  et  Jacobi, 
precii  ulne  3''.        .....         .  3  10^ 

Item  venditori  pro  labore  suo         ....  \ 

Item    pro    emendacione    manicarum    Thome    de 

Burton  et  junioris  Say .....  4 

Item  liberatis  pro  scolagio  vj  puerorum  pro  termino 

estivali,  pro  puero  4^^.     .  .         .         .         .  20 

Summa  45\  3^. 

Expense  forinsece. 

Item  liberatis  ad  dicam  Beate  Katerine  .         .  6 

„  ,,  „         Sancti  Nicholai  .         .  6 

„  ,,       Petro  de  Clivo  pro  dica  S.  Nicholai  .  \ 

„  pro  exennio  misso  lohanni  de  Pirleye  et  filiis 
Edwardi  Luvekyn  de  Kingeston  venientibus 
pro  determinacione  fratrum  suoruni  cum 
multis  aliis,  videlicet  sextario  vini         .  .  16 

„     in  pane 6| 

,,     dimidio  quarterii  avene  pro  eisdem         .  .  | 

,,  {[uatuor  paribus  cirothecarum  dc  coreo  ferine 
emptis  ad  dandum  precepto  C-ustodis  cito 
post   Dominicam   in  albis      ....  16 

,,     iiij  pavonibus  emptis     .....  66 

Founders    Kin  Accounts 


Also  for  schoolage  of  7  boys  for  Lent  term,  namely, 
John  and  Robert  of  Odiham,  William  Say, 
Richard  Makins,  Thomas  of  Burton,  John 
and  William  of  Berefield        .... 

„     for  the  under-monitor's  fee    . 

„     for  the  boy  ....... 

„  in  15^  ells  of  linen  bought  at  different  times 
before  the  feast  of  SS.  Philip  and  James 
[i   May],  price  per  ell  3^.   . 

,,     to  the  seller  for  his  trouble    . 

,,  for  mending  the  sleeves  of  Thomas  of  Burton 
and  Say  junior      ..... 

,,  delivered  for  schoolage  of  6  boys  for  the 
summer  term,  for  each  boy  d^d. 

Total     . 

J-.    d. 

2     4 


3   lo^ 


45     3 

Outside  expenses. 

Also  delivered  at  St  Katherine's  offering 

„  „  St  Nicholas'  offering    . 

„  „       to  Peter  of  Clive   for  St   Nicholas' 

offering  ...... 

„  for  a  present  sent  to  John  of  Purley  and  the 
sons  of  Edward  Lovekin  of  Kingston  coming 
to  their  brothers'  determination  with  many 
others,  viz.  a  quart  of  wine    .... 

,,     in  bread        ....... 

,,     half  a  (juarter  of  oats  for  the  same 

„  4  pairs  of  gloves  of  doe-skin  bought  to  be 
given  by  order  of  the  warden  just  after 
Whitsunday ....... 

„     4  peacocks  bought         ..... 








220        Merlon  College  Grammar  School 

Computus  de  Hakeburne.     34  Ed.   I. 
Expense  puerorum. 

Pro  scolagio  viij  puerorum  in  termino  yemal 
Lotrici  pro  pueris  per  annum 
Pro  scolagio  Makenes  et  Say 

Radulfo  garcioni  puerorum  per  annum 

Pro  scolagio  vij  puerorum  in  quadragesima 
Pro  estate     ...... 

Computus.     2  Edward  II.      1308-9. 

Expensis  puerorum. 

lohanni  de  Mere,  Magistro  eorum,  quando  incepit 
Pro  scolagio  ix  puerorum  pro  termino  yemali  cum 

dica  hostiarii  ..... 

Pro  scolagio  octo  puerorum  in  quadragesima 
Pro  una  olla  henea  conducta  per  annum 

Pro  uno  Catone    ...... 

Pro  tabulis  eburneis      ..... 

In  sotularibus  et  caligis,  stramine  et  candelis 
In  scolagio  x  puerorum  in  estate  . 

Summa  ;£"].  o.   20^,. 

Computus . . .  Vicecustodis.      1 309- 1  o. 
Expensis  Bereford. 

In  caligis  quando  ivit  domum  ad  Nativitatem  beate 
Virginis  ....... 

In  caligis  pro  parvo       ...... 

Pro  cerico  ad  robani      ...... 

Expense  puerorum. 
In  stramine  empto  ad  festum  beate  Frideswyde 

s.    d. 

3  6 

4  6 












Founders    Kin  Accounts 


Hakeburne's  account.      1305-6. 
The  boys'  expenses. 

For  schoolage  of  8  boys  in  the  winter  term 
To  the  washerwoman  for  the  boys  for  a  year 
For  the  schoolage  of  Makins  and  Say    . 

To  Ralph,  the  boys'  servant,  for  one  year 

For  schoolage  of  7  boys  in  Lent    . 

For  the  summer   ..... 

Account.      1308-9. 
The  boys'  expenses. 

To  John  of  Mere,  their  master,  when  he  began 
For  schoolage  of  9  boys  in  the  winter  term  with 

the  usher's  fee 
For  schoolage  of  8  boys  in  Lent 
P"or  a  brass  pot  hired  for  a  year 

For  a  Cato  .... 

For  ivory  tablets  . 

In  shoes  and  stockings,  straw  and  candles 

In  schoolage  of  10  boys  in  the  summer 

Total     .         .  £1 

s.  d. 


3  6 

4  6 

2  1 1 

2  4 












.Sub-warden's  account.      1309-10. 
Fxpenses  of  the  Berefords. 

In  hose  when  he  went   home  on  the   Nativity  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin  [8  Sept.]  .... 
In  hose  for  the  little  one  [Bereford  jun.] 
For  silk  for  his  gown     ...... 

The  boys'  expenses. 
In  straw  bought  on  St  Frideswide's  Day 


The  first  Cambridge  College 

Ad  Natale  pro  emendacione  communarum 

In  Donate  empto  .... 

In  percameno        ..... 

Rogero  pro  sotularibus  quando  docuit  pueros 

In  percameno        ..... 

Pro  canewacio  pro  mappa 

Pro  excessibus  eorum  ebdomada  assencionis 

In  ebdomada  Pentecoste 

Pro  excessibus  alterius  commune  . 

Item  pro  excessibus       .... 

Item  pro  excessibus       .... 

Pro  scolagio  septem  puerorum  per  tres  terminos 

Computus.      13  Ed.  II. 

Expensis  puerorum  aule  monialis. 

Item  pro  pensione  aule  monialis  pro  termino  yemali 
Item  pro  scolagio  viij  puerorum  pro  termino  yemali 




2  id. 






The  first  Cambridge  College,  Peter  house.    1280-5, 

Royal  Assent  to  Bishop  of  Ely  placing  Scholars  in  St  John's 
Hospital.     24  Dec.   1280. 

[Pat.  Roll,  9  Edvv.  I,  m.  28.] 

Rex  omnibus  ad  quos  etc.  salutem. 

Rex  inclitus  Hebree  gentis,  quern  Omnipotens  ultra  capaci- 
tatem  comprehensionis  intellectus  humani  prerogativa  sapiencie 
celitus  insignivit,  promisso  sibi  a  domino  munere  quod  optaret, 
circumspecte  considerans  sapienciam  terrenis  rebus  singulis 
prevalere,  ipsam  expetiit,  prudenter  attendens  quod  illam  omnia 
bona  pariter  subsequuntur ;  quapropter  decet  regiam  excellen- 

begun  in  St  Johns  Hospital 


For  improvement  of  their  commons  at  Christmas  . 
In  buying  a    Donat    [Donatus'   elementary   Latin 

grammar]      ...... 

In  parchment        ...... 

To  Roger  for  shoes  when  he  taught  the  boys 
In  parchment        ...... 

For  canvas  for  a  tablecloth    .... 

For   their   extras    [battels,    in    later   accounts]    in 

Ascension  Week    ..... 

In  Whitsun  Week  ..... 

For  other  extra  commons      .... 

Also  for  extras       ...... 

Also  for  extras       ...... 

For  schoolage  of  7  boys  for  3  terms 

Account.      1319-20. 

Expenses  of  the  boys  of  Nun  Hall. 

Also  for  the  rent  of  Nun  Hall  for  the  winter  term  . 
Also  for  schoolage  of  8  boys  for  the  winter  term    . 

s.    d. 








7   10 

The  first  Cambridge  College,  Peter  house.    1280-5. 

Royal  Assent  to  Bishop  of  Ely  placing  Scholars  in  St  John's 
Hospital.       24  Dec.  1280. 

The  king  to  all  to  whom  etc.  greeting. 

The  famous  king  of  the  Hebrew  race,  whom  the  Almighty 
distinguished  with  the  heavenly  prerogative  of  wisdom  beyond 
the  capacity  of  comprehension  of  the  human  intellect,  being 
promised  by  the  Lord  whatever  gift  he  should  desire,  carefully 
considering  that  wisdom  was  of  most  avail  in  earthly  things, 
asked  for  wisdom,  wisely  expecting  that  all  good  things  would 
follow  thereupon;  wherefore  it  befits  the  king's  excellency  con- 

224  Scholars  7'emoved  from 

ciam  exemplis  optimis  confirmatam,  libenter  assensum  impertiri, 
ad  facta  favorabiliter  prosequenda,  per  que  viri  fiant  pro  utili- 
tate  rei  publice  sapientes,  quorum  prudencia  regimini  regni 
et  sacerdocii  provide  consulatur,  et  in  huiusmodi  studiis  doc- 
trina  sapiencie  iugiter  amplietur. 

Nos  igitur  attendentes  venerabilem  patrem  Hugonem 
Elyensem  episcopum  proposito  laudabili  concepisse  quod  loco 
fratrum  secularium  in  hospitali  suo  Sancti  Johannis  Cantebrigie 
scolares  studiosi  subrogentur,  qui  secundum  regulam  scolarium 
Oxoniensium  qui  de  Merton.  cognominantur  in  universitate 
Cantebrigie  studentes  per  omnia  conversentur,  perpendentes 
ex  huiusmodi  studio  per  eminenciam  sapiencie  posse  rei 
publice  multa  commoda  provenire,  prefate  subrogacioni  mu- 
tacioni  seu  translacioni  ex  ea  superscripte  faciende  nostrum 
regium  prebemus  assensum,  Nolentes  per  hoc  quod  elemosina 
pauperum  ad  dictum  hospitale  confluencium  que  a  Sanctis 
patribus  episcopis  Elyen.  ecclesie  est  antiquitus  consuete, 
in  aliquo  defraudetur. 

In  cuius  etc.     Teste  etc.  24  die  Decembris. 

Royal  Assent  to  Translation  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely's  Scholars 
to  Peterhouse.     28  May  1285. 

[Charter   Roll,    13   Edvv.   I,  m.    28.] 

Rex  archiepiscopis  etc.,  salutem.  Inspeximus  litteras 
patentes  quas  venerabilis  pater  Hugo  Elyens.  episcopus  fecit 
Elyensibus  Cantebrigge  studentibus  in  hec  verba. 

Universis  presentes  litteras  visuris  vel  audituris  Hugo 
permissione  divina  Elyensis  episcopus,  salutem  in  domino 

Noverit  universitas  vestra  quod  cum  nuper  per  dominum 
Edwardum  dei  gracia  illustrissimum  regem  Anglie  nobis 
concessum  et  permissum  fuisset,  ut  in  hospitali  nostro  Sancti 
fohannis  Cantebrigg  ad  laudem  divinam  et  eiusdem  universitatis 

St  Johns  Hospital  to  Peter  house         225 

firmed  by  the  best  examples,  willingly  to  give  his  assent  to  the 
favourable  deeds  whereby  men  may  be  made  wise  for  the 
utility  of  the  commonwealth,  and  by  their  prudence  provident 
counsel  be  given  for  the  rule  of  the  realm  and  of  the  priest- 
hood, and  the  science  of  wisdom  be  continually  increased 
by  such  studies. 

We  therefore,  learning  that  the  venerable  father  Hugh, 
bishop  of  Ely,  has  conceived  the  laudable  design  of  intro- 
ducing in  the  place  of  the  secular  brethren  of  his  hospital 
of  St  John  at  Cambridge,  scholars  in  the  schools,  who  are 
to  live  together  and  study  in  the  University  of  Cambridge, 
according  to  the  rule  of  the  scholars  of  Oxford,  who  are  called 
of  Merton,  considering  that  by  such  study  through  eminence 
in  wisdom  many  advantages  can  accrue  to  the  commonwealth, 
give  our  royal  assent  to  the  aforesaid  substitution,  change  or 
transfer  being  made  as  above-written,  so  long  as  by  it  the  alms 
of  the  poor  flocking  to  the  said  hospital,  which  was  anciently 
accustomed  to  be  given  by  the  holy  fathers,  bishops  of  the 
church  of  Ely,  be  in  no  wise  defrauded. 

In  witness  whereof  etc.,  24  December. 

Royal  Assent  to  Translation  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely's  Scholars 
to  Peterhouse.     28  May  1285. 

The  king  to  archbishops  etc.,  greeting.  We  have  inspected 
the  letters  patent  which  the  venerable  father  Hugh,  bishop  of 
Ely,  made  to  those  of  Ely  diocese  studying  at  Cambridge  in 
these  words. 

To  all  who  shall  see  or  hear  these  present  letters  Hugh 
[Balsham],  by  divine  permission,  bishop  of  Ely,  eternal  health 
in  the  Lord. 

Know  ye  all  that  whereas  lately  it  was  granted  and  allowed 

us  by  the  lord  Edward,  by  the  grace  of  God  most  illustrious 

king  of  England,  that  we  might  cause  scholars  to  be  inducted 

and  placed  in  our  hospital  of  St  John  at  Cambridge,  to  dwell 

L.  i; 

2  26  Scholars  removed  from 

incrementum  perpetuum  scolares  faceremus  induci  et  collocari 
et  in  ipso  hospitali  perpetuo  moraturos  ac  studio  sibi  con- 
gruenti  vacaturos  ;  ita  tamen'  quod  per  huiusmodi  ordinacionem 
nichil  attemptaretur  per  quod  elemosina  consueta  subtraheretur 
seu  caritatis  opera  pauperibus  et  infirmis  ad  dictum  hospitale 
confluentibus  ab  antique  impensa  minuerentur  seu  penitus 
adnichilarentur.  Nos  huiusmodi  regio  accedente  consensu 
certum  numerum  scolarium  in  dicta  domo  fecimus  induci, 
certa  bona  a  bonis  dicti  hospitalis  separata  ad  ipsorum  scolarium 
perpetuam  sustentaccionem  adquirentes  et  eisdem  assignantes. 
Cumque  processu  temporis  inter  fratres  eiusdem  domus 
et  scolares  predictos  ex  variis  causis  dissensionis  materia 
quampluries  oriretur,  cuius  pretextu  difficile  seu  intollerabile 
videbatur  ut  diucius  modo  prenotato  simul  commorarentur, 
ad  maiorem  ipsorum  mutuam  benivolenciam  et  tranquillitatem 
confovendam  ex  parte  utriusque,  nobis  humiliter  extitit  suppli- 
catum  ut  tam  loci  quam  bonorum  sibi  communium,  si  qua 
assent  nobis  placeret  facere  divisionem ;  pro  qua  quidem 
facienda  partes  pronotate  se  cum  omnibus  bonis  suis  et  iuribus 
quoquo  modo  adquisitis  sponte  et  pure,  omnibus  et  singulis 
consencientibus  et  nullo  contradicente,  nostre  ordinacioni  se 
submiserunt,  prout  in  litteris  utriusque  partis  sigillis  com- 
munibus  earundem  signatis  et  penes  nos  residentibus 
luoulencius  apparet.  Nos  siquidem  attendentes  varia  in- 
commoda,  pariter  et  pericula,  que  ex  perseverancia  huiusmodi 
communionis  possent  actualiter  pervenire,  volentes  que,  ut 
decet,  potius  huiusmodi  periclis  obviare  quam  ea  que  in 
premissis  maiora  possent  afferre  incommoda  expectare, 
auctoritate,  qua  fungimur  in  hac  parte,  necnon  et  virtute 
submissionis  supradictc,  taliter  inter  partes  predictas  duximus 

In  nomine  Patris  et  Filii  et  Spiritus  Sancti,  Amen.  Nos 
Hugo,  Dei  gracia  episcopus  Elyensis,  in  primis  ordinamus 
quod  scolares  nostri,  quos  scolares  episcoporum  Elyensium 
perpetuo  volumus  nuncupari,  a  fratribus  hospitalis  separenturet 

Si  Johns  Hospital  to  Peterkouse         227 

in  the  same  hospital  for  ever,  and  employ  themselves  with 
appropriate  study,  to  the  praise  of  (}od  and  the  perpetual 
augmentation  of  the  same  university;  so,  nevertheless,  that 
by  such  ordinance  nothing  should  be  done  by  which  the 
customary  alms  should  be  subtracted,  or  the  works  of  charity 
bestowed  anciently  on  the  poor  and  infirm  coming  to  the  said 
hospital  should  be  diminished  or  brought  to  nought,  We  with 
such  royal  assent  have  caused  a  certain  number  of  scholars  to 
be  brought  into  the  said  house,  and  acquired  and  assigned 
certain  goods  separate  from  those  of  the  said  hospital  for  the 
perpetual  maintenance  of  the  said  scholars. 

And  whereas  in  process  of  time  from  various  causes  matter 
of  dissension  had  often  arisen  between  the  brethren  of  the  same 
house  and  the  scholars  aforesaid,  by  reason  whereof  it  seemed 
difficult  or  intolerable  that  they  should  any  longer  live  together 
in  manner  above-mentioned,  and  we  were  humbly  petitioned  by 
both  parties  for  the  better  encouragement  of  mutual  good 
feeling  and  peace  between  them,  that  we  would  be  pleased  to 
effect  a  division  of  the  place  and  any  property  there  might  be 
common  to  them  ;  for  the  effecting  of  which  division  the 
parties  aforesaid,  all  and  each  consenting,  and  no  one  dissenting, 
spontaneously  and  absolutely  submitted  themselves  and  all 
their  possessions  and  rights  howsoever  acquired  to  our 
ordinance,  as  in  the  letters  of  either  party  sealed  with  their 
common  seals,  and  remaining  with  us,  more  at  large  appears. 
We,  therefore,  considering  the  various  disadvantages  and 
dangers,  which  may  actually  arise  from  the  continuance  of  such 
common  possession,  and  desiring,  as  is  proper,  rather  to  prevent 
such  dangers  than  to  wait  for  events  which  may  bring  greater 
disadvatitages,  by  the  authority  which  we  exercise  in  this 
behalf  and  in  virtue  of  the  submission  aforesaid,  have  con- 
sidered that  it  should  be  thus  ordained  between  the  parties 

In  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Son  and  the  Holy  (ihost, 
Amen.  We  Hugh,  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Ely,  in  the 
first  place  ordain  that  our  scholars,  whom  we  will  shall  for  ever 
be  called  '  the  l^ishops'  of  Ely's  scholars,'  shall  be  separated 

2  28  Scholars  removed  from 

transferantur  ad  hospicia  iuxta  ecclesiam  Sancti  Petri  extra 
portam  de  Trumpeton  Cantebrigie,  et  habeant  illam  ecclesiam 
cum  duobis  hospiciis  predictis  perpetuo,  et  (}uod  habeant  bona 
infrascripta  ad  predictam  ecclesiam  pertinencia,  super  quibus 
specialiter  nostre  ordinacioni  predicti  fratres  se  submiserunt, 
videlicet,  decimas  garbarum  cum  alteragio,  quas  fratres  pre- 
nominati  habere  et  colligere  solebant,  et  decimas  utriusque 
molendini  ad  ecclesiam  illam  spectantes.  Et  ne  per  huiusmodi 
ordinacionem  seu  alienacionem  ipsis  fratribus  dispendium 
eveniat,  ordinamus  insuper,  quod  predicti  fratres  habeant  de 
bonis  predictis  scolaribus  per  nos  dudum  assignatis,  bona  infra- 
scripta, videlicet  hospicium  contra  fratres  predicatores  et 
redditum  annuum  per  nos  emptum  de  Isabella  Wombe,  et 
donios  que  fuerunt  magistri  Roberti  Aunger  hospitali  adiacentes, 
domos  eciam  que  fuerunt  rectoris  de  Eyworth  perpetuo 
possidenda;  nolentes  quicquani  de  bonis  alterius  partis  alteri 
accrescere,  bonis  supradictis  duntaxat  exceptis,  sed  si  qua  bona 
supersint  per  nos  prius  ad(]uisita  de  quibus  superius  non  fit 
mencio,  ea  nostre  ordinacioni  reservamus  in  futurum. 

Partibus  igitur  memoratis  coram  nobis  comparentibus 
presentisque  ordinacionis  tenore  coram  ipsis  recitato  pridie 
Kalendas  Aprilis,  anno  domini  1284,  omnes  et  singuli,  tarn 
inagister  fratrum  et  fratres  ex  parte  una  quam  magister  scoJarium 
et  scolares  ex  altera,  presenti  ordinacioni  pure  et  sponte 
consenserunt  et  adcjuiverunt. 

Et  ad  maiorem  ipsorum  consensus  noticiam  et  dicte 
ordinacionis  nostre  perpetuam  firmitatem,  ut  eciam  quelibet 
dissensionis  seu  contencionis  materia  inter  partes  predictas 
imperpetuum  amputetur,  presentis  ordinacionis  nostre  tenorem 
instrumentis  ad  modum  cirographum  confectis  sigillo  nostro 
consignatis  recitari  fecimus  et  conscribi,  que  penes  partes 
predictas  alternatini  volumus  et  precipinuis  perpetuo  remanerc, 
lercio  instrumento  eiusdem  ordinacionis  tenorem  continente  et 
cirographatim  similiter  confecto  et  communi  sigillo  utriusque 
|)artis  consignato  ad  rei  geste  ])erpetuam  memoriani  penes  nos 
nichilominus  remanente. 

St  Johns  Hospital  to  Peter  house         229 

from  the  brethren  of  the  hospital  and  translated  to  the  inns  by 
St  Peter's  church  outside  Trumpington  gate  at  Cambridge,  and 
shall  have  that  church  with  the  said  two  inns  for  ever,  and 
shall  have  the  possessions  underwritten  belonging  to  the  said 
church,  concerning  which  the  said  brethren  have  specially 
submitted  themselves  to  our  ordinance,  viz.  the  tithes  of  corn 
with  the  altarage,  which  the  said  brethren  used  to  have  and 
collect,  and  the  tithes  of  both  mills  belonging  to  the  church. 
And  that  no  loss  may  fall  on  the  brethren  by  such  ordinance  or 
alienation,  we  ordain  further  that  the  said  brethren  shall  have 
from  the  possessions  by  us  formerly  assigned  to  the  said 
scholars,  the  possessions  underwritten,  namely,  the  inn  opposite 
the  Friars  Preachers  and  the  rent  charge  bought  by  us  from 
Isabel  Wombe,  and  the  house  which  belonged  to  Master 
Robert  Aunger,  next  the  hospital,  and  the  house  which  was  the 
rector  of  Eyworth's,  to  possess  for  ever.  But  none  of  the  other 
possessions  of  either  i)arty  shall  accrue  to  the  other  party,  but 
if  there  are  any  possessions  beyond  those  which  were  formerly 
acquired  by  us,  of  which  no  mention  is  made  above,  we  reserve 
them  for  our  ordinance  hereafter. 

The  said  parties  therefore  appeared  before  us  and  the  tenor 
of  the  present  ordinance  being  read  aloud  before  them,  on 
I  April  1284,  all  and  every,  as  well  the  master  of  the  brethren 
and  the  brethren  on  the  one  part,  and  the  master  of  the  scholars 
and  the  scholars  on  the  other  part,  absolutely  and  voluntarily 
consented  and  agreed  to  the  present  ordinance. 

And  for  better  knowledge  of  their  consent  and  the  per- 
petual confirmation  of  our  said  ordinance,  and  that  all  cause 
of  dissension  or  contention  between  the  parties  aforesaid  may 
be  for  ever  cut  off,  we  have  caused  the  tenor  of  our  present 
ordinance  to  be  recited  and  written  in  instruments  made  in 
manner  of  an  indenture  and  sealed  with  our  seal,  which  we  will 
and  command  shall  for  ever  remain  with  the  parties  aforesaid, 
a  third  instrument,  containing  the  tenor  of  the  same  ordinance 
and  likewise  made  like  an  indenture  and  sealed  with  the 
common  seal  of  either  party,  remaining  with  us  in  perpetual 
remembrance  of  the  matter. 

230  Endowment  of  Scholars  of 

In  quorum  omnium  testimonium  sigillum  nostrum  pre- 
sentibus  est  appensum.  Datis  apud  Dunham  die  et  anno 

Inspeximus  eciam  (juasdam  alias  litteras  patentes  quas  idem 
Episcopus  fecit  eisdcm  scolaribus  in  hec  verba. 

H.,  Dei  gracia  Elyensis  episcopus,  Dilectis  in  Christo  filiis 
magistro  et  scolaribus  suis  Cantebrigie  commorantibus,  salutem, 
graciam  et  benediccionem. 

Ecclesiam  de  Tripelewe  nuper  vobis  et  fratribus  hospitalis 
Sancti  Johannis  Cantibrigie  tunc  simul  commorantibus  vestri 
contemplacione  collatam,  cum  iam  ab  ipsis  fratribus  tam 
corporaliter  quam  eciam  quo  ad  bona  sitis  ex  causa  divisi  et 
seperati  ab  eis  alibi  commorantes,  vobis  solum  et  successoribus 
vestris  per  nos  et  successores  nostros  in  futurum  collocandis 
ibidem  cum  pertinenciis  suis  omnibus  ad  communem  vestram 
sustentacionem  intuitu  conferimus  caritatis. 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium  presentes  litteras  vobis  fieri 
fecimus  patentes  sigillo  nostro  consignatas.  Datis  apud 
Dodington  pridie  Kalcndas  April,  a.d.  1284  et  Pontificatus 
nostri  anno   27. 

Nos  autem  tenorem  predictarum  litterarum  ratum  habentes 
et  gratum,  ilium  pro  nobis  et  heredibus  nostris,  (juantum  in 
nobis  est,  et  tenorc  presencium  acceptamus,  prout  littere 
patentes  i)rcdicte  racionabilitcr  testantur. 

Hiis  tcstibus  venerabilibus  patribus  episcopis  Bathoniensi 
et  Wellcnsi  et  Thonia  Mcnevensi  episcopis,  Gilberto  de  Clare 
comile  (ilouccstrie  et  Herefordie,  Ricardo  de  Burgo  comite 
Ultonie,  Johanne  de  Vesey,  Ricardo  de  Bosco  et  aliis. 

Datum  i)t'r  nianum  nostram  a])ud  ^^'cstmonasterium  28  die 

Bishops  of  Ely  at  Peterkouse  2  3 1 

In  witness  whereof  our  seal  is  appended  to  these  presents. 
Dated  at  Dunham  the  day  and  year  aforesaid. 

We  have  inspected  also  certain  other  letters  patent  which 
the  same  bishop  made  to  the  same  scholars  in  these  words. 

H.,  by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Ely,  to  his  beloved  sons 
in  Christ  his  master  and  scholars  living  at  Cambridge,  health, 
grace  and  blessing. 

The  church  of  Triplow  lately  conferred  for  your  benefit  on 
yourselves  and  the  brethren  of  St  John's  Hospital  of  Cambridge 
when  living  together,  since  you  are  now  for  certain  reasons 
divided  and  separated  as  well  in  person  as  in  possessions,  and 
living  elsewhere  than  with  them,  we  confer  by  way  of  charity 
on  you  alone  and  your  successors  to  be  hereafter  placed  by  us 
and  our  successors  there  with  all  its  appurtenances  for  your 
common  maintenance. 

In  witness  whereof  we  have  made  for  you  these  our 
letters  patent  sealed  with  our  seal.  Dated  at  Doddington, 
31    March   1284,  and  in  the   27th  year  of  our  episcopate. 

Now  we,  holding  the  tenor  of  the  aforesaid  letters  good  and 
acceptal)le,  for  us  and  our  heirs  as  much  as  in  us  lies  by  tenor 
of  these  presents  accept  it,  as  the  aforesaid  letters  patent 
reasonably  witness. 

These  being  witnesses,  the  venerable  fathers  the  bishops  of 
Bath  and  Wells,  and  'I'homas,  bishop  of  St  David's,  Gilbert  of 
Clare,  earl  of  Gloucester  and  Hereford,  Richard  de  Burgh, 
earl  of  Ulster,  John  of  Vesey,  Richard  of  the  Wood,  and 

Given  by  our  hand  at  Westminster,  2'S  xMay. 

232  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 

Norwich  School.      1288. 

[Lambeth  MSS.,   Reg.    Ptckham,  f.  38  a.J 

Collacio  scolarum  Norwicensium  sede  vacante. 

xvj  Kalendas  Novembris  apud  Croyendon  contulit  Dominus 
Magistro  Godcfrido  de  Nortona  scolas  civitatis  Norwicensis 
sede  vacante:  et  habuit  dictus  Magister  G.  litteras  collacionis 
et  induccionis  Official!  Norwicensi. 

Confirmatio7i  of  Jurisdiction  of  Canterbury  School- 
master in  all  Causes  affecting  his  Scholars. 
21    March   I  29 1. 

[A.  F.  Leach  in  The  Guardian^  19  Jan.  1898,  from  Canterbury  Cath.  Man. J 
Frater  Johannes,  permissione  diuina  Cantuariensis  ecclesie 

minister  humilis,  tocius  Anglie  prinias,   Dilecto  filio  Magistro 

scolarum    ciuitatis    (.antuariensis,    salutem,   graciam    et  bene- 


Ut  in  causis  scolarum  et  scolarium  vestroruni  cognoscere  et 

iurisdiccionem  exercere  libere  valeatis,  prout  fieri  consueuit  ab 

antique  vobis  cum  canonice  inhibicionis   potestate   licenciam 

concedimus  specialem. 

Datis  apud  Wyngham  xij   Kalendas   Aprilis  anno  Domini 

millesimo  cc  nonagesimo  primo. 

Holy   Water  Carrying  a  Form  of  Exhibition  in 
Winchcste  r  Diocese.      1295. 

[A.  K.  Leach,  Hist.  Win.  Coll.,  40.  from  Reg.  Tontissera,  f.  ^^.\ 

Statuta  Synodalia. 

Item  in  ecclesiis  que  scolis  civitatis  Wynton.  vel  castrorum 
nostre  diocesis  sunt  vicine,  aqua  benedicta  portanda  solis 
scolaribus  assignetur  : 

Provideant  insuper  rectores,  vicarii  et  parochiales  presbyteri 

on  Norwich  and  Canterbury  Schools      23; 

Norwich  School.      1288. 

Collation  to  Norwich  School  during  the  vacancy  of  the  see 
[of  Norwich]. 

On  17  Oct.  at  Croydon  the  lord  [archbishop  Peckham], 
during  the  vacancy  of  the  see,  collated  Master  Godfrey  of 
Norton  to  the  school  of  the  city  of  Norwich ;  and  the  said 
Master  (jodfrey  had  letters  of  collation  and  induction  from 
the  archbishop  addressed  to  the  Official  [Principal  of  the 
Consistory  Court  of  the  bishop]  of  Norwich. 

Confi^'niatioji  of  Jurisdiction  of  Canterbury  School- 
master in  all  Causes  affecting  his  Scholars. 
21   March    1291. 

Friar  John,  by  divine  permission  humble  servant  of  the 
church  of  Canterbury,  primate  of  all  England,  to  his  beloved 
son  the  master  of  the  school  of  the  city  of  Canterbury,  health, 
grace  and  blessing. 

We  grant  you  special  licence  that  you  may  freely  take 
cognizance  of  and  exercise  jurisdiction  in  the  causes  of  your 
school  and  scholars,  as  has  been  accustomed  to  be  done  from 
ancient  time,  with  power  of  canonical  inhibition. 

Given  at  Wyngham  21  March  1291. 

Holy   Water  Carrying  a  I^o)'?n  of  Exhibition   in 
Winchester  Diocese.      i  295. 

.Statutes  at   Diocesan   (Council. 

Also  in  tht;  churclies  near  the  school  of  the  city  of 
VV^inchester  or  other  walled  cities  of  our  diocese,  let  scholars 
only  be  appointed  to  carry  the  holy  water. 

Moreover,  let  the  rectors,  vicars  and  parish  priests  take  care 

234  Archbishop  of  York 

quod  pueri  parochiarum  suarum  sciant  Oracionem  Dominicam, 
Simbolum  et  Salutacionem  Beate  Virginis,  et  recte  crucis 
signaculo  se  signare. 

A  laicis  eciam  iam  adultis  cum  ad  confessionem  venerint 
an  sciant  huiusmodi  cxquisitius  inquiratur,  ut  si  forte  eorum 
non  noverint,  prout  in  plerisque  accidit,  per  ipsos  presbyteros 
super  hoc  informentur. 

Inducantur  insuper  parentes  puerorum  quod  ipsos  pueros 
postquam  psalterium  legere  sciverint  cantum  addiscant  ne 
postquam  forte  maiora  didicerint  ad  hoc  discendum  redire 
cogantur,  vel  tanquam  huius  inscii  ad  divinum  obsequium  sint 
suo  perpetuo  minus  apti. 

Riorhts  of  Nottingham  and  Kinoulton  Schools. 
30  Ju7te   I  289. 

[A.    ¥.    Leach,    V.    C.  II.  Notts.,    il.     216,    from    Epis.    Reg.    \'ork, 
Romanus,   f.   75.] 

Lanum.  Quod  scole  non  teneantur  in  parochia  de 
Kynewaldstowe  nisi  de  clericis  ejusdem  parochie,  quod  est 
multum  pro  magistro   Notinghamie. 

Magistro  scolaruni  Notinghamie  et  vicario  ecclesie  nostre 
de  Knewaldstovve. 

Sicut  nostra  jura  nobis  volumus  scrvari  intcgra  sic  aliis  in 
suis  juribus  per  nos  nolumus  derogari.  Decernimus,  igitur, 
quod  soli  clerici  parochie  nostre  de  Kynewaldstowe  scolas  que 
in  parochia  ipsa  regi  consueverant  ab  anticjuo,  si  voluerint, 
exerceant,  exclusis  a  scolis  eisdem  aliis  clericis  quibuscumque 
et  foraneis  (}ui  in  scolis  predictis  nullatenus  admittantur. 
Per  hoc  quidem  juri  ecclesie  predicte  libere  seu  capelle  nostre 
prospectum  cernimus,  et  jus  tui,  magister,  quo  ad  clericos 
oraneos,  tibi  est  integre  reservatum. 

In  cujus  rei  testimonium  sigillum  nostrum  presentibus  est 

on  Nottingham  and  Kinoulton  Schools     235 

that  the  boys  in  their  parishes  know  the  Lord's  Prayer,  the 
Creed  and  the  Salutation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  and  how  to 
cross  themselves  rightly. 

Let  inquiry  also  be  made  of  the  grown-up  laymen  when  they 
come  to  confession  whether  they  know  this  exactly,  that  if  by 
any  chance  they  do  not  know  it,  as  is  very  often  the  case,  they 
may  be  taught  it  by  the  same  priests. 

Let  boys'  parents  also  be  induced  to  let  their  boys,  when 
they  have  learnt  to  read  the  psalter,  learn  singing  also,  so  that 
after  they  have  learnt  higher  subjects  they  may  not  be  com- 
pelled to  return  to  learn  this,  nor  as  being  ignorant  of  this 
be  always  less  fit  for  divine  service. 

Rights  of  Nottingham  and  Kinoulton  Schools. 
30  June  1289. 

Dated  at  Laneham.  That  no  school  shall  be  kept  in  the 
parish  of  Kinoulton  [Notts.]  except  for  the  clerks  of  the  parish; 
which  is  much  for  the  master  of  Nottingham. 

To  the  schoolmaster  of  Nottingham  and  the  vicar  of  our 
church  of  Kinoulton. 

As  we  wish  our  rights  to  be  kept  in  their  integrity,  so  we  do 
not  desire  ourselves  to  derogate  from  the  rights  of  others.  We 
decree  therefore  that  only  the  clerks  of  our  parish  of  Kinoulton 
may,  if  they  wish,  attend  the  school  whicii  has  been  from 
ancient  times  customarily  kept  in  that  parish,  all  other  clerks 
and  strangers  whatsoever  being  kept  out  and  by  no  means 
admitted  to  the  said  school.  Ey  this  we  deem  that  we  have 
regard  to  the  rights  of  our  church  or  free  chapel  aforesaid, 
while  as  regards  clerks  from  outside  [the  parish]  your  rights, 
master,  are  wholly  preserved  to  you. 

In  witness  whereof  our  seal  is  appended  to  these  presents. 

236       College  of  Gilbe7^tines  at  Stamford 

A  College  of  the  G libertine  Order  of  Sempringham 
at  Staviford.      1 303. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  II.  Lines,  ii.  469,  from  Line.  Ep.  Reg.,  Dalderby, 
f.  8.] 

Johannes  permi.ssione  divina  Lincolniensis  Episcopus  Priori 
ct  Conventui  de  Sempingham... 

Cum  Magister  Robertus  Luterel  nianerium  quod  in  parochia 
Sancti  Petri  Stamfordie  habuit  vobis  contulerit  intuitu  caritatis, 
volens  ut  scolares  pro  numero  conventus  vestri  augmentando 
studentcs  in  divina  pagina  vel  philosophia  in  eodem  manerio 
et  unum  capellanum  secularem  vel  regularem  divina  cele- 
braturum  in  capella  Beate  Marie  infra  dictum  manerium 

Nos  tarn  pium  factum... commendante-s licet  in  dicta  capella 
a  multo  retroacto  tempore  cantaria  fundata  ad  maiorem  tamen 
corroboracionem  voluntatis  Magistri  Roberti  predicti  studien- 
ciumque  solacium  et  quietem...licenciam  vobis  concedimus 

Datis...Buckden  iij  Novembris  1303. 

The  Parish  Clerks  of  Lincoln  not  to  teach  Song 
Schools  zvithout  Licence  from  the  Cathedral 
Song  Schoobiiaster.      1305. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  II.  Lines,  ii.  425,  from  Line.  Chapter  Act,  ISis. 
A  2,  f.  2.] 

Memorandum  quod  die  Sabbati  proximo  post  festum 
conuersionis  S.  Pauli  fuerunt  omnes  clerici  parochialium 
ecclesiarum  ciuitatis  Lincoln,  informantes  pueros  in  ecclcsiis  de 
cantu  siue  de  musica ;  quibus  presentibus  in  capitulo  coram 
Magistris  R.  de  Lascy  et  W.  de  Thorneton  imponentibus 
eos  sic  tenuisse  scolas  adulterinas  in  preiudicium  libertatis 
matricis  ecclesie ;  qui  constanter  negabant  se  nullas  scolas 
in  ecclesiis  habere,  nee  pueros  de  cantu  informare ;  et  quia 
negare  non  potuerunt  quin  alitjuo  tempore  talia  fecerint, 
predicti  Magistri  R.  et  W.  fecerunt  eos  iurare  tactis  sacro- 
sanctis  euangeliis  quod  de  cetero  nullas  scolas  adulterinas  in 
ecclesiis  tenebunt,  nee  aliquos  pueros  de  cantu  siue  de  musica 
informabunt,  nisi  de  licencia  ISLagistri  scolarum. 

Song  Schools  at  Lincoln  237 

A  College  of  the  Gilbertine  Order  of  Sempringham 
at  Statnford.      1303. 

John,  by  the  sufferance  of  God,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  to  the 
Prior  and  Convent  of  Sempringham... 

Whereas  Master  Robert  Luttrell  has  given  you  in  charity 
a  manor  which  he  had  in  the  parish  of  St  Peter's,  Stamford, 
wilh'ng  that  you  should  maintain  scholars  to  be  augmented, 
according  to  the  number  of  your  convent,  studying  theology 
or  philosophy  in  the  same  manor,  and  a  chaplain  secular  or 
regular  to  celebrate  divine  service  in  the  Blessed  Mary's 
chapel  in  the  said  manor; 

We  commending  so  pious  a  work,  although  a  chantry  was 
founded  in  the  said  chapel  a  long  time  ago,  for  the  better 
confirmation  of  the  will  of  the  said  Master  Robert  and  the 
solace  and  quiet  of  the  students. ..give  you  special  licence. 

Dated... Buckden  3  November  1303. 

The  Parish  Clerks  of  Lincoln  not  to  teach  Song 
Schools  7vithout  Licence  from  the  Cathedral 
Song  Schoolmaster.      1305. 

Be  it  remembered  that  on  Saturday  next  after  the  feast  of 
the  Conversion  of  St  Paul  all  the  parish  clerks  of  the  churches 
of  the  city  of  Lincoln  were  teaching  boys  in  the  churches  singing 
or  music  ;  and  being  present  in  chapter  before  Masters  Robert 
de  Lacy  and  William  of  Thornton,  who  charged  them  that 
they  had  held  adulterine  schools  to  the  prejudice  of  the  liberty 
of  the  mother  church,  they  firmly  denied  that  they  were 
keeping  any  schools  in  the  churches,  or  teaching  boys  singing; 
but  as  they  could  not  deny  that  they  had  at  some  time  done 
so,  the  said  Masters  Robert  and  William  made  them  swear, 
holding  the  most  holy  (iospels,  that  they  will  not  henceforward 
keep  any  adulterine  schools  in  the  churches,  nor  teach  boys 
song  or  music,  without  licence  from  the  [Song]  Schoolmaster. 

238         Archbisliop  of  Canterbuiy  appoints 

Appointment    of    Canterbury   Schoolmaster   by 
Ai'chbishop   Wi7iclielsea.      11   April  1306. 

[A.  F.  Leach  in  The  Guardian,  19  Jan.  1898,  from  Lambeth  MSS.  Reg. 
VVinchelsea,  f.  300  b.] 

Robertus  etc.  Dilecto  filio  Magistro  Ricardo  de  Maydestane, 
clerico,  salutem. 

Regimen  scolarum  ciuitatis  Cantuariensis  et  ipsas  scolas 
ad  nostram  meram  collacionem  spectantes,  tibi  conferimus 
intuitu  caritatis,  et  te  Rectorem  canonice  instituimus  in  eisdem, 
teque  ipsis  scolis  cum  suis  iuribus  et  pertinenciis  quibuscunque 
per  nostrum  annulum  inuestimus. 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium  sigillum  nostrum  presentibus  est 
appensum.  Datis  apud  Aldington  3  Idus  Aprilis  a.d.  moccc*"" 
sexto  consecracionis  nostre  duodecimo. 

Dispute  as  to  Appointment  to  St  Mary-le-Bow 
Grammar  School.     2  5  Sept.  1 309. 

[Lambeth  MSS.  Reg.  Whittlesey,  f.   24  b.J 
Pro  Magistro  Scolarum  do  Arcubus  non  amovendo. 

R.  etc.  Dilecto  filio... [5-/^]  officiali  nostro,  salutem  etc. 

Peticio  Magistri  Johannis,  Rectoris  scolarum  gramati- 
calium  ecclesie  Beate  Marie  de  Arcubus  Londin.,  nobis  exhibita 
continebat  quod  licet  regimen  scolarum  earundem  ex  col- 
lacione  dilecti  filii  Decani  ecclesie  predicte,  ad  quern  de 
antiqua  approbata  et  hactenus  pacifice  observata  consuetudine 
dictarum  scolarum  ordinacio  et  disposicio  et  prefeccio  Magistri 
in  eisdem  dinoscitur  pertinere  fuisset  et  sit  legitime  assecutus, 
ipsasque  post  assecutionem  huiusmodi  rexerit  pacifice  et 

Vos  tamen  immutare  consuetudinem  huiusmodi  satagentes, 
cuidam   Magistro  Ricardo  Cotoun  de  facto  ipsarum  scolarum 

to  Canterbury  and  St  Mary-le-Bow  Schools    239 

Appointment    of    Canterbury    Schoolmaster   by 
Archbishop    Winchelsea.      11   April  1306. 

Robert  etc.,  to  his  beloved  son  Master  Richard  of  Maid- 
stone, clerk,  health. 

We  confer  on  you  by  way  of  charity  the  keeping  of  the 
school  of  the  city  of  Canterbury  and  the  school  itself,  the 
collation  of  which  belongs  only  to  us,  and  we  institute  you 
canonically  as  master  in  the  same,  and  invest  you  with  the 
same  school  and  all  its  rights  and  appurtenances  whatsoever  by 
our  ring. 

In  witness  whereof  our  seal  is  affixed  to  these  presents. 
Given  at  Aldington  the  3rd  day  before  the  Ides  of  April, 
A.D.    1306,  in  the   12th  year  of  our  consecration. 

Dispute  as  to  Appointment  to  St  Mary-le-Bow 
Grammar  School.      2  5  Sept.  1 309. 

Against  the  removal  of  the  Schoolmaster  of  the  Arches. 

Robert  [archbishop]  etc.  to  his  beloved  son... our  official, 
greeting  etc. 

The  petition  of  Master  John,  rector  of  the  grammar  school 
of  the  church  of  St  Mary-le-Bow,  London,  presented  to  us 
contained  that  although  he  has  lawfully  acquired  the  rectorship 
of  the  same  school  by  the  collation  of  [our]  beloved  son  the 
Dean  of  the  church  aforesaid,  to  whom  by  ancient  approved 
and  hitherto  peacefully  observed  custom  the  ordering  and 
disposition  of  the  said  school  and  the  appointment  of  the 
master  in  the  same  is  recognised  to  belong,  and  after  such 
acquisition  has  peacefully  and  quietly  kept  the  same; 

but  you  seeking  to  change  such  custom  have  conferred  the 
keeping  of  the  same  school  in  fact  on  Master  Richard  Cotton, 

240  ^y  Albans  Grammar  School 

regimen  contulistis,  ipsumque  Magistrum  Johannem  mandastis 
ab  earum  regimine  amoveri  in  ipsius  Magistri  Johannis  pre- 
iudicium  et  Decani  predicti  non  modicum  et  gravamen. 

Quocirca  vobis  firmiter  iniungendo  mandamus,  quatinus  si 
est  ita,  coUacione  vestra  huiusmodi  non  obstante,  ipsum  Magis- 
trum Johannem  regimine  scolarum  predictarum  gaudere  libere 

Dat.  apud  Bysschopebourn  vij  Kalendas  Octobris  anno 
consecrationis  w". 

St  Albans  School  Statutes.      1  309. 

iA.  V.  Leach.  / '.  C.  II.  Herts,  il.  49,  from  1').  M.  I.ansd.  MS.  .^7.^. 
f.  97.  printed  Keg.  Joli.  Wlu-tliairistcdc  (Rolls  Series),  11.  .^05.] 

De  Scoki  (}ramaticali. 

In  Dei  nomine,  Amen.  Universis  Sanctc  Matris  Kcclesie 
filiis  per  hoc  Publicum  Instrumentum  pateat  evidenter,  quod 
anno  ab  Incarnacione  Domini  millesimo  trccentesimo  nono, 
sextodecimo  Kalendas  Octobris,  Indiccione  septima,  in  pre- 
sencia  mei,  AVillelmi  Henrici,  de  Sancto  Albano,  Sacrosancte 
Romane  Ecclesie  et  Imperii  Pubplici  Notarii,  in  Registro 
Domini  Johannis  de  Sancta  Maria,  Comitis  Palatini  de  Lomello, 
Registrarii,  iurium  Scolarum  Orammaticalium  Sancti  Albani 
iudex,  in  hac  parte,  ex  consuetudine  legitime  prescripta,  com- 
petens,  presentibus  testibus  infrascriptis,  vocatis  ad  hoc 
specialiter,  et  rogatis,  statuta  infrascripta  predictarum  scolarum, 
non  rasa,  non  abolita,  aut  in  alicjua  sua  parte  viciata,  ex  unanimi 
consensu  Magistri  et  omnium  Paculariorum,  edita  eciam  et 
cetera  Sigillo  Officialitatis  -Sancti  Albani  confirmata,  feci[t] 
recitari,  et  relegi,  et  in  banc  publicam  formam  redigi. 

In  Dei  nomine,  Amen.  Prohibct  Magister  ne  aliquis  de 
cetero  scolaris  scolas  ingrediatur.  nisi  nomen  suum  in  matricula 
Magistri  fuerit  insertum.  Quod  si  fecerit.  debet  expelli,  et 
privilegio  scolarum   non  gaucle!)it. 

Item,    jjrohibet     Magister,    ru-    alirjuis    scolaris    dc     cetero 

New  Statutes,   1309  241 

and  have  ordered  the  said  Master  John  to  be  removed  from 
the  rectorship  of  the  same  to  the  no  small  prejudice  and 
grievance  of  the  same  Master  John  and  of  the  Dean  aforesaid. 

Wherefore  we  order  firmly  enjoining  you  that,  if  it  be  so, 
notwithstanding  your  collation,  you  allow  the  same  Master 
John  freely  to  enjoy  the  rectorship  of  the  school  aforesaid. 

Given  at  Bishopsbourne  25  Sept.  in  the  15th  year  of  our 

St  Albans  School  Statutes.      1 309. 

Of  the  Grammar  School. 

In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  To  all  the  sons  of  Holy 
Mother  Church  be  it  clearly  made  known  by  this  Public 
Instrument  that  in  the  year  from  the  Incarnation  of  the  Lord 
1309,  on  16  September,  in  the  seventh  Indiction,  in  the 
presence  of  me,  William  Henryson  of  St  Albans,  notary 
public  of  the  Holy  Roman  Church  and  Empire,  Registrar  in 
the  registry  of  Sir  John  of  St  Mary,  Count  Palatine  of  Lomello, 
the  Judge  of  the  law  of  the  Grammar  School  of  St  Albans, 
competent  in  this  behalf  by  lawful  prescription  and  custom,  in 
the  presence  of  the  witnesses  named  below,  called  and  invited 
specially  for  this  purpose,  caused  to  be  read  the  underwritten 
statutes  of  the  said  school,  not  erased  or  abolished,  or  in  any 
part  thereof  vitiated,  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  Master 
and  all  the  Bachelors,  published  etc.  and  also  confirmed  by 
the  seal  of  the  Official  of  St  Albans,  and  to  be  re-read  and 
reduced  to  this  public  form. 

In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  The  Master  forbids  any 
scholar  henceforth  to  enter  the  school,  unless  his  name  shall 
have  been  entered  in  the  Master's  Register.  If  any  do  so,  he 
ought  to  be  expelled,  and  he  shall  not  enjoy  the  privileges  of 
the  school. 

Also  the   Master  forbids  any  scholar  henceforth  to  inflict 

L.  16 

242  Si  Albans  Grammar  School 

molestiam,  iniuriam,  seu  grauamen  aliquod,  aliquibus,  vel 
alicui,  scolaribus,  in  scolis  seu  extra,  seu  laicis  vel  aliis 
licenciatis,  inferat  quoquo  modo ;  quod  si  fecerit,  pro  Magistri 
arbitrio  grauiter  punietur. 

Item,  prohibet  Magister,  ne  aliquis  scolaris  de  cetero  vaget 
vel  discurrat  per  vicos  et  plateas,  sine  causa  racionabili,  et 
iusta  :  quod  si  fecerit,  debet  requiri,  et  a  Magistro  ex  ordinario 

Item,  si  ob  aliquod  delictum,  quoquo  modo  contractum, 
scolaris  rebellis  inueniatur,  vel  alias  maliciose  se  absentauerit, 
debet  in  forma  iuris  citari,  et  a  Magistro  canonice  corrigi :  et 
si  presentiam  suam  non  exhibuerit,  per  Magistrum  bona  sua 
sequestrentur,  brachio  seculari,  si  necesse  fuerit,  ad  hoc 
specialiter  conuocato. 

Item,  prohibet  Magister,  ne  aliquis  scolaris,  vel  alius,  cuius- 
cunque  sit  condicionis  vel  status,  de  cetero  arma  non  ferat  in 
scolis  vel  extra,  in  preiudicium  Magistri  et  scolarium,  unde  pax 
dictarum  scolarum,  et  tranquillitas,  posit  \sic\  perturbari  ;  sub 
pena  excommunicacionis,  quam  in  hiis  scriptis  proferrimus  in 

Item,  prohibet  Magister,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis, 
quam  in  hiis  scriptis  proferrimus,  ne  aliquis  de  cetero,  clericus 
vel  laicus,  seu  alius  bacularius,  cuiuscunque  fuerit  con- 
dicionis, seu  status,  quocunque  nomine  vel  dignitate  censeatur, 
in  scolares  dicti  Magistri,  in  scolis  vel  extra,  manus  violentas 
iniiciat  quoquo  modo,  vel  eosdem  defamet,  sub  pena  superius 

Item,  si  scolaris  socium  suum,  in  scolis  vel  extra,  leuiter 
percusserit,  vel  rabiando  deliquerit,  vel  strepitum,  contra  statuta, 
fecerit,  capucium  suum  per  hostiarium  capietur,  et  vice-moni- 
tori  presentetur,  et  ab  eo  castigetur. 

Item,  statutum  est,  quod  ad  hostium  hostiarius,  siue  sub- 
hostiarius,  continue  sedeant,  nee  duos  vel  tres  scolares  simul  et 
semel  exire  permittant,  nisi  ex  iusta  et  necessitatis  causa  :  quod 
si  ter  moniti  fuerint,  ut  officium  suum  in  omnibus  exsequantur, 
et  noluerint,  quarto  a  Magistro  priuentur. 

Neiv  Statutes,    1309  243 

in  any  way  molestation,  injury  or  any  grievance  upon  any  scholar 
or  scholars,  in  the  school  or  outside,  whether  on  laymen  or  on 
other  licenciates.  If  any  do  so,  he  shall  be  severely  punished 
at  the  pleasure  of  the  Master. 

Also  the  Master  forbids  any  scholar  henceforth  to  wander 
or  run  about  the  streets  and  squares  without  lawful  and 
reasonable  cause.  If  any  do,  he  ought  to  be  sent  for,  and 
shall  be  punished  by  the  Master  as  Ordinary  [judge]. 

Also,  if  on  account  of  any  default,  in  whatever  way  com- 
mitted, a  scholar  be  found  rebellious,  or  otherwise  of  malice 
absent  himself,  he  ought  to  be  cited  in  form  of  law  and 
canonically  corrected  by  the  Master :  and  if  he  shall  not 
present  himself,  his  goods  shall  be  sequestrated  by  the  Master, 
by  means  of  the  secular  arm,  invoked,  if  need  be,  for  this 
special  purpose. 

Also  the  Master  forbids  any  scholar,  or  other,  of  whatso- 
ever condition  or  rank  he  may  be,  henceforth  to  bear  arms, 
within  the  school  or  without,  to  the  prejudice  of  the  Master  and 
scholars,  by  means  of  which  the  peace  and  tranquillity  of  the 
said  school  may  be  disturbed,  under  penalty  of  excommuni- 
cation, which  we  pronounce  by  this  writing  against  the  same. 

Also  the  Master  prohibits  henceforth,  on  pain  of  excommuni- 
cation, which  in  this  writing  we  pronounce,  any  clerk  or  layman, 
bachelor  or  other,  of  whatsoever  condition  or  quality  he  may 
be,  under  whatsoever  name  or  dignity  he  may  be  classed,  to 
lay  violent  hands  in  any  way  on  the  scholars  of  the  said  Master, 
within  the  school  or  without,  or  to  defame  them,  under  the 
penalty  above  stated. 

Also,  if  a  scholar  within  the  school  or  without  strike  a 
fellow  scholar  lightly,  or  commit  some  outrage,  or  make  a 
noise,  contrary  to  the  statutes,  his  hood  shall  be  taken  by  the 
ostiarius ;  and  he  shall  be  presented  to  the  vice-monitor,  and 
shall  be  chastised  by  him. 

Also,  it  is  ordained,  that  the  ostiarius  or  under-ostiarius 
shall  always  sit  by  the  door,  and  shall  not  allow  two  or  three 
scholars  to  go  out  at  the  same  time  and  together,  except  for 
lawful  and  necessary  cause.  And  if  after  three  warnings  to  do 
their  duty  in  all  things  they  shall  have  been  unwilling  to  do  it, 
the  fourth  time  they  shall  be  deprived  by  the  Master. 


244  '^^  Albans  Grammar  School 

Item,  prohibet  Magister,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis,  ne 
bacularii  in  scola  rabiant,  vel  strepitum  faciant,  quoquo  niodo ; 
et  si,  ter  moniti,  desistere  noluerint,  priuentur. 

Item,  Magister,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis,  prohibet, 
quam  in  hiis  scriptis  proferrimus,  ne  aliquis  de  cetero  locum 
baculariorum  occupet,  vel  occupare  presumat,  nisi  tales  fuerint, 
qui  in  Uniuersitate  racionabili  studuerint,  vel  de  eorum  statu 
legitimis  constare  poterit  documentis. 

Item,  statutum  est,  quod  si  aliquis  ad  culmen  baculariorum 
ascendere  voluerit,  a  Magistro,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit,  pro- 
uerbium  accipiat,  et  de  eodem  versus,  litteras,  rithmum, 
componant,  et  pubplice  in  scolis  conferat  (nisi  Magister  de 
eiisdem  aliquid  graciose  relaxare  voluerit),  et  sex  denarios, 
aut  plus,  prout  facultates  eorum  se  [habeant],  optulerint,  ad 
dicam  Sancti  Nicholai  ;  alioquin  priuilegiis  baculariorum  non 
gaudebunt.  Potacionibus,  et  aliis  in  hoc  casu  consuetudinibus, 
in  suo  robore  duraturis. 

Item,  prohibet  Magister,  ne  aliquis,  bacularius  vel  alius, 
qualiscunque  fuerit,  sine  licencia  ad  sedem  tenendam  in  scolis 
accedat,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis,  quam  in  hiis  scriptis 
proferrimus ;  nisi  prius  ab  illis  quos  Magister  ad  eum  exami- 
nandum  [deputauerit]  de  regulis  gramaticalibus  examinatus 
fuerit,  et  publice  in  scolis  de  eiisdem,  et  aliis  sibi  obiiciendis, 
respondere  fuerit  paratus,  et  fecerit. 

Item,  inhibet  Magister,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis  maioris, 
quam  in  scriptis  proferrimus  in  eodem,  ne  aliquis,  vel  aliqui,  in 
Magistros  dictarum  scolarum  manus  temerarias  iniiciant,  vel 
aliquid  mali  attemptare  presumant ;  quod  si  fecerint,  durante 
excommunicacionis  sentencia,  ab  omnibus  baculariis  discipli- 
nam  in  scolis  accipiant  salutarem,  nisi  prius  Deo  et  Ecclesie 
satisfactum  fuerit. 

Item,    Magister,    qui    pro    tempore    fuerit,    si    condignam 

Ahw  Statutes,    1309  245 

Also,  the  Master  forbids,  under  pain  of  excommunication, 
the  bachelors  to  rage  in  school  or  make  a  noise  in  any  way  ; 
and  if,  after  three  warnings,  they  will  not  desist,  they  shall  be 

Also,  the  Master,  under  pain  of  excommunication,  which 
we  pronounce  in  this  writing,  forbids  anyone  henceforth  to 
take  or  attempt  to  take  the  place  of  a  bachelor,  unless  he  has 
studied  for  a  reasonable  time  in  a  university,  or  his  standing 
is  established  by  legal  evidence. 

Also  it  is  decreed  that,  if  anyone  desires  to  rise  to  the 
dignity  of  bachelor,  he  shall  get  a  proverb  from  the  Master 
then  in  office,  and  shall  compose  verses,  prose  or  a  rhyme  on 
the  same,  and  shall  dispute  publicly  in  the  school  (unless  the 
Master  graciously  wills  to  release  them  from  any  of  these), 
and  he  shall  offer  sixpence,  or  more,  according  to  his  means, 
to  the  fee  of  St  Nicholas  ;  otherwise  he  shall  not  enjoy  the 
privileges  of  a  bachelor ;  potations  and  other  customs  in  this 
case  shall  remain  in  force. 

Also,  the  Master  forbids  any  bachelor,  or  other  of  whatso- 
ever quality  he  may  be,  to  come  without  licence  to  take  a  seat 
in  the  school,  under  the  penalty  of  excommunication,  which 
we  pronounce  in  this  writing ;  unless  he  shall  first  have  been 
examined  on  the  rules  of  grammar  by  those  whom  the  Master 
[shall  have  deputed]  to  examine  him,  and  shall  have  been 
prepared  to  answer  publicly  in  the  school  concerning  the  same 
and  other  subjects  to  be  proposed  to  him,  and  shall  have  so 

Also,  the  Master  forbids,  under  the  penalty  of  the  greater 
excommunication,  which  in  this  writing  we  pronounce  against 
the  same,  any  person  or  persons  to  lay  rash  hands  on  the 
Masters  of  the  said  school,  or  presume  to  attempt  any  wrong 
against  them ;  if  any  do  so,  they  shall  receive  during  the 
sentence  of  their  excommunication  salutary  discipline  in  the 
school  from  all  the  bachelors,  unless  satisfaction  shall  have 
been  previously  given  to  God  and  the  Church. 

Also,  let  the   Master,  for  the  time  being,   if  he  wishes  to 

246  Si  A/bans  Grammar  School 

acrimonie  ulcionem  euitare  voluerit,  duos  de  scolis  bacularios 
idoneos  et  discretes  eligat ;  [et]  eiisdem  ciste  Sancti  Nicholai 
administracionem  committat ;  qui  corporale  prestabunt  sacra- 
mentum  bonam  administracionem,  pro  voluntate  scolarium, 
facere,  et  Magistro  bonum  et  fidelem  compotum  reddere. 

Item,  statutum  est,  quod  si  aliquis  scolaris  vel  mendicans 
fuerit,  de  cuius  statu  Magistro  liquere  poterit  euidenter  per 
probaciones,  coram  Magistro  stans,  duodecim  cereos  de  cista 
Sancti  Nicolai,  circa  funeracionem  ac  exequias,  percipiant : 
ita  tamen,  quod  predicti  duodecim  cerei,  sine  contradiccione 
alicuius,  seu  aliquorum,  predicto  Magistro,  vel  eius  commis- 
sario,  seu  commissariis,  reddantur  incolumes. 

Data  apud  Sanctum  Albanum,  presentibus  discretis  viris, 
Johanne  le  Hay  de  Mideford,  Willelmo  Suelesho,  clericis, 
Willelmo  Battes,  Johanne  de  Locutorio,  laicis,  testibus  ad 
premissa  vocatis,  et  rogatis. 

Subscripcio  dicti  Instrumenti. 

Et  ego,  Willelmus  Henrici  antedictus,  de  Sancto  Albano, 
Lincolniensis  diocesis,  publicus  sacrosancte  Romane  ecclesie 
et  Imperii  auctoritate  Notarius,  huic  conscripcioni  predicti 
tabellionatus  officii  presens,  cum  testibus  supradictis,  inter- 
fui,  et  ea  omnia  suprascripta,  de  mandato  predicti  Magistri 
Scolarum  Gramaticalium  de  Sancto  Albano,  fideliter  scripsi, 
et  in  publicam  formam  redegi,  meoque  signo  consueto  signaui, 
rogatus,  et  cetera. 

Memorandum,  quod  die  Sabbati  proxima  ante  Festum 
Sancte  Katerine  Virginis,  undecimo  Kalendas  Deceml)ris, 
anno  Domini  millesimo  trecentesimo  decimo,  in  presencia 
Johannis  de  Maideford,  tunc  temporis  Rectoris  Scolarum 
(jramaticalium  de  Sancto  Albano,  ex  unanimi  consensu 
omnium  baculariorum  et  scolarium,  fuerat  statutum  et  ordi- 
natum,  quod  Magister,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit,  quolibet  anno 
duas   faciet  celebrari   Missas ;   unam,   videlicet,  pro  animabus 

New  Statutes  confirmed,    1310  247 

escape  the  deserved  retribution  of  sharp  censure,  choose  two 
fit  and  discreet  bachelors,  from  the  school,  and  commit  to  the 
same  the  management  of  St  Nicholas'  chest ;  and  they  shall 
take  a  corporal  oath  to  make  good  administration  accord- 
ing to  the  wishes  of  the  scholars,  and  to  render  good  and 
faithful  account  to  the  Master. 

Also  it  is  decreed,  that  if  there  be  any  scholar,  even  a 
beggar,  whose  status  shall  clearly  appear  to  the  Master  by 
evidence,  he  shall  receive,  standing  in  the  presence  of  the 
Master,  twelve  wax  candles  from  St  Nicholas'  chest,  on  the 
occasion  of  a  funeral  and  obsequies ;  on  condition,  however, 
that  the  said  twelve  candles,  without  hindrance  from  any 
person  or  persons,  be  returned  whole  to  the  aforesaid  Master, 
or  his  commissary,  or  commissaries. 

Given  at  St  Albans  in  the  presence  of  the  discreet  men 
John  le  Hay  of  Mideford,  William  Silsoe,  clerks,  William 
Battes,  John  of  the  Parlour,  laymen,  called  and  summoned  as 
witnesses  to  the  above. 

[Notary's]  Subscription  to  the  said  Instrument. 

And  I,  the  above-named  William  Harrison,  of  St  .Albans, 
Public  Notary  of  the  Diocese  of  Lincoln,  by  authority  of  the 
Holy  Roman  Church,  present  at  this  writing  pertaining  to  the 
function  of  the  above-named  office,  was  in  company  with 
the  aforesaid  witnesses,  and  faithfully  wrote  all  the  above 
writings  at  the  command  of  the  aforesaid  Master  of  the  Gram- 
mar School  of  St  Albans,  and  reduced  them  to  public  form, 
and  signed  them  with  my  accustomed  seal,  being  requested  etc. 

Be  it  remembered  that  on  Saturday  next  before  the  Feast 
of  St  Katharine  the  Virgin,  25  November,  .\  d.  1310,  in  the 
presence  of  John  of  Maideford,  then  Rector  of  the  Grammar 
School  of  St  Albans,  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  all  the 
bachelors  and  scholars  it  was  decreed  and  ordered  that  the 
Master  for  the  time  being  shall  cause  two  masses  to  be 
celebrated  every  year,  viz.  they  decreed  one  to  be  celebrated 

248  ^S"^  Albans  Grammar  School 

Benefactorum  defunctorum,  in  die  Sancti  Leonardi,  cum 
exequiis  nocte  precedenti,  statuerunt  celebrandam  ;  et  aliam  in 
die  Sancti  Gregorii,  Pape,  de  Sancto  Spiritu,  pro  viuis  Bene- 
factoribus  celebrandam.  Et  Magister  et  omnes  bacularii 
predictis  missis  interesse  debent,  et  offerant  ad  easdem,  sub 
pena  statuta. 

The  Abbot's  Confirmation  of  the  Statutes. 
lib.  L  99.] 
Hugo,  permissione  diuina,  Abbas  Monasterii  Sancti  Albani, 
omnibus  in  Christo  credentibus,  salutem,  cum  gracia  Saluatoris. 
Cum  inspexerimus  statuta  scolarum  nostrarum  gramatica- 
lium  de  Sancto  Albano,  sigillo  officii  Archidiaconatus  nostri 
confirmata  et  cetera,  in  pubHcam  formam  redacta ;  volentes 
igitur  scolas,  Magistrum,  et  scolares  nostros,  foueri,  tueri,  et 
defendere,  omnia  statuta  et  singula  priuilegia  predictarum 
scolarum,  in  forma  iuris  concessa,  et  a  quibuscunque  rite 
facta,  secundum  formam,  vim,  et  effectum  utriusque  tenoris, 
quatenus  de  iure  possimus  et  debemus,  ratificamus  et  confir- 
mamus  :  predictis  statutis  adiicientes,  Volumus  et  concedimus 
quod  Magister,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit,  omnes  scolas  adul- 
terinas,  infra  territorium  seu  iurisdiccionem  nostram,  compescat, 
eneruet,  destruat,  et  euellat ;  inhibentes  et  cetera,  sub  pena 
excommunicacionis,  ne  aliquis,  vel  aliqui,  ad  scolas  aliquas 
tenendas,  sine  voluntate  et  assensu  Magistri  scolarum  nostra- 
rum gramaticalium,  infra  predictam  iurisdiccionem  nostram, 
accedant,  vel  tenere  presumant ;  cui  Magistro,  qui  pro  tempore 
fuerit,  omnium  predictorum  statutorum,  et  singulorum  priui- 
legiorum,  sibi,  ut  predicitur,  concessorum,  causarum,  contrac- 
tuum,  defamancium,  omnium  scolarium  suorum  inquisicionem, 
citacionem,  examinacionem,  siue  prolacionem,  absolutionem, 
et  sentenciarum  suarum  execucionem,  per  sigillum  officialitatis 
nostre,  committimus,  cum  coercionis  canonice  potestate,  et 
concedimus,  per  presentes.  Omnes  vero  contradictores,  et 
singulos  predictis  statutis  et  priuilegiis  reclamantes,  et  contra 

New  Statutes  confirmed,    13  lo  249 

for  the  souls  of  departed  benefactors,  on  St  Leonard's  day 
[6  November],  with  the  office  for  the  dead  overnight;  and  the 
other,  a  mass  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  to  be  celebrated  for  living 
benefactors,  on  the  day  of  St  Gregory  the  Pope  [12  March]; 
and  the  Master  and  all  the  bachelors  ought  to  be  present  at 
the  aforesaid  masses,  and  make  offerings  at  the  same  under 
the  penalty  decreed. 

The  Abbot's  Confirmation  of  the  Statutes. 

Hugh,  by  divine  permission  Abbot  of  the  Monastery  of 
St  Albans,  to  all  believers  in  Christ,  greeting,  with  the  Saviour's 
grace.  Whereas  we  have  inspected  the  statutes  of  our  Gram- 
mar School  of  St  Albans,  confirmed  etc.  by  the  official  seal  of 
our  Archdeaconry,  made  in  due  form  ;  wishing,  therefore,  to 
foster,  uphold  and  protect  our  school,  Master,  and  scholars,  we 
ratify  and  confirm,  as  far  as  rightfully  we  may  and  ought,  all 
and  singular  the  statutes  and  privileges  of  the  said  school, 
granted  in  form  of  law,  and  by  whomsoever  rightfully  made, 
according  to  the  form,  force  and  effect  of  the  tenor  of  each  of 
them.  Adding  to  the  aforesaid  statutes,  we  will  and  grant  that 
the  Master,  for  the  time  being,  shall  suppress,  annul,  destroy 
and  eradicate  all  adulterine  schools  within  our  territory  or  juris- 
diction, by  inhibiting  etc.,  under  pain  of  excommunication,  any 
person  or  persons  from  resorting  to  or  presuming  to  keep  any 
schools  held  without  the  will  and  assent  of  the  Master  of  our 
Grammar  School,  within  our  aforesaid  jurisdiction.  To  which 
Master  for  the  time  being,  respecting  all  and  singular  the  afore- 
said statutes  and  privileges,  granted  to  him  as  aforesaid,  and  in 
respect  of  causes,  contracts  and  defamations  of  all  his  scholars, 
we  under  the  seal  of  our  office  commit  and  grant  by  these 
presents  the  inquisition,  citation,  examination  or  adjournment, 
dismissal  and  the  execution  of  sentences,  together  with  the 
power  of  canonical  coercion.  And  all  and  singular  who 
oppose  and  object  to  the  said  statutes  and  privileges,  and  those 

250  vSV  Albans  Grammar  School 

predicta  statuta  et  priuilegia,  nostramque  confirmacionem, 
quoquo  modo  venientes,  dum  tamen  per  dictum  Magistrum 
moniti  fuerint,  extunc  auctoritate  presentium  excommunicamus. 
In  cuius  rei  testimonium,  sigillum  nostrum  digne  duximus 
apponendum.  Datis  apud  Sanctum  Albanum,  tercio-decimo 
Kalendas  Julii,  anno  Domini  millesimo  trecentesimo  decimo. 

Confirmation  by  the  Archdeacon  of  St  Albans. 
ilh.  f.    100.] 

Uniuersis  Sancte  Matris  Ecclesie  filiis,  presentes  litteras 
inspecturis,  vel  audituris,  Frater  Johannes  Passevant,  Monasterii 
Sancti  Albani  Archidiaconus,  salutem  in  Domino  sempiternam. 

Quoniam  caritas  virtutum  omnium  mater  est,  et  magistra, 
sine  qua  nullum  meritum  in  presenti,  vel  premium  quis 
assequitur  in  futuro,  tenentur  merito  tam  omnes  quam  singuli 
ad  caritatis  opera  promouenda  pro  viribus  asspirare ;  Inde  est 
quod  nos  J[ohannes],  dictus  Archidiaconus,  racione  preuia, 
onera  Magistri  scolarum  nostrarum  gramaticalium  de  Sancto 
Albano  intuentes,  atque  eorum  priuilegia  et  libertates  tenues 
esse  et  exiles,  volumus,  quoad  possimus,  ut  inter  nouagrauamina 
remedium  per  nos  sentiat  innouatum  ;  Dicto  eciam  Magistro 
scolarum  predictarum  Gramaticalium  de  Sancto  Albano,  qui 
pro  tempore  fuerit,  causas  et  lites  scolarium  et  baculariorum 
suorum,  ac  eciam  laicorum  et  aliorum  omnium  scolaribus 
dicti  Magistri  et  baculariis  iniuriancium,  cum  eisdem  contra- 
hencium,  eosdem  diffamancium,  ac  in  easdem  manus  temere 
violentas  iniiciencium,  damus,  concedimus,  et  committimus, 
per  presentes. 

Item,  volumus  et  concedimus  quod  Magister  qui  pro 
tempore  fuerit,  omnes  beneficiarios  iurisdiccionis  nostre  scolas 
suas  exercere  compellat.  cum  coercionis  canonice  potestate ; 
inhibentes  eciam,  sub  pena  excommunicacionis,  quam  in  hiis 
scriptis  proferrimus  in  eosdem,  ne  aliquis,  vel  aliqui,  ad  scolas 
aliquas  eregendas  vel  tenendas,  infra  predictam  iurisdiccionem 
nostram,  sine  voluntate  et  assensu  Magistri  predictarum 
scolarum,  accedant,  vel  tenere  presumant.      Quodsi   fecerint, 

New  Statutes  confirmed,    i  3 1  o  251 

who  in  any  way  contravene  the  same  and  our  confirmation  of 
them,  provided,  however,  that  they  shall  have  been  duly  warned 
by  the  said  Master,  we  excommunicate  thenceforth  by  the 
authority  of  these  presents.  In  witness  whereof  we  have 
deemed  it  proper  that  our  seal  should  be  affixed.  Given  at 
St  Albans,   19  June  a.d.   13 10. 

Confirmation  by  the  Archdeacon  of  St  Albans. 

To  all  sons  of  holy  mother  church,  who  shall  see  or  hear 
these  present  letters,  Brother  John  Passevant,  Archdeacon  of 
the  Monastery  of  St  Albans,  eternal  health  in  the  Lord. 

Inasmuch  as  charity  is  the  mother  and  mistress  of  all 
virtues,  without  which  no  one  can  attain  any  merit  in  the 
present  or  reward  in  the  future,  all  and  each  of  us  are  bound 
to  aspire  to  promote  works  of  charity  according  to  our  ability  ; 
hence  it  is  that  we,  John,  the  said  Archdeacon,  after  due 
consideration,  seeing  the  charges  on  the  Master  of  our  Gram- 
mar School  of  St  Albans,  and  that  their  privileges  and  liberties 
are  scant  and  small,  will  that,  to  the  best  of  our  power, 
he  should  feel  that  with  new  grievances  a  new  remedy  has 
been  provided  by  us  ;  so  we  give,  grant  and  commit  by  these 
presents  to  the  said  Master  for  the  time  being  of  the  aforesaid 
Grammar  School  of  St  Albans,  the  determination  of  the  causes 
and  actions  of  his  scholars  and  bachelors,  and  also  of  laymen 
and  all  others  doing  injury  to  the  scholars  and  bachelors  of  the 
said  Master,  making  contracts  with  the  same,  defaming  the 
same,  and  laying  violent  hands  upon  the  same. 

Also  we  will  and  grant  that  the  Master,  for  the  time  being,  shall 
compel  all  beneficed  in  our  jurisdiction  to  attend  school,  with 
power  of  canonical  coercion ;  inhibiting  also,  under  the  penalty  of 
excommunication,  which  in  this  writing  we  pronounce  against 
the  same,  every  person  or  persons  from  resorting  to  or  presum- 
ing to  hold  any  school,  erected  or  held  within  our  aforesaid 
jurisdiction  without  the  will  and  assent  of  the  Master  of  the 
aforesaid    school.      But,   if   they   do    so,   let    the    said    Master 

252  ^S7  Albans  Grammar  School 

dictus  Magister  eosdem  \sic\  sub  pena  superius  annotata,  de- 
struat  et  interrumpat.  Cui  Magistro,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit, 
de  omnibus  priuilegiis,  statutis,  et  libertatibus,  predictis  scolis 
concessis,  et  de  omnibus  contra  predicta  venientibus,  potesta- 
tem  inquirendi,  citandi,  examinandi,  corrigendi,  et  omnia  alia 
faciendi  que  debito  modo  terminari  debent  et  possunt,  com- 
mittimus,  cum  coercionis  canonice  potestate. 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium,  sigillum  officii  Archidiaconatus 
Sancti  Albani  digne  duximus  apponendum.  Datis  apud 
Sanctum  Albanum,  decimo  Kalendas  Julii,  anno  Domini 
millesimo  trecentesimo  decimo. 

lib.   f.    104.] 

Memorandum,  quod  Magister  Ricardus  de  Naundes  dedit 
domum  ubi  scole  tenentur,  cum  aliis  domibus  adiacentibus 

Item,  Abbates  iam  defuncti  pauperioribus  scolarium  viginti 
octo  cobas  in  ebdomada  concesserunt,  cum  mandato,  qualibet 
die  scolarum,  Magistro,  pro  arbitrio  suo,  distribuendas. 
Dominus  Johannes  Passevant,  Archidiaconus,  statuta  scolarum, 
et  libertates,  contulit. 

Item,  Johannes  Hanle  predictis  scolis  dedit  Priscianum 
magnum.  Item,  pro  Eleemosynariis,  qui  festum  Sancti 
Nicolai  concedebant,  celebrant.  Item,  Dominus  Hugo  de 
Euersdone  priuilegia,  statuta  et  libertates,  predictis  scolis 
concessa,  confirmauit. 

Jurisdiction  of  the  ScJioolmaster  of  Canterbury 
in  Matters  concerning  Scholars.       13  11-23, 

[A.  F.  Leach,    The  Guardian^    19  Jan.    1S98,  from  Cant.    Cath.   Mun. 
X.  4,  S.   B.  4.] 

The  Schoolmaster  excommunicates  Richard  Hall  for  Assault 
on   his    Usher. 

Reuerende  discrecionis  viro  Domino  Decano  Cantuariensi 
Johannes  Everard,  Rector  scolarum  ciuitatis  Cantuariensis, 
salutem   in  auctore  salutis. 

Quia  nos  aucloritate  nobis  commissa  Ricardum  de  Aula  de 

New  Statutes  confirmed,   1310  25, 

destroy  and  break  up  the  same,  under  the  penalty  above  stated. 
To  which  Master,  for  the  time  being,  we  commit,  with  power 
of  canonical  coercion,  the  power  of  inquiring,  citing,  examining, 
correcting,  and  of  doing  all  other  things  which  ought  and  can 
be  duly  determined,  concerning  all  privileges,  statutes,  and 
liberties  granted  to  the  aforesaid  school,  and  concerning  all 
persons  who  contravene  the  aforesaid. 

In  testimony  whereof  we  have  deemed  it  proper  to  affix  the 
seal  of  office  of  the  Archdeaconry  of  St  Albans.  Given  at 
St  Albans,   22  June  a.d.   13 10. 

Be  it  remembered  that  Master  Richard  of  Nantes  gave 
the  house  in  which  the  school  is  held,  with  other  houses 
adjacent  to  the  same. 

Item,  the  Abbots  now  deceased  granted  to  the  poorest 
scholars  28  loaves  a  week,  with  a  Maundy,  on  every  school 
day,  to  be  distributed  by  the  Master  at  his  pleasure.  Dom 
John  Passevant,  Archdeacon,  conferred  the  statutes  and 
liberties  of  the  school. 

Likewise,  John  Hanley  gave  the  large  Priscian  to  the  afore- 
said school.  Likewise,  they  celebrate  for  the  Almoners  who 
granted  the  Feast  of  St  Nicholas  [6  December].  Likewise,  the 
Lord  Hugh  of  Eversdone  confirmed  the  privileges,  statutes 
and  liberties  granted  to  the  aforesaid  school. 

Jurisdiction  of  the  Schoolmaster  of  Canterbury 
in  Matters  concerning  Scholars.      131 1-23. 

The  Schoolmaster  excommunicates  Richard  Hall  for  Assault 
on  his  Usher. 

To  the  man  of  reverend  discretion.  Sir  Dean  of  Canterbury, 
John  Everard,  rector  of  the  school  of  the  city  of  Canterbury, 
health  in  the  author  of  health. 

Whereas  we,    by   the    authority   committed    to    us,  at   the 

2  54       Canterbury  Grammar  Schoolmaster 

Cantuaria,  propter  suas  multiplicatas  et  manifestas  contumacias 
ad  instanciam  Johannis  dicti  le  Plumer,  ostiarii  nostri  et 
scolaris,  coram  nobis  contractas  in  scriptis  excommunicauimus, 
iusticia  suadente,  vos  mutue  vicissitudinis  optentu  in  iuris 
subsidium  requirimus  et  rogamus,  quatinus  ipsum  Ricardum 
sic  esse  excommunicatuin,  in  singulis  ecclesiis  vestri  decanatus 
omnibus  diebus  dominicis  et  festiuis  intra  missarum  solempnia 
coram  clero  et  populo  publice  et  solempniter  denunciatis  seu 
faciatis  per  alios  denunciari ; 

Citantes  eundem  nichilominus  peremptorie,  quod  compareat 
coram  nobis  in  scolis  nostris  die  Mercurii  proxima  post  festum 
S.  Hilarii  proximum  venturum  prefato  Johanni  clerico  super 
violenta  manuum  inieccione  et  nobis  super  sibi  obiciendis  ex 
officio  responsurus,  ulteriusque  facturus  et  recepturus  quod 
consonum  fuerit  racioni. 

Quid  autem  in  premissis  duxeritis  faciendum  nos  dictis  die 
et  loco,  si  placet,  velitis  reddere  certiores  per  vestras  litteras 
patentes  harum  seriem  continentes. 

Datis  Cantuarie  i6  Kalendas  Januarii  a.d.  13 ii. 

Datis  per  copiam. 

H.  de  Forsham,  commissarius  Cantuariensis,  discrete  viro 
Decano  Cantuariensi,  salutem  in  Domino. 

Ostenso  nobis  Registro  Magistri  Johannis  Everard,  Rectoris 
scolarum  Cantuariensium,  auctoritate  priuilegiorum  predeces- 
soribus  suis  et  sibi  a  venerabilibus  patribus  Archiepiscopis 
Cantuariensibus  concessorum,  habito  coram  ipso  contra  Ricar- 
dum  dictum  ate  Halle  de  Cantuaria  super  violencia  cuidam 
Johanni  Plomer  clerico  scolari  suo  per  eundem  illata,  in  eodem 
vidimus  contineri  quod  prefatus  Rector  scolarum  auctoritate 
predicta  prefatum  Ricardum  pluries  coram  ipso  citatum  et  non 
comparentem,  propter  suas  manifestas  et  multiplicatas  con- 
tumacias coram  ipso  contractas,  in  scriptis  excommunicauit, 
iusticia  suadente ;  qui  nos  humiliter  rcquisiuit  ut  huiusmodi 
excommunicacionis  sentenciam,  ut  tenemur,  execucioni  debite 
demandaremus  ; 

excommunicates  for  School  Offences       255 

instance  of  John  called  the  plumber,  our  usher  and  scholar, 
have  excommunicated  in  writing  Richard  of  the  Hall,  of 
Canterbury  for  his  multiplied  and  manifest  contumacy  shown 
in  our  presence,  as  justice  demands,  we  require  and  request 
you  in  the  hope  of  mutual  good  offices  in  support  of  the  law  to 
denounce  the  same  Richard  as  so  excommunicate  in  every 
church  in  your  deanery  on  every  Sunday  and  feast  day  during 
the  solemnization  of  mass  publicly  and  solemnly  before  the 
clergy  and  people,  or  cause  him  to  be  so  denounced  by  others ; 

Citmg  him  peremptorily  at  the  same  time  to  appear  before 
us  in  our  school  on  Wednesday  next  after  St  Hilary's  day  next 
to  answer  to  the  said  John  a  clerk  for  a  violent  assault,  and  to 
us  for  those  things  we  shall  object  to  him  ex  officio,  and  to  do 
and  receive  further  whatever  may  be  reasonable. 

What  you  shall  do  in  the  premisses  pray  inform  me  on  the 
said  day  and  place  by  your  letters  patent  continuing  the  series 

Dated  at  Canterbury. the  i6th  day  before  the  Kalends  of 
January  [17   December]   13 11. 


H.  of  Forsham,  commissary  of  Canterbury,  to  the  discreet 
man  the  Dean  of  Canterbury,  health  in  the  Lord. 

Whereas  the  process  of  Master  John  Everard.  rector  of 
Canterbury  School,  has  been  shown  to  us  which  he  held  in 
person  under  the  authority  of  the  privileges  granted  to  him 
and  his  predecessors  by  the  venerable  fathers,  archbishops 
of  Canterbury,  against  Richard,  called  at  Hall,  of  Canterbury, 
on  the  assault  by  him  on  one  John  Plumber,  clerk,  his  scholar; 
and  whereas  we  have  seen  in  the  same  that  the  aforesaid 
schoolmaster  by  the  authority  aforesaid  had  several  times 
cited  the  aforesaid  Richard  before  him,  and  when  he  did  not 
appear,  had  for  his  manifest  and  multiplied  contumacy  excom- 
municated him  in  writing,  as  justice  demanded  ;  and  whereas 
he  has  now  humbly  requested  us  to  put  such  sentence  of 
excommunication  into  execution  as  we  are  bound  to  do  ; 

256       Canterbury  Grammar  Schoolmasler 

Nos  igitur  volentes  ipsa  priuilegia  obseruare,  quatenus 
possimus,  ut  est  iustum,  vobis  mandamus  firmiter  iniungentes 
quatenus  ipsum  Ricardum  sic  esse  excommunicatum  in  singulis 
ecclesiis  vestri  decanatus  exemptis  et  non  exemptis  singulis 
diebus  dominicis  et  festiuis  [etc.  as  above]  quousque  absolu- 
cionis  beneficium  in  forma  iuris  meruerit  optinere ;  citantes 
eundem  nichilominus  peremptorie  quod  compareat  coram 
nobis  in  ecclesia  Christi  Cantuariensi  proximo  die  iuridico 
post  festum  Purificacionis  E.  M.  V.  proximo  venturum  super 
violencia  in  ecclesia  S.  Elphegi  Cantuariensis,  exempta  et 
vacante,  per  eundem  contra  libertates  ecclesiasticas  perpetrata 
nobis  ex  officio  responsurum  et  de  veritate  dicenda,  si  necesse 
fuerit,  personaliter  iuraturum,  facturumque  ulterius  et  recep- 
turum  quod  iusticia  suadebit. 

Quid  autem  feceritis  in  premissis  nos  dictis  die  et  loco 
legitime  certificetis  per  vestras  patentes  litteras  harum  seriem 

Datis  Cantuarie  20  Kalendas  Februarii  a.d.  131  i. 

[Endorsed.]  Teste  P.  Besiles  de  sigillo  et  voluntate  con- 

[The  Dean  of  Canterbury  refused  to  act  on  this  mandate 
on  the  ground  that,  though  the  authority  of  Archbishop 
Peckham  (above,  p.  228)  was  express,  it  did  not  appear  how 
the  jurisdiction  was  to  be  exercised.  So  the  Commissary  sum- 
moned a  jury  of  clerics  and  laymen,  who  found  that  for  forty 
years  and  upwards  the  schoolmaster  had  been  accustomed  to 
summon  delinquents  by  his  Usher  (Hostiarius)  to  appear  in  the 
school,  and  if  they  did  not  appear  excommunicated  them,  and  the 
Dean  proclaimed  the  excommunication.  But  when  the  Dean 
after  this  was  about  to  act  the  Archdeacon  of  Canterbury 
interfered  and  by  his  Official  stopped  him.  The  matter  then 
went  to  the  Arches  Court,  and  the  Archbishop  by  writ  of 
18  May  131 2,  exemplified  by  the  Prior  and  convitni  sede  vaca?iie 

excommunicates  for  School  Offences       257 

We  therefore,  willing  to  preserve  the  same  privileges  as  far 
as  possible,  as  is  right,  command  you  firmly  enjoining  you  to 
denounce  the  same  Richard  as  being  so  excommunicated  in 
every  church  in  your  deanery  exempt  or  not  exempt  on  every 
Sunday  and  feast  day  [etc.  as  above],  until  he  shall  deserve  to 
receive  the  benefit  of  absolution  in  form  of  law;  at  the  same  time 
citing  him  peremptorily  to  appear  before  us  in  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  on  the  next  law  day  after  the  Purification  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary  [2  Feb.]  next  for  the  violence  perpetrated 
by  him  in  the  exempt  church  of  St  Alphege,  Canterbury,  when 
vacant,  against  the  liberties  of  the  church,  and  to  answer  to  us 
ex  officio,  and  to  personally  swear,  if  necessary,  to  speak  the 
truth  and  to  do  and  receive  further  what  justice  may  demand. 

Certify  us  legally  what  you  do  in  the  premises  on  the  said 
day  and  place  by  your  letters  patent  continuing  the  series  of 

Given  at  Canterbury  the  20th  before  the  Kalends  of 
February  [17  January]    131 1. 

[Endorsed.]  Witness,  P.  Bessils,  with  the  seal  and  at  the 
wish  of  the  signer. 

27  June  1 3 13  (Camb.  Univ.  Lib.  Ee.  v.  31),  gave  effect  to  its 
judgment.  Though  Hall  when  arrested,  and  imprisoned  as  an 
excommunicate  by  the  Sheriff  of  Kent,  had  obtained  writs  of 
prohibition  and  attachment  from  the  Court  of  King's  Bench, 
he  could  not  sustain  them,  and  eventually  submitted  and  was 
absolved  by  William  of  Ore  [Oare],  the  rector,  in  St  Alphege's 
church,  5  May  1313.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  master  thus 
triumphantly  established  was  exercised  in  the  cases  following.] 


258       Canterbury  Grammar  Schoolmaster 

Jurisdiction  of  Schoolmaster  over  anyone  assaulting  Scholars. 


Acta  in  scolis  Cantuariensibus  coram  Magistro  Johanna 
Everard,  dictarum  scolarum  Rectore,  die  Sabbati  proxima 
post  commemoracionem  animarum  a.d.   1314°. 

Vocato  ex  officio  quodam  Thoma  de  Birchwode,  scolari 
dictarum  scolarum,  super  eo  quod  deliquit  multipliciter  contra 
ius  scolarum  predictarum,  viz.  vice-monitorem  et  scolares  suos 
a  doctrina  communi  impediendo,  ac  eciam  super  violenta 
manuum  inieccione  Magistro  Waltero,  vice-monitori,  facta ; 
quo  comparente  et  iurato  fatebatur  in  dictum  W.  manus 
iniecisse  violentas :  Et  quia  Rector  noluit  procedere  ex 
ingnorancia  ex  officio  fecit  per  quosdam  de  Baculariis  et  aliis 
in  scolis  existentibus  [words  interlined  illegible]  inquisi- 

Qui  quidem  iurati  dixerunt  dictum  Thomam  Magistrum 
VV.  et  scolares  a  doctrina  communi  impediuisse  et  in  eos 
manus  violentas  iniecisse,  unde  ad  instanciam  quorumdam 
assidencium  sub  spe  pacis  datus  erat  sibi  dies  Jouis  proximus 
sequens  etc.,  ad  audiendum  punicionem  iuxta  acta. 

Acta  in  scolis  gramaticalibus  Cantuariensibus  coram  nobis 
Johanne  Everard  dictarum  scolarum  Rectore  die  Lune 
proximo  post  festum  Inuencionis  Sancte  Crucis  a.d.  13 15. 
Citato  ac  legitime  vocato  quodam  Rogero  le  Lymburner  super 
violenta  manuum  inieccione  Willelmo  Bor  scolari  meo  facta ; 
et  quia  sufficienter  expectatus,  preconizatus,  nullo  modo 
comparuit,  ideo  nos  pro  huiusmodi  contumacia  suspendimus 
ab  ingressu  ecclesie,  et  discernimus  ipsum  iterate  fore 
citandum  coram  nobis  in  dictis  scolis  ad  diem  Jouis  proximo 

Quo  die  dictis  partibus  comparentibus  sub  spe  pacis  de 
•consensu  parcium  datus  est  eis  dies  usque  ad  diem  Martis 
proximum  post  festum  Trinitatis  ad  faciendum  id  quod 

excommunicates/or  Assaults  on  Scholars     259 

Jurisdiction  of  Schoolmaster  over  anyone  assaulting  Scholars. 


Done  in  Canterbury  School  before  Master  John  Everard, 
rector  of  the  said  school,  on  Saturday  after  All  Souls'  Day 
[2  Nov.],  1314. 

Thomas  of  Birchwood,  scholar  of  the  said  school,  being 
summoned  ex  officio  for  many  delinquencies  against  the  law 
of  the  aforesaid  school,  viz.  hindering  the  vice-monitor  and  his 
scholars  from  their  public  teaching,  and  also  for  a  violent 
assault  on  Master  Walter,  the  vice-monitor,  appeared  and  was 
sworn,  and  confessed  that  he  had  violently  assaulted  the  said 
Walter ;  and  because  the  Rector  would  not  proceed  ex  officio 
in  ignorance,  he  caused  inquisition  to  be  made  by  some  of  the 
bachelors  and  others  who  were  in  the  school. 

And  they  upon  their  oath  said  that  the  said  Thomas  had 
impeded  Master  Walter  and  the  scholars  in  their  public 
teaching,  and  had  laid  violent  hands  on  them ;  whereupon  at 
the  instance  of  certain  persons  sitting  by,  in  the  hope  of 
peace,  a  day  was  assigned  him,  viz.  the  Thursday  following 
etc.,  to  hear  the  punishment  according  to  his  acts. 

Done  in  the  Grammar  School  of  Canterbury,  before  us 
John  Everard,  rector  of  the  said  school,  on  Monday  next  after 
the  Invention  of  the  Holy  Cross,  a.d.  1315.  One  Roger,  the 
lime  burner,  was  cited  and  lawfully  summoned  for  a  violent 
assault  on  William  Bor,  my  scholar;  and  because,  after  being 
sufficiently  waited  for  and  proclamation  being  made  for  him, 
he  no  way  appeared  there,  we  therefore  for  such  contumacy 
suspend  him  from  admission  to  church,  and  decree  that  he  shall 
be  again  summoned  before  us  in  the  said  school  on  Thursday 

On  that  day  the  said  parties  appeared,  and  in  the  hope  of 
peace  a  day  was  given  them  by  consent  of  the  parties  until 
Tuesday  after  Trinity  Sunday,  to  do  what  is  aforesaid. 

17 — 2 

2  6o       Competition  of  St  Martins  School 

Acta  in  scolis  Cantuariensibus  die  Lune  post  festum 
Sancte  Mildrid  Virginis. 

Vocata  quadam  Johanna  Modi  sujier  violencia  facta  scolari 
Stephano  de  l^orsted ;  qua  comparente,  fatebatur  manus  in- 
iecissc  violentas. 

I)e  consensu  parcium  sub  pacis  [spe]  datus  est  ei  dies 
Sabbati  proximus  sequens  ad  audiendum  sentenciam  pro 
com  missis. 

Jurisdiction  of  Grammar  Schoolmaster  over  St  Martin's 
School,  Canterbury. 

[Retj.  I.  397  (b)-8,  printed  in  Somner's  Hist,  of  Canterbury,  ed.  1703, 
App.  No.  XXXIII.  p.  33.] 

Acta  et  processus  super  statu  scolarum  ecclesie  Sancti 
Martini  iuxta  Cantuariani  coram  Magistro  Roberto  de 
Mallingg  generali  Commissario  Cantuariensi,  primo  viua  voce, 
et  post  per  specialem  commissionem  Domini  W.  Archiepiscopi 
A.D.  1 32 1  inter  Magistrum  Radulphum  de  Waltham,  Rectorem 
scolarum  Ciuitatis  Cantuariensis  et  Magistrum  Robertum  de 
Henneye,  Rectorem  ecclesie  Sancti  Martini  iuxta  Can- 


Walterus,  permissione  diuina  [etc.],  dilecto  filio  Commissario 
nostro  Cantuariensi,  salutem,  graciam  et  benediccionem. 

Cum  nuper  tibi  preceperimus  viua  voce  ut  in  negocio 
tangente  Magistrum  Radulphum  rectorem  scolarum  gramati- 
calium  Ciuitatis  nostre  Cantuariensis  et  Magistrum  Robertum, 
Rectorem  ecclesie  Sancti  Martini  iuxta  Cantuariam,  ac  eiusdem 
loci  rectorem  scolarum,  ex  officio,  auctoritate  nostra  pro- 
cederes,  et  inquisita  veritate  idem  negocium  debito  fine 
terminares,  dictum  negocium,  de  quo  miramur,  adhuc  coram 
te  pendet  indecisum. 

Quocirca  tibi  committimus  et  mandamus  quatenus  ulterius 
in  dicto  negocio  auctoritate  predicta  procedas,  et  finem 
sentenciando,  preuia  racione,  celeritate  qua  poteris,  imponere 
non  omittas. 

Datis  Cantuarie  tercio  Nonas  Januarii  A. D.  132 1. 

ivith  Canterbury  Grammar  School,  limited     261 

Done  in  Canterbury  School,  on  Monday  after  St  Mildred's 

A  certain  Jane  Moody  being  summoned  for  violence  to  a 
scholar,  Stephen  of  Bourstead,  she  appeared  and  confessed  she 
had  violently  assaulted  him. 

By  consent  of  the  parties  in  the  hope  of  peace  Saturday 
next  was  assigned  her  to  hear  sentence  for  her  offences. 

Jurisdiction  of  Grammar  Schoolmaster  over  St  Martin's 
School,  Canterbury. 

Acts  and  proceedings  on  the  state  of  the  school  of  St 
Martin's  Church  of  Canterbury,  before  Master  Robert  of 
Mailing,  Commissary  General  of  Canterbury,  first  by  word 
of  mouth,  and  afterwards  by  special  commission  of  the  Lord 
Walter  [Reynolds],  archbishop,  in  the  year  132 1,  between 
Master  Ralph  of  Waltham,  rector  of  the  school  of  the  city  of 
Canterbury,  and  Master  Robert  of  Henney,  rector  of  St 
Martin's  Church,  near  Canterbury. 


Walter,  by  divine  permission  [etc.],  to  his  beloved  son  our 
Commissary  of  Canterbury,  health,  grace,  and  blessing. 

Whereas  we  lately  ordered  you  viva  voce  to  proceed  ex  officio 
by  our  authority  in  the  business  concerning  Master  Ralph,  rector 
of  the  Grammar  School  of  our  city  of  Canterbury,  and  Master 
Robert,  rector  of  St  Martin's  Church  by  Canterbury,  and  the 
rector  of  the  school  of  the  same  place,  and  to  inquire  into 
the  truth  of  the  same  matter  and  bring  it  to  due  conclusion  ; 
but  the  said  business  we  are  surprised  to  find  is  still  pending 
before  you  undetermined. 

Now,  therefore,  we  commission  and  command  you  to 
proceed  further  by  our  authority  in  the  aforesaid  matter,  and 
not  to  neglect  to  put  an  end  to  it  by  sentence  founded  on 
previous  consideration  as  quickly  as  may  be. 

Dated  at  Canterbury,  3  Jan.,  a.d.  132 i. 

262        Competition  of  St  Martin  s  School 


[A  jury  of  nine  incumbents  and  seven  laymen.] 

Jurati  dicunt,  quod  non  debent  esse  plures  gramatici  in 
Scolis  Sancti  Martini  nisi  xiii,  et  hoc  se  dicunt  scire  ex 
relatu  bonorum  et  fide  dignorum  ab  antiquo ;  et  dicunt 
quod  semper  consueuit  Rector  Scolarum  Cantuariensium 
Scolas  Sancti  Martini,  per  se  vel  suos  propter  numerum 
scolarium  visitare. 

Dicunt  eciam  quod,  quando  hostiarius  vel  submonitor 
scolarum  Cantuariensium  propter  numerum  scolarium  scolas 
Sancti  Martini  visitauit,  scolarcs  Sancti  Martini  absconderunt 
se  usque  ad  numerum  xiii.  Et  hoc  se  dicunt  scire  ex  relatu 
fidedignorum  ab  antiquo. 

De  aliis  scolaribus  in  scolis  Sancti  Martini  alphabetum, 
psalterium  et  cantum  addiscentibus  non  est  certus  numerus 
limitatus,  ut  dicunt. 

Sentencia  Diffinitiua. 

In  Dei  nomine.  Amen.  Cum  nuper  inter  magistrum 
Radulphum,  Rectorem  scolarum  Ciuitatis  Cantuariensis,  ad 
coUacionem  venerabilis  patris  Domini  W.,  Dei  gracia  Can- 
tuariensis Archiepiscopi,  totius  Anglie  Primatis  spectancium  ; 
et  Magistrum  Robertum  de  Henneye,  Rectorem  ecclesie 
Sancti  Martini  iuxta  Cantuariam,  et  eiusdem  loci  scolarum 
Rectorem  ad  dictam  Ecclesiam  Sancti  Martini,  de  patronatu 
eiusdem  existencium,  pertinencium  ;  super  eo  quod  idem 
Magister  Radulphus  pretendebat  dictum  Magistrum  scolarum 
Sancti  Martini  habere  deberet  in  scolis  suis  xiij  scolares  in 
gramatica  erudiendos  duntaxat ;  Idemque  magister  scolarum 
S.  Martini  omnes  indistincte  ad  scolas  suas  confluentes  in 
preiudicium  scolarum  ciuitatis  predicte  et  contra  consuetu- 
dinem  admittere,  et  in  suis  scolis  tenere  et  docere  in 
gramatica  presumpsit,  orta  fuisset  materia  questionis  ; 

Tandem  dictus  venerabilis  pater,  utriusque  loci  Patronus 
et    Diocesanus,  nobis  Comniissario  suo  Cantuariensi  generali 

with  Canterbury  Grammar  School,  limited    263 

[A  jury  of  nine  incumbents  and  seven  laymen.] 

The  jury  say  that  there  ought  not  to  be  more  than  13 
grammar  scholars  in  St  Martin's  School,  and  they  say  that  they 
know  this  from  of  old  by  the  relation  of  good  and  trustworthy 
men,  and  they  say  that  the  Rector  of  Canterbury  school  has 
always  been  accustomed  to  visit  St  Martin's  School,  in  person 
or  by  his  deputies,  to  ascertain  the  number  of  scholars. 

They  say,  further,  that  when  the  usher  or  under-monitor 
of  Canterbury  School  visited  St  Martin's  School  to  ascertain 
the  number  of  scholars,  St  Martin's  scholars  hid  themselves 
down  to  the  number  of  13,  and  this  they  say  they  know  by  the 
evidence  of  trustworthy  persons  of  old. 

As  to  other  scholars  in  St  Martin's  School  learning  the 
alphabet,  psalter  and  singing  there  is  no  limitation  of  number, 
as  they  say. 

Definitive  Sentence. 

In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  Whereas  lately  matter  of 
dispute  has  arisen  between  Master  Ralph,  rector  of  the  school 
of  the  city  of  Canterbury,  belonging  to  the  collation  of  the 
venerable  father  the  Lord  W.,  by  the  grace  of  God  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  Primate  of  all  England,  and  Master  Robert  of 
Henney,  rector  of  St  Martin's  Church  by  Canterbury,  and  the 
rector  of  the  school  of  the  same  place  belonging  to  St  Martin's 
Church,  and  of  the  patronage  of  the  same,  on  this  that  the 
same  Master  Ralph  alleged  that  the  said  schoolmaster  of  St 
Martin's  ought  to  have  only  13  grammar  scholars  in  his  school, 
and  yet  the  same  master  of  St  Martin's  School  has  presumed 
to  admit  all  without  distinction  who  come  to  his  school,  to  the 
prejudice  of  the  school  of  the  city  aforesaid  and  against  the 
custom,  and  to  keep  them  and  teach  them  grammar  in  his 
school ; 

And  whereas  the  said  venerable  father,  patron  and 
diocesan    of   both    places,    has    commissioned    us    his    Com- 

264       Competition  of  St  Martins  School 

tam  viue  vocis  oraculo,  quam  subsequenter  Htteratorie,  huius- 
niodi  questionem  seu  negocium  per  viam  inquisicionis  ex 
officio  conimisit  fine  debito  terminandum. 

Nos  igitur  Commissarius  predictus  magistros  utrarumque 
scolarum  predictarum  et  Rectorem  Ecclesie  S.  Martini  pre- 
dicte  coram  nobis  fecimus  euocari,  et  super  dicto  negocio  per 
viros  fidedignos  et  clericos  specialiter  iuratos  inquiri  fecimus 

Qua  inquisicione  facta,  pupplicata,  et  dictis  Magistris  et 
Rectori  copia  decreta,  nihil  dicto  contra  inquisicionem  vel 
probato,  sed  ad  audiendum  pronunciacionem  nostram  die 
eisdem  prefixo. 

Quia  Nos  Commissarius  antedictus,  inuenimus  quod  magis- 
ter  Scolarum  S.  Martini  xiij  scolares  duntaxat  in  gramatica 
per  ipsum  scolarum  magistrum,  quicunque  fuerit,  docendos 
habere  et  tenere  ac  docere  debet  ex  consuetudine  ab  antiquo, 
illam  consuetudinem,  auctoritate  nobis  in  hac  parte  commissa, 
decernimus  obseruandam,  inhibentes  Magistro  scolarum  S. 
Martini  ne  plures  scolares  ultra  numerum  predictum  in  suis 
scolis  in  gramatica  docendos  admittat  de  cetero,  nee  con- 
suetudinem predictam  infringere  presumat  quoquo  modo. 

Ab  ista  sentencia  predictus  Magister  Robertus  appellauit 
ad  sedem  Apostolicam,  et  pro  tuicione  Curie  Cantuariensis. 

Appellacio,  suggestio  et  citacio  in  causa  Scolarum 
Cantuariensium  et  Sancti  Martini. 

Officialis  Curie  Cantuariensis  Discreto  viro  Magistro 
Roberto  de  Mallingg  Commissario  Cantuariensi  generali, 
Salutem  in  auctore  salutis. 

Kx  parte  magistri  Roberti  de  Henneye,  Rectoris  ecclesie 
Sancti  Martini  Cantuarie,  nobis  extitit  intimatum,  quod  cum 
ipse  ac  precessores  seu  predecessores  sui  Rectores  in  ecclesia 
predicta  omnes  et  singuli,  teniporibus  suis,  a  tempore  cuius 
contrarii  memoria  hominum  non  existit,  fuerint,  et  adhuc 
sit     idem    magister    Robertus    de    Henneye,    nomine    suo    et 

ivith  Canterbury  Grammar  School,  limited    265 

missary-General  of  Canterbury,  both  by  word  of  mouth  and 
afterwards  in  writing,  to  bring  to  due  determination  the  said 
question  or  matter  by  way  of  inquisition  ex  officio ; 

We,  therefore,  the  said  Commissary,  caused  the  masters  of 
both  the  schools  aforesaid  and  the  rector  of  St  Martin's  Church 
aforesaid  to  be  summoned  before  us,  and  caused  diligent 
inquiry  to  be  made  in  the  said  matter  by  a  special  jury  of 
trustworthy  men  and  clerks ; 

And  whereas  the  said  inquisition  was  held  and  published, 
and  a  copy  ordered  to  be  delivered  to  the  said  masters  and 
rector,  and  nothing  being  said  or  found  against  the  said 
inquisition,  a  day  was  fixed  for  them  to  hear  our  judgment. 

Wherefore  we,  the  said  Commissary,  find  that  the  school- 
master of  St  Martin's  by  ancient  custom  ought  to  have,  keep 
and  teach  13  scholars  only  in  grammar,  to  be  taught  by 
the  schoolmaster  for  the  time  being,  and  that  custom,  by 
the  authority  committed  to  us  in  this  behalf,  we  decree  shall 
be  observed,  inhibiting  the  schoolmaster  of  St  Martin's  from 
admitting  hereafter  more  scholars  than  the  number  aforesaid  to 
be  taught  grammar  in  the  school  and  from  presuming  in  any 
way  to  infringe  the  said  custom. 

From  this  sentence  the  aforesaid  Master  Robert  appealed 
to  the  apostolic  see  and  for  the  protection  of  the  Court  of 

Appeal,  suggestion  and  summons  in  the  case  of  the  Schools 
of  Canterbury  and  St  Martin's. 

The  Official  of  the  Court  of  Canterbury  to  the  discreet 
man  Master  Robert  of  Mailing,  Commissary  General  of  Can- 
terbury, health  in  the  author  of  health. 

On  behalf  of  Master  Robert  of  Henney,  rector  of  St 
Martin's  Church,  Canterbury,  we  have  been  informed  that 
whereas  he  and  his  precessors,  or  predecessors,  rectors  in  the 
church  aforesaid,  all  and  each  in  their  time,  from  time  whereof 
the  memory  of  men  is  not,  were,  and  the  same  Master  Robert 

266       Competition  of  St  Martin  s  School 

Ecclesie  sue  predicte,  in  possessione  vel  quasi  iuris  habendi 
scolas  gramaticales  in  dicta  ecclesia  S.  Martini  seu  infra 
septa  eiusdem,  magistrosque  ad  informandum  et  instruendum 
in  arte  gramaticali  quoscunque  illuc  ea  de  causa  accedentes 
ibidem  preficiendi  seu  deputandi,  et  eos  libere  admittendi, 
informandi  et  instruendi  in  arte  gramaticali  predicta. 

Ex  parte  magistri  Roberti  de  Henneye  in  possessione  vel 
quasi  iuris  huiusmodi  ut  premittitur  existentis,  ac  metuentis 
ex  quibusdam  causis  probabilibus  et  verisimilibus  coniecturis 
graue  sibi  et  Ecclesie  sue  predicte  circa  premissa  preiudicium 
posse  generari  in  futurum,  ne  quis  circa  premissa  vel  eorum 
aliquid  quicquam  in  ipsius  vel  Ecclesie  sue  predicte  pre- 
iudicium attemptaret,  seu  fa':eret  aliqualiter  attemptari,  ad 
sedem  Apostolicam,  et  pro  tuicione  Curie  Cantuariensis, 
extitit,  ut  asseritur,  palam  et  publice  ac  legitime  prouocatum. 

Set  vos  ad  instanciam  seu  procuracionem  cuiusdam  Radulfi 
magistrum  scolarum  Cantuariensium  se  pretendentis,  prouo- 
cacione  predicta,  que  vos  verisimiliter  non  latebat  non 
obstante,  post  et  contra  earn,  predictum  magistrum  Robertum 
de  Henney  quo  minus  possessione  sua  huiusmodi  libere  gau- 
dere  potuerit,  contra  iusticiam  molestastis,  inquietastis  ac 
multipliciter  perturbastis,  ac  tredecim  scolares  duntaxat  in 
dictis  scolis  Ecclesie  Sancti  Martini  et  non  plures  admitti 
debere  minus  veraciter  pretendentes,  cuidam  magistro  loanni 
de  Bucwell,  magistro  scolarum  huiusmodi  per  dictum  magis- 
trum Robertum  de  Henneye  prefecto  seu  deputato,  ne  ultra 
xiij  scolares  huiusmodi  inibi  admitteret  seu  haberet  inhi- 
buistis  minus  iuste,  in  ipsius  magistri  Roberti  de  Henney  et 
ecclesie  sue  predicte  preiudicium,  dampnum  non  modicum  et 

Unde  ex  parte  eiusdem  magistri  Roberti... 

witJi  Canterbury  Grammar  School,  limited     267 

of  Henney,  still  is,  in  his  own  name  and  that  of  his  church 
aforesaid,  in  possession  or  quasi-possession  of  the  right  of 
keeping  a  grammar  school  in  the  said  church  of  St  Martin  or 
within  its  precincts,  and  of  preferring  or  deputing  masters 
there  to  teach  and  instruct,  in  the  art  of  grammar,  all  coming 
there  for  that  purpose,  and  of  freely  admitting,  teaching  and 
instructing  them  in  the  art  of  grammar  aforesaid. 

On  behalf  of  Master  Robert  of  Henney,  being  in  posses- 
sion or  quasi-possession  of  such  right  as  aforesaid,  and  fearing 
from  certain  probable  causes  and  reasonable  conjectures  that 
grave  prejudice  may  arise  in  future  to  him  and  his  church 
aforesaid  in  the  premises,  lest  anyone  should  attempt  or  cause 
to  be  attempted  anything  to  his  prejudice  or  that  of  his  church 
aforesaid  in  any  way  in  the  premises  or  any  of  them,  he  openly 
and  publicly  and  lawfully  appealed  to  the  Apostolic  See  and 
the  protection  of  the  Court  of  Canterbury. 

But  you  at  the  instance  or  procuring  of  one  Ralph,  claim- 
ing to  be  master  of  Canterbury  School,  notwithstanding  the 
said  appeal,  of  which  you  were  probably  not  ignorant,  after 
and  in  spite  of  it,  to  prevent  the  said  Robert  of  Henney 
from  freely  enjoying  such  possession,  unlawfully  molested, 
disquieted  and  many  ways  disturbed  him,  and  untruly  pre- 
tending that  13  scholars  only  and  not  more  ought  to  be 
admitted  into  the  said  school  of  St  Martin's  Church,  un- 
lawfully inhibited  one  Master  John  of  Buckwell,  appointed  or 
deputed  schoolmaster  of  the  said  school  by  the  said  Master 
Robert  of  Henney,  from  admitting  or  having  more  than  13  such 
scholars  there,  to  the  no  small  prejudice,  loss  and  damage  of 
the  same  Master  Robert  of  Henney  and  his  church  ; 

Wherefore,  on  behalf  of  the  said  Master  Robert  of  Henney 
[an  appeal  was  laid]. 

[The  Commissary  was  inhibited  from  proceeding  pending 
the  appeal,  for  which  he  was  to  summon  the  appellant  to 
appear  in  St  Mary  Aldermary's  Church,  London,  on  the  6th 
law  day  after  Martinmas  (i  i  Nov.).  Dated  at  London,  2  i  Oct., 
1323.  But  the  appellant  not  proceeding  respondent  was  dis- 
missed from  the  examination  of  the  court.  On  20  March, 
1323-4,  Thomas  of  Cheminster,  general  examiner  of  the  Court 
of  Canterbury,  Commissary  of  the  Official  of  the  same  court 
and  of  the  Dean  of  the  Arches,  his  Commissary  Oeneral, 
informed  the  Commissary  General  of  Canterbury  that  he  could 
therefore  proceed  to  execution  of  his  judgment.] 

268  Heh'eiv,  Greek,  Arabic  and 

The  University  of  Oxford,  etc.,  directed  by  the 
Council  of  Vienne  to  establish  Masters  in 
Oriental  La7tguages.      131  i. 

[Clement,  de  ma<;jstr.  V.  i.  i.] 

Clemens  episcopus  servus  servorum  Dei.  Ad  perpetuam 
rei  memoriam.  Inter  sollicitudines. ...Ideoque  illius  cuius 
vicem  in  terris  licet  immeriti  gerimus,  imitantes  exemplum, 
qui  ituros  per  universum  niundum  ad  evangelizandum  apos- 
tolos  in  omni  linguarum  genere  fore  voluit  eruditos,  viris 
catholicis  notitiam  linguarum  habentibus,  quibus  utuntur 
infideles  precipue,  abundare  sanctam  affectamus  ecclesiam, 
qui  infideles  ipsos  sciant  et  valeant  sacris  institutis  instruere, 
christicolarumciue  collegio  per  doctrinam  christiane  fidei  ac 
susceptionem  baptismatis  aggregare.  Ut  igitur  peritia  linguarum 
huiusmodi  possit  habiliter  per  instructionis  efficaciam  obtineri, 
hoc  sacro  approbante  Concilio  scolas  in  subscriptarum  lin- 
guarum generibus,  ubicunque  Romanam  curiam  residere 
contigerit,  necnon  in  Parisiensi,  Oxoniensi,  Bononiensi  et 
Salamantino  studiis,  providimus  erigendas,  statuentes  ut  in 
quolibet  locorum  ipsorum  teneantur  viri  catholici  sufficientem 
habentes  hebraice,  grece,  arabice  et  chaldaice  linguarum 
notitiam,  duo  videlicet  uniuscuiusque  lingue  periti,  qui  scolas 
regant  inibi,  et  libros  de  linguis  ipsis  in  latinum  fideliter 
transferentes,  alios  linguas  ipsas  sollicite  doceant,  earumque 
peritiam  studiosa  in  illos  instructione  transfundant ;  ut  in- 
struct! et  edocti  sufficienter  in  linguis  huiusmodi  fructum 
speratum,  possint  Deo  auctore  producere,  fidem  propagaturi 
salubriter  in  ipsos  populos  infideles.  Quibus  equidem  in 
Romana  curia  legentibus  per  sedem  apostolicam,  in  studiis  vero 
Parisiensi  per  regem  [regnuni]  Francie,  in  Oxoniensi  per  Anglie, 
Scotie,  Hii)ernie  ac  Vallie,  in  Bononiensi  per  Italic,  in  Sala- 
mantino per  Hispanic  prelates,  monasteria,  capitula,  conventus, 
collegia,  exempta  et  non  exempta,  et  ecclesiarum  rectores  in 
stipendiis  competentibus  et  sumptibus  volumus  provideri, 
contributionis  onere  singulis  iuxta  facultatum  exigentiam  im- 
ponendo,  privilegiis  et  exemptionibus  quibuscunque  contrariis 
nequaquam  obstantibus,  (juibus  tamen  nolumus  quoad  alia 
preiudicium  generari. 

Chaldee  to  be  tau(^ht  at  Oxford  269 

The  University  of  Oxford,  etc.,  directed  by  the 
Cotuicil  of  Vienne  to  establish  Masters  in 
Oriental  Languages.      1 3 1 1 . 

Bishop  Clement,  servant  of  the  servants  of  God.  For 
perpetual  remembrance  of  the  matter.  Among  the  anxieties... 
[pious  exordium]  and  therefore  imitating  the  example  of  Him 
whose  deputy  on  earth  though  unworthy  we  are,  who  would  that 
His  apostles  should  be  learned  in  every  kind  of  language  and 
should  go  through  the  whole  world  to  preach  the  Gospel,  we 
desire  that  holy  church  should  abound  with  good  catholics  know- 
ing the  languages  which  infidels  chiefly  use,  so  that  they  may  be 
able  to  instruct  such  infidels  in  the  holy  institutes,  and  by 
teaching  them  the  Christian  faith  and  reception  of  baptism  add 
them  to  the  college  of  the  worshippers  of  Christ.  In  order, 
therefore,  that  skill  in  such  tongues  may  the  better  be  obtained 
by  efficient  instruction,  we,  with  the  approval  of  this  sacred 
Council,  have  provided  for  the  erection  of  schools  in  the 
undermentioned  languages  wherever  the  Roman  Court  resides, 
and  also  in  the  Universities  of  Paris,  Oxford,  Bologna  and 
Salamanca,  decreeing  that  in  each  of  these  places  there  shall 
be  kept  good  catholics  having  sufficient  knowledge  of  the 
Hebrew,  Greek,  Arabic  and  Chaldee  tongues,  namely,  two 
learned  in  each  tongue  to  teach  school  there,  and  translate 
faithfully  books  in  these  tongues  into  Latin,  and  carefully  teach 
others  the  same  languages,  and  transfuse  into  them  their 
learning  by  zealous  teaching;  to  the  end  that  being  sufficiently 
instructed  and  learned  in  such  languages  they  may  by  God's 
help  bring  forth  the  wished-for  fruit  and  propagate  the  faith 
with  healing  results  among  the  infidel  nations.  We  will  that 
provision  of  competent  stipends  and  expenses  shall  be  made  for 
such  teachers  in  the  Roman  Court  by  the  Apostolic  See,  but  in 
the  University  of  Paris,  and  that  of  Oxford,  Bologna  and  Sala- 
manca by  the  prelates,  monasteries,  chapters,  convents,  colleges, 
exempt  or  not  exempt,  and  rectors  of  churches  of  the  kingdoms 
of  France,  England,  Scotland,  Ireland  and  Wales,  Italy,  and 
Spain  respectively,  a  contribution  to  the  charges  being  im- 
posed on  each  house  according  to  its  means,  notwithstanding 
any  privileges  and  exemptions  to  the  contrary,  without  preju- 
dice to  the  same  in  any  other  respect. 

270  An  Oxford  M.A.  manumitted 

Manumission  of  an  Oxford  M.A.      1 3 1 2. 

[Reg.  Palatinum  Dunelm.  (Rolls  Series)  p.  97.] 

Ricardus  [etc.]  Dunelmensis  episcopus  Waltero  de  Heigh- 
ington,  clerico,  nostre  diocesis,  salutem. 

Quia  libertatibus  iura  favent,  maxime  ut  cultus  augeatur 
divinus,  tuque  in  divini  cultus  augmentum  ascribi  desideras 
militie  clericali, 

Nos...ut  ad  omnes  ordines,  vinculo  servili,  quo  nobis 
astringeris,  non  obstante,  licite  valeas  promoveri...concedimus 
facultatem,  ob  favorem  divini  cultus  pariter  et  augmentum 
vinculum  predictum  et  ius  dominii  in  personam  tuam  nobis 
competens  ex  nunc  penitus  reriunciantes. 

In  cuius  rei  [etc].  Dat.  apud  Stoketon  die  Sancti  Mathei 
Apostoli  A.D.  131 2. 

Memorandum  de  eodem 

Quod  eisdem  die  et  anno  habuit  Magister  Robertus'  de 
Heighington,  scholaris  aule  de  Merton  in  Oxonia,  quandam 
litteram  libertatis  sub  eadem  forma. 

[^  The  editor  in  the  Rolls  Series  substitutes  '  Walterus '  for 
'  Robertus,'  the  reading  of  the  MS.,  apparently  misled  by  'de 
eodem '  into  thinking  that  the  second  letter  of  manumission 
was  for  the  same  person,  whereas  it  probably  meant  the  same 
matter.  Master  Robert,  fellow  of  Merton,  already  an  M.A., 
was  probably  a  brother  of  Walter  who  remained  a  simple  clerk.] 

Contest  as  to  Admission  of  Choristers  to  Beverley 
GraniTnar  School  free.      1 3 1  2. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Mem.  of  Beverley  Minster,  Surtees  Society,  No.  98,  p.  292.] 

De  numero  puerorum  coristarum  in  scolis. 

Item,  cum  Magister  Rogerus  de  Sutton,  Rector  Scolarum 
gramaticalium  Beverlacensium,  numerum  puerorum  coristarum 
ecclesie  predicte  in  scolis  predictis  addiscencium  usque  ad 
numerum  septenarium  artare  voluisset,  ac  pueros  in  dicta 
ecclesia  coristas  ultra  prefatum  numerum  in  scolis  predictis 
addiscentes  sibi  solvere  salarium  compellere  voluisset,  et  super 

An  Oxford  M. A.  manumitted  271 

Manumission  of  a?i  Oxford  M.A.      1 3 1 2 . 

Richard  [of  Bury  etc.],  bishop  of  Durham,  to  Walter  of 
Heighington,  clerk,  of  our  diocese,  greeting. 

As  the  laws  favour  liberty,  especially  for  the  increase  of 
divine  worship,  and  you  for  the  increase  of  divine  worship 
desire  to  be  enrolled  in  the  clerical  army, 

We... grant  you  licence  that,  notwithstanding  the  bond  of 
slavery  by  which  you  are  bound  to  us,  you  may  be  lawfully 
promoted  to  all  orders,  from  henceforth  renouncing  in  favour 
and  for  the  increase  of  divine  worship  the  bond  aforesaid  and 
the  right  of  ownership  of  your  person  belonging  to  us. 

In  witness  [etc.].  Dated  at  .Stockton[-on-Tees],  St  Mat- 
thew's day,  A.D.  131 2. 

Memorandum  of  the  same. 

In  the  same  year  and  on  the  same  day  Master  Robert  of 
Heighington,  scholar  of  Merton  Hall  in  Oxford,  had  certain 
letters  of  freedom  in  the  same  form. 

Contest  as  to  Admission  of  Choristers  to  Beverley 
Gra?nmar  School  free.      1312. 

Of  the  number  of  chorister  boys  in  the  school. 

Also,  whereas  Master  Roger  of  Sutton,  rector  of  Beverley 
Grammar  School,  wished  to  limit  the  number  of  chorister  boys 
of  the  aforesaid  church  being  taught  in  the  said  school  to  the 
number  of  seven,  and  to  make  the  chorister  boys  of  the  said 
church  beyond  the  number  aforesaid  being  taught  in  the 
said   school   pay   him   fees,   and    some   dissension    had   arisen 

272  Choristers  to  be  admitted 

hoc  inter  ipsum  et  Succentorem  prefate  ecclesie  esset  dissensio 
aliqualis  ; 

Eodem  die,  videlicet  iij  Nonas  Maii,  presentibus  canonicis 
memoratis,  dicti  Magister  et  Succentor  coram  Capitulo  com- 
paruerunt,  petentes  decretum  Capituli  in  premissis. 

Capituluni  vero,  inquisita  plenius  veritate  de  premissis  per 
seniores  ecclesie  memorate,  habentes  consideracionem  ad 
antiquas  consuetudines  ecclesie  et  scolarum  predictarum, 
decrevit  numerum  puerorum  coristarum  in  predictis  scolis  non 
esse  artandum,  sed  omnes,  quotquot  fuerint,  in  ecclesia  coriste 
in  scola  quieti  sint  et  liberi  quoad  ipsum  Magistrum  ;  et  quod 
ipse  Magister,  vel  aliquis  successorum  suorum,  nomine  salarii 
nihil  exigat  ab  eisdem  ;  verumtamen  injunxit  Succentori  quod 
in  fraudem  Magistri  Scolarum  ad  portandum  habitum  in  choro 
pueros  non  admittat. 

Statutes  for  Warwick  Grammar  School  and 
Song  School.      1316  (?). 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Hist,  of  IVaituick  School,  66,  photograph  from  Chartulary.] 

De  Officio  Magistri  Scolarum  Gramaticalium  Warr[\vici]. 

Ad  perpetuam  rei  memoriam  Nos  Robertus  de  Leicestre 
Decanus  Ecclesie  Collegiate  Beate  Marie  Warwicensis  de  fra- 
trum  nostrorum  consilio  statuimus  et  ordinamus  quod  Magister 
Scolarum  Ciramaticalium  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit  circa  infor- 
macionem  et  instruccionem  scolarium  suorum  in  gramaticali- 
bus  diligenter  insistat,  quodque  stallo  sibi  in  ecclesia  predicta 
assignato  diebus  festorum  et  in  festis  ix  leccionum  cum  eundem 
circa  scolares  suos  informandos  vacare  non  contigerit,  diuinis 
officiis  intersit,  sextamque  leccionem  in  dictis  festis  ex  officii 
sui  debito  in  superpellicio  vel  alio  habitu  decenti  legat. 

In  festis  niaioribus  capam  cericam  deferens  officium  unius 

free  to  Beverley  Grammar  School        273 

between  him  and  the  Succentor  of  the  aforesaid  church  about 


On  the  same  day,  viz,  the  5th  of  May,  in  the  presence  of 
the  canons  above-mentioned,  the  said  Master  and  Succentor 
appeared  before  the  Chapter,  asking  for  the  decree  of  the 
Chapter  in  the  matter. 

The  Chapter  having  made  full  inquiry  as  to  the  truth  of 
the  matter  through  the  senior  members  of  the  said  church, 
having  regard  to  the  ancient  customs  of  the  church  and  school 
aforesaid,  decreed  that  the  number  of  choristers  in  the  said 
school  ought  not  to  be  limited,  but  that  all  who  were  choristers 
in  the  church  should  be  quit  and  free  in  the  school  so  far  as  the 
Master  was  concerned ;  and  that  neither  the  Master  nor  any 
of  his  successors  should  demand  anything  from  them  by  way 
of  fees  ;  but  at  the  same  time  they  enjoined  on  the  Succentor 
that  he  was  not  to  admit  any  boys  to  wear  the  habit  in  choir 
so  as  to  defraud  the  schoolmaster. 

Statutes  for  Warwick  Grammar  School  and 
Song  School.      1 3 1 6  (?). 

The  Office  of  the  Master  of  the  Grammar  School  of  Warwick. 

For  an  everlasting  remembrance  of  the  matter,  we,  Robert 
of  Leicester,  Dean  of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  the  Blessed 
Mary  of  Warwick,  with  the  counsel  of  our  brethren,  decree  and 
order  that  the  Master  of  the  Grammar  School  for  the  time 
being  shall  devote  himself  diligently  to  the  information  and 
instruction  of  his  scholars  in  grammar ;  and  when  not  engaged 
in  teaching  his  scholars,  shall  be  present  at  divine  service  in 
the  stall  assigned  to  him  in  the  aforesaid  church,  on  all  feast 
days,  and  feasts  of  nine  lessons,  and  shall,  as  his  office  obliges 
him,  read  the  sixth  lesson  on  the  said  feasts,  clad  in  a  surplice 
or  other  [jroper  habit. 

On  greater  feasts,  he  shall  wear  a  silk  cope  and  fill  the 
L.  18 

2  74     Overlapping  of  Grammar  School  and 

de  quatuor  cantoribus  in  choro  et  processione  faciat,  prout  in 
dicta  ecclesia  hactenus  est  optcntum.  Idemque  magister 
omnibus  diebus  Sabbati  per  annum,  tempore  vacacionis  sco- 
larum  suarum  excepto,  in  capella  Beate  Marie  dicte  ecclesia 
cum  scolaribus  suis  duos  cereos  ponderis  trium  librarum  cere 
semel  in  anno  renouandos  processionaliter  deferat  et  in  eadem 
dum  missa  celebrari  contigerit,  ardere  faciat,  quem  ad  certum 
habitum  de  sua  propria  bursa  comparandum  in  dictam  eccle- 
siam  (percipit  de  communi)  constringi  nolumus  in  eadem. 

Et  ut  omnis  materia  litis  et  discordie  quas  hactenus  inter 
dictum  magistrum  et  magistrum  scolarum  musice  didicimus 
exortas  super  donatistis  et  paruulis  primas  litteras  et  psalterium 
addiscentibus  imperpetuum  conquiescat,  facta  super  hiis  debita 
inquisicione,  de  fratrum  nostrorum  consilio,  volentes  quod 
magistris  ipsis  et  eorum  unicuique  ius  suum  tribuatur  et  in- 
debite  usurpaciones  scolarium  hinc  inde  de  cetero  non  fiant, 
statuimus  et  inuiolabiliter  obseruari  precipimus  quod  magister 
gramatice  qui  nunc  est,  et  qui  prefici  contigerit,  donatistas 
habeat,  et  deinceps  scolares  in  gramaticalibus  seu  arte 
dialectica,  si  in  eadem  expertus  fuerit,  habeat,  teneat  et  in- 
formet ;  magister  vero  musice  primas  litteras  addiscentes 
psalterium,   musicam   et   cantum,   teneat   et   informet. 

De  Ofificio  Magistri  Musice. 

Item  statuimus  quod  magistrum  musice  singulis  diebus 
dum  missa  de  Sancta  Maria  in  ipsius  capella  celebratur  intersit 
cum  duobus  scolaribus  suis,  et  ibidem  ad  laudem  Virginis  Marie 
musicam  usque  post  Agnus  Dei  cantet,  et  capam  sericam  in 
choro  dicte  ecclesie,  in  processionibus  et  duplicibus  festis 
maioribus,  deferens  officium  unius  cantatoris  subportet,  et  ut 
superius  statutum  existit,  scolares  suos  cum  omni  diligencia 
quam  poterit  instruat  et  informet. 

Ad  quorum  omnium  et  singulorum  obseruacionem  magis- 
tros  predictos  cjuos  scolis  gramatice  ville  Warrici  seu  musice 
per   dicte    ecclesie   Decanum    prefici    contigerit,    quamque   in 

Music  School  at   Warwick  prohibited     275 

office  of  one  of  the  four  precentors  in  the  choir  and  procession, 
as  has  hitherto  been  usual  in  the  church.  And  the  same 
master,  every  Saturday  throughout  the  year,  except  during 
school  vacations,  shall  carry  in  procession  with  his  scholars  in 
the  Lady  Chapel  of  the  church  two  wax  candles  of  3  lbs.  weight, 
to  be  renewed  once  a  year,  and  let  them  burn  during  the 
celebration  of  mass.  We  by  no  means  wish  that  he  should 
be  bound  to  provide  out  of  his  own  purse  the  habit  to  be 
worn  in  church.     He  receives  it  out  of  the  common  fund. 

And  that  all  material  for  strife  and  disagreement,  which  we 
learn  has  hitherto  arisen  between  the  master  and  music  school- 
master over  the  Donatists  and  little  ones  learning  their  first 
letters  and  the  psalter,  may  be  put  a  stop  to  for  ever,  after  due 
inquiry  in  the  matter  and  with  the  advice  of  our  brethren,  and 
so  that  the  masters  and  each  of  them  may  receive  their  due, 
and  that  undue  encroachment  of  scholars  on  one  side  and  the 
other  may  cease  for  the  future ;  we  decree  and  direct  to  be 
inviolably  observed  that  the  present  grammar  master  and  his 
successors  shall  have  the  Donatists,  and  thenceforward  have, 
keep,  and  teach  scholars  in  grammar  or  the  art  of  dialectic,  if 
he  shall  be  expert  in  that  art,  while  the  music  master  shall 
keep  and  teach  those  learning  their  first  letters,  the  psalter, 
music  and  song. 

The  Office  of  Music  Master. 

Also  we  decree  that  the  music  master  shall  be  present  at 
the  Lady  Mass  in  the  Lady  Chapel  every  day  with  two  of  his 
scholars  to  sing  in  praise  of  the  Virgin  all  the  music  after  the 
Agnus  Dei ;  while  at  processions  and  on  the  greater  double 
feasts  he  is  to  wear  a  silk  cope  in  the  choir  of  the  said  church 
and  fill  the  ofiice  of  a  precentor,  and  as  above  stated  is  to  in- 
struct and  teach  his  scholars  with  all  the  diligence  he  may. 

We  will  that  the  masters  aforesaid,  who  shall  be  presented 
by  the  Dean  of  the  said  church  to  the  grammar  school  of 
the   town    of  Warwick  or  the    music   school,   shall   on    their 


2/6  Oxfoi'd  clawied  to  be  older 

eorum  admissione  sacramento  ab  eisdem  prestito  corporali 
in  ipsius  ecclesie  capitulo  una  cum  sacramento  obediencie 
quod  nobis  impendere  tenentur,  volumus  onerari,  saluo  nobis 
et  confratribus  nostris  in  dictis  scolis  libertatibus  priuilegiis  et 
consuetudinibus  antiquis. 

Quod  si  premissa  vel  eorum  aliquid  predicti  Magistri  vel 
eorum  alter  cessante  legitimo  impedimento  absque  licencia 
speciali  dicti  Decani,  non  fecerint  seu  non  obseruauerint,  non 
fecerit  seu  non  obseruauerit,  alter  eorundem  pro  periurio  et  ino- 
bediencia  eorundem  adarbitrium  ipsius  Decani  grauiter  puniatur. 

Hiis  vero  statutis  iuramento  Magistrorum  predictorum 
firmatis  adiiciendo  et  declarando  statuimus  eosdem  Magistros 
ad  premissa  onera  non  teneri  vacacionis  scolarum  suarum 
tempore,  nisi  duntaxat  si  presentes  ipsos  in  villa  Warwici  esse 
contigerit  duplicibus  festis  in  dictis  vacacionibus,  si  commode 
interesse  poterunt,  efficient  in  ecclesia  ante  dicta  prout  superius 
est  expressum. 

For  Oxford,  7nore  ancient  than  Paris  University, 
the  same  Rights  are  asked  from  the  Pope. 
26   Dec.    I  3  17. 

[F.  R.  O.  Rot.  Rom.  11   Edw.  II,  m.   13.     Printed  in  Denifle,  Chart. 
Univ.  Paris,  II.  213.] 

Sanctissimo  in  Christo  patri  Johanni  divina  providentia 
sacrosancte  Romane  ac  universalis  ecclesie  summo  pontifici, 
Eduardus  eadem  gratia  rex  Anglie,  dominus  Hibernie  et  dux 
Aquitanie,  devota  pedum  oscula  beatorum. 

Inter  eximia  gratiarum  donaria  quibus  regnum  nostrum 
Anglie  manus  Altissimi  mirifice  stabilivit  summo  meretur  attolli 
preconio  et  favoris  cujuslibet  insigniri  presidio  sublimis  ilia 
sapientialis  studii  dignitas,  que  in  Oxoniensi  Universitate  con- 
tinuatis  viget  successibus  et  floruit  ab  antiquo. 

Ipsa  namque  ut  mater  fecunda  prolem  innumeram  pro- 
creare  non  desinit,  cujus  scientialis  claritas  ceteros  irradiat  et 

than  Paris   University  277 

admission  take  their  bodily  oath  in  the  Chapter  of  the  church 
together  with  their  oath  of  obedience,  which  they  are  bound 
to  take  to  the  Dean,  to  observe  all  and  singular  the  premises, 
saving  always  to  the  Uean  and  his  brethren  their  ancient 
privileges  and  customs  in  the  said  schools. 

But  if  the  said  masters  or  either  of  them  shall  not  do  or 
observe  the  premises  or  any  of  them,  in  the  absence  of 
legitimate  impediment  or  special  licence  of  the  Dean,  they 
are  to  be  severely  punished  for  perjury  and  disobedience 
at  the  will  of  the  Dean. 

Adding  and  explaining  these  statutes  confirmed  by  the 
oaths  of  the  masters  aforesaid,  we  decree  that  the  same  masters 
are  not  bound  to  these  duties  during  school  vacations,  except 
that  if  they  are  in  Warwick  on  any  double  feast  during  such 
vacations  they  are  to  officiate  in  the  church,  if  conveniently 
possible,  as  before  expressed. 

For  Oxfo7'd,  more  ancient  than  Paris  University, 
the  sa7?te  Rights  are  asked  from  the  Pope. 
26  Dec.  131  7. 

To  the  most  holy  father  in  Christ,  John,  by  divine  Provi- 
dence chief  bishop  of  the  most  holy  Roman  and  of  the 
universal  church,  Edward  by  the  same  grace  King  of  England, 
lord  of  Ireland  and  duke  of  Aquitaine,  devout  kisses  on  the 
blessed  feet. 

Among  the  chief  gifts  of  grace  with  which  the  hand  of  the  Most 
High  has  miraculously  embellished  our  realm  of  England,  that 
illustrious  school  of  learning,  which  flourishes  with  continuous 
success  and  has  flourished  from  ancient  times  in  the  University 
of  Oxford,  deserves  to  be  exalted  with  the  highest  praise  and 
to  be  decorated  with  the  assistance  of  everyone's  favour. 

For  as  a  fruitful  mother  it  ceases  not  to  bring  forth 
innumerable  children,  the  clearness  of  whose  knowledge  sheds 
its  beams  and  li"ht  on  all  others. 

278       Oxford  clai7ns  higher  Antiquity  and 

Sane  intelleximus  banc  dudum  a  felicis  memorie  domino 
Bonifacio  papa  VIII,  predecessore  vestro,  Universitatibus 
regni  Francie  gratiam  fuissc  concessam,  ut  omnes  qui  gradum 
magistralis  bonoris  in  quacunque  facilitate  assecuti  fuerint,  in 
iisdem  possint  ubique  terrarum  lectiones  resutnere  et  easdem 
continuare  pro  sue  libito  voluntatis  absque  nove  examinationis 
vel  approbationis  prcludiis  seu  debito  iterandi  principii  aut 
petende  gratie  cujuscunque. 

Verum  quia  dubium  non  est  secundum  veterum  testimonia 
scripturarum,  Gallicanum  studium  ab  Anglicanis  nostris  originale 
traxisse  principium,  constatque  talem  apostolice  dispensationis 
gratiam  in  Anglicani  studii  redundare  dispendium,  si  Universitas 
nostra  Oxoniensis  cum  predictis  Universitatibus  regni  Francie 
in  libertatibus  et  scolasticis  actibus  non  concurrat,  sanctitati 
vestre  affectuosa  instantia  supplicamus  quatenus  ad  pacem 
mutuam  inter  viros  scolasticos  nutriendam  Universitatem 
predictam  Oxoniensem  consimili  velitis  privilegio  decorare. 

Nos  siquidem  gauderemus  si  in  nostri  et  Universitatis 
nostre  predicte  favorem,  quod  a  providentia  vestra  deposcimus, 
exaudiretis  gratiose,  quia  valde  nobis  molestum  foret,  si  tanta 
Universitas  aliqua  nostris  adversa  temporibus  pateretur,  aut  ad 
insolitam  servitutem  redigeretur. 

Conservet  vos  Altissimus  per  tempora  prospera  et  longeva. 
Teste  meipso  apud  Westmonasterium  16  die  Decembris  anno 
regni  nostri  undecimo. 

Oxford  University  asserts  that  Paris  University 
was  founded  by  Alcuin,  and  so  later  than 
Oxford.      1322. 

[R.  M.  Cott.  Faust.  A.  V.     Printed  in  Denifle,  Cart.  Univ.  Paris,  11.  269.] 

Sanctissimo    in    Christo    patri    Johanni     summo    pontifici 

universitas  magistrorum  et  scolarium   studii   Oxoniensis 

Intelleximus  siquidem  quod  nuper  ad  studium  Parisiense 

the  same  Privileges  as  Paris   University     279 

We  learn,  indeed,  that  heretofore  the  lord  Pope  Boniface 
VIII  of  happy  memory,  your  predecessor,  granted  this  favour 
to  the  Universities  of  the  kingdom  of  France  that  all  who  had 
attained  the  degree  of  master  in  any  faculty  might  resume  their 
lectures  in  the  same  anywhere  in  the  world  and  continue  them 
at  their  pleasure,  without  any  prelude  of  new  examination  or 
approval  or  any  duty  of  beginning  again  or  obtaining  anyone's 

But  as  there  is  no  doubt  that,  according  to  the  evidence  of 
ancient  writings,  the  University  of  Gaul  drew  its  origin  from 
our  Englishmen,  and  it  is  certain  that  such  a  grace  of  apostolic 
dispensation  redounds  to  the  discredit  of  the  English  school  if 
our  University  of  Oxford  does  not  run  level  with  the  aforesaid 
Universities  of  the  kingdom  of  France  in  liberties  and  scholastic 
acts,  we  petition  your  holiness  with  affectionate  insistence  that, 
to  nourish  peace  between  scholars,  you  will  decorate  the 
University  of  Oxford  aforesaid  with  a  similar  privilege. 

We,  indeed,  should  be  glad  if  in  favour  to  us  and  our 
University  aforesaid  you  would  graciously  listen  to  what  we 
ask  of  your  providence,  as  it  would  be  very  grievous  to  us  if 
such  a  University  should  suffer  adversity  in  our  time  or  be 
reduced  to  an  unwonted  position  of  servitude. 

May  the  Highest  keep  you  for  a  long  and  prosperous  time. 
Witness  myself  at  Westminster  16  December  in  the  nth  year 
of  our  reign. 

Oxford  University  asserts  that  Paris  University 
was  founded  by  Alcuin,  and  so  latej"  than 
Oxford.      1322. 

To  the  most  holy  father  in  Christ,  John,  the  supreme 
bishop,  the  University  of  masters  and  scholars  of  the  School 
of  Oxford.... 

We  understand  that  lately  you  turned  the  eyes  of  pity  on 
the  School  of  Paris  and  promoted  doctors  thereof,  as  well  in 

28o         Lincoln  Chapter  appoint  Masters 

misericordes  oculos  convertistis  et  ejusdem  studii  doctores  tam 
philosophos  quam  theologos  ad  ecclesiastica  beneficia  promo- 
vistis,  et  alios  quidem  immensis  honoribus  sublimastis,  alios 
vero  dedistis  pastores  et  doctores  in  opere  ministerii  et  in 
edificationem  corporis  Christi  et  consummationem  Sanctorum, 
Nos  autem,  pater  sanctissime,  divina  institutione  formati 
audemus  dicere,  quod  nostrum  studium  Oxoniense  illo  Parisians! 
studio,  quamvis  excellenter  nobili,  est  quidem  antiquius  tem- 
pore, prius  origine  et  prout  credimus  non  posterius  dignitate. 
Constat  namque  Albinium  philosophum  et  doctorem  catho- 
licum  natione  Anglum  famosissimi  principis  Caroli  Magni 
magistrum  et  per  eundem  Carolum  de  Anglia  accersitum  fuisse 
Parisius  studii  fundatorem,  quod  non  Anglice,  imo  Gallice 
atque  Romane  historic  contestantur. 

Six  Grammar  Schools  in  Lincolnshire.      1329. 

[A.  F.  Leach,    V.   C.  H.  Lines.,  n.  449,  from   Lincoln  Chapter  Act 
Book,  A.   2,  24,  f.   14.] 

Memorandum  quod  Idibus  Junii  a.d.  supradicto  reverendi 
viri  et  domini  Dominus  Decanus  ecclesie  Lincolniensis,  Egidius 
de  Redmer  et  Johannes  de  Scalleby,  canonici  ecclesie  Lin- 
colniensis vices  capituli  gerentes  et  nomine  ipsius  capituli,  in 
quadam  camera  bassa  sub  capella  dicti  Domini  Decani  in 
hospicio  eiusdem  sedentes,  ac  inter  se  de  collacione  scolarum 
gramaticalium  in  comitatu  Lincolniensi  vacancium,  cancellaria 
dicte  Lincolniensis  ecclesie  vacante  et  in  manu  dictorum  Domi- 
norum  existente,  ac  de  personis  ad  easdem  scolas  admittendis 
inter  se  tractantes ;  demum  scolas  gramaticales  de  Barton, 
Willelmo  de  Gornay ;  scolas  de  Partenay,  Johanni  de  Upton  ; 
scolas  de  Grimesby,  Willelmo  de  Coleston ;  scolas  de  Horn- 
castre,  Johanni  de  Beverlaco ;  scolas  de  Sancto  Botulpho, 
Roberto  de  Muston ;  et  scolas  de  Graham  Waltero  Pigot ; 
clericis,  a  festo  S.  Michaelis  a.d.  1329  usque  ad  idem  festum 

of  Six  Lincolnshire  Grammar  Schools     281 

philosophy  as  in  theology,  to  ecclesiastical  benefices,  and  have 
exalted  some  to  immeasurable  honours,  and  have  given  others 
as  pastors  and  teachers  in  the  work  of  the  ministry  to  the 
building  up  of  the  body  of  Christ  and  the  perfecting  of  the 

Now  we  too,  most  holy  father,  created  by  the  institution  of 
God,  venture  to  say  that  our  School  of  Oxford  is  more  ancient 
in  time,  earlier  in  origin  and,  as  we  believe,  not  inferior  in 
worth  to  the  School  of  Paris,  most  noble  as  it  is.  For  it  is 
established  that  Alcuin  the  philosopher  and  catholic  doctor, 
an  Englishman  by  birth,  the  master  of  the  most  famous  prince 
Charlemagne  and  summoned  from  England  by  him,  was  the 
founder  of  the  School  of  Paris,  as  not  only  English  but  French 
and  Roman  histories  testify. 

Six  Schools  in  Lincolnshire.      1329. 

Memorandum,  that  on  13  June,  in  the  year  aforesaid 
[1329],  the  reverend  men  and  masters,  the  Lord  Dean  of  the 
church  of  Lincoln,  and  Giles  of  Redmere,  and  John  of  Schalby, 
Canons  of  the  church  of  Lincoln,  as  vicegerents  and  in  the 
name  of  the  Chapter,  sitting  in  a  certain  low  room  below  the 
Lord  Dean's  Chapel  in  his  house,  and  discussing  the  collation 
of  the  Grammar  Schools  in  the  county  of  Lincoln  which  were 
vacant,  the  Chancellorship  of  the  said  church  of  Lincoln 
being  vacant  and  then  in  their  hands,  and  as  to  the  per- 
sons to  be  admitted  to  such  schools  ;  finally  they  conferred 
the  Grammar  School  of  Barton  on  William  of  Gurney,  the 
school  of  Partney  on  John  of  Upton,  the  school  of  Grimsby  on 
William  of  Coleston,  the  school  of  Horncastle  on  John  of 
Beverley,  the  school  of  St  Botolph  [i.e.  Boston]  on  Robert  of 
Muston,  and  the  school  of  Grantham  on  Walter  Pigot,  clerks, 
from  Michaelmas,   1329,  to  the  same   feast  in  the   following 

282         Lincoln  Chapter  appoint  Masters 

anno  revoluto,  nomine  quo  supra,  caritatis  intuitu  contulerunt, 
ipsos  et  eorum  singulos  in  corporalem  possessionem  dictarum 
scolarum,  prout  eorum  singulos  ut  premittitur  singulariter  con- 
tulerunt, inducendos  fore  expressius  concedentes. 

Et  postmodo  litteras  optinuerunt  eorum  singuli  Decanis 
locorum  predictorum  dirigendas  et  sigillo  communi  capituli 
consignatas,  mutatis  nominibus  dictorum  magistrorum,  sub 
hac  forma ; 

Antonius,  Decanus,  et  capitulum  ecclesie  Lincolniensis, 
Dilecto  sibi  in  Christo,  Decano  de  Candelescheaw,  salutem  in 
auctore  salutis. 

Cum  nos  ad  quos  scolarum  gramaticalium  collacio,  racione 
vacacionis  cancellarie  ecclesie  Lincolniensis  predicte  in  manu 
nostra  existentis,  noscitur  pertinere,  scolas  gramaticales  de 
Partenay  vacantes  magistro  Johanni  de  Upton,  clerico,  a  festo 
Sancti  Michaelis  a.d.  millesimo  ccc'""  vicesimo  nono  usque  ad 
idem  festum  anno  revoluto  pro  informacione  puerorum  ipsas 
scolas  frequentare  volencium  contulerimus  intuitu  caritatis, 
vobis  mandamus  quatinus  ipsum  Johannem  corporalem  posses- 
sionem dictarum  scolarum  vice  et  auctoritate  nostra  per  vos 
vel  alium  habere  faciatis,  banc  nostram  collacionem  locis  et 
temporibus  oportunis  publicari  prout  convenit  facientes;  et  nos 
de  facto  vestro,  cum  requisiti  fueritis,  apertius  certificantes. 

Datis  Lincolnie  Idibus  Junii  a.d.  supradicto. 

Secession  from    Oxford   University   to   Stamford. 


[A.    F.    Leach,    V.    C.   H.   Lines.,  11.   468.] 

University  Petition  to  Queen  Philippa,    14  Feb.,   1334. 

[Roval   MS.  12,   D.  xi.  f.  29,  printed  in   Oxford   Hist.  Soc.  Collectanea, 

I.  8.] 

A  la  Reigne  Dengleterre  de  par  la  univ[ersite]. 
A  sa  tresnoble  et  treshonorable  dame,  Dame  Philippe,  par 
la   grace    de  Dieu   Reyne  dengleterre,   Les  soens  silui   pleist 

of  Six  Lincolnshire   Grammar  Schools     283 

year,  in  the  above  title  and  by  way  of  charity ;  expressly 
granting  that  they  and  each  of  them  should  be  inducted  into 
the  bodily  possession  of  the  said  schools  in  accordance  with 
their  respective  collations. 

And  afterwards  each  of  them  obtained  letters  directed  to 
the  [Rural]  Deans  of  the  places  aforesaid,  sealed  with  the 
common  seal  of  the  Chapter,  which,  with  the  change  of  the 
names  of  the  masters,  were  in  this  form  : — 

'Anthony,  Dean,  and  the  Chapter  of  the  church  of  Lincoln, 
to  their  beloved  in  Christ,  the  Dean  of  Candleshaw,  health  in 
the  Author  of  health. 

Whereas  we,  to  whom  the  collation  of  Grammar  Schools  is 
known  to  belong,  by  reason  of  the  vacancy  of  the  Chancellor- 
ship of  the  church  of  Lincoln  aforesaid,  and  its  being  in  our 
hands,  have,  by  way  of  charity,  conferred  the  Grammar  School 
of  Partney,  now  vacant,  on  Master  John  of  Upton,  clerk,  from 
Michaelmas,  1329,  to  the  same  feast  in  the  following  year,  for 
the  instruction  of  boys  wishing  to  attend  the  school ;  we  com- 
mand you  that  you,  in  our  stead  and  by  our  authority,  either 
personally  or  by  your  agent,  cause  the  same  John  to  have  bodily 
possession  of  the  said  school,  and  cause  this  our  collation  to 
be  made  public  at  the  proper  time  and  place,  as  conveniently 
may  be,  certifying  us  openly  of  what  you  have  done  when 
called  upon  to  do  so. 

Dated  at  Lincoln,  13  June  aforesaid.' 

Secession  from    Oxford   University   to   Stamford. 

University  Petition  to  Queen  Philippa,   14  Feb.,   1334- 

To  the  Queen  of  England  on  behalf  of  the  University. 

To  the  very  noble  and  very  honourable  lady,  Lady  Philippa, 
by  the  grace  of  God  queen  of  England,   her  subjects,   if  it 

284  Oxford  University 

subiectz  le  Chancellier  et  les  Maistres  de  la  Universitee 
Doxenford,  ou  treshumbles  obeyssances  toutes  reverences  et 
honeurs.  Treshonorable  dame,  de  grantz  biens  et  honneurs 
qe  vus  auez  souent  fet  a  vostre  petite  Universite  de  Oxenford 
deuotement  de  queoz  vus  enmercions.... 

Et  pur  ceo  dame  qaukunes  gentz,  qe  toutz  ses  honeures 
ount  resceuz  entre  nus,  en  destruction  quant  en  eus  est  de 
nostre  Uniuersite  seu  sont  treez  a  Estanford,  et  toutz  les  iourz 
treount  aultres  par  leur  fauses  covines ;  Vuliez,  tresnoble 
dame,  a  vostre  humble  filie  per  tant  conseillier,  qe  par  ses 
faus  fuitz  ne  soit  deseuree  ne  deuisee,  mais  par  vus  maintenue 
puisse  les  fuitz  de  grantz  et  altres  enseignier  en  bons  mours  et 
en  sciences,  en  eiant  si  le  pleist  regard  de  bone  gentz  et  sages, 
qel  ad  auant  ces  heures  a  grand  honeur  de  vostre  Realme 
norriz  par  encres  de  vertuz  et  entendement  de  sa  juvent  tanqe 
a  veilliage,  et  ne  vulliez  qe  la  vile  doxenford,  qest  a  nostre 
Seignur  le  Roi  et  a  vus,  pur  honur  daultre  soit  en  ceste  part 
desheritee — 

Escript  le  Jour  seint  Valentin. 

The  Secessionists  petition  the   King  for  Protection  at 
Stamford,     c.  Feb.   1334. 

[P.R.O.  Anct.  Pets.  132,  No.  6568.] 

Pour  ceo  que  grandes  et  greueuses  descordes  ont  estez  de 
long  temps  et  unqore  sont  en  le  universitie  de  Oxenford  per 
resone  de  la  grande  multitude  qil  y  ad  de  diuerses  gentz, 
et  plusours  homicides  malfaites  roberies  et  autres  mals  sanz 
noumbre  ont  este  fetez  illoques,  et  de  iour  en  autre  se  fount 
que  Chaunceller  od  la  force  de  la  ville  ne  le  puist  chastier  ne 
apeser,  et  plusours  de  meistres  et  de  escolers  se  sont  retret 
et  ne  osent  mes  uenir  a  la  ville  auantdite  per  celes  enchesons 
pur  dout  de  mort  et  perde  de  lour  biens  et  sont  demorantz 
a  Estanford  et  voulient  sil  plaist  a  notre  Seigneur  le  Roi  pur 
seurete  de  eux  et  des  autres  escolers  qi  ne  osent  a  la  dite  ville 

Secession  to  Stamford  285 

please  her,  the  Chancellor  and  Masters  of  the  University  of 
Oxford,  all  reverence  and  honour  with  very  humble  obedience. 
Most  honourable  lady,  for  the  great  good  and  honour  that 
you  have  often  done  to  your  little  University  of  Oxford,  for 
which  we  devoutly  thank  you.... 

And  for  that,  lady,  certain  persons,  who  have  received  all 
their  honours  among  us,  in  destruction,  as  far  as  in  them  lies, 
of  our  university,  have  gone  to  Stamford,  and  daily  attract 
others  there  by  their  false  pretences,  be  pleased,  most  noble 
lady,  to  counsel  your  humble  daughter,  so  that  she  may  not 
by  her  false  sons  be  deprived  of  work  and  honour,  but,  being 
maintained  by  you,  may  teach  the  sons  of  great  men  and 
others  good  manners  and  learning.  Have,  if  it  please  you, 
regard  to  good  and  wise  persons  who  before  now,  to  the 
great  honour  of  your  kingdom,  have  been  nourished  with 
increase  of  virtue  and  understanding  from  youth  to  old 
age ;  and  let  not  the  town  of  Oxford,  which  belongs  to  my 
lord  the  king  and  to  you,  be  disinherited  in  this  behalf  for  the 
honour  of  another.... 

Written  on  St  Valentine's  Day  [1334]. 

The  Secessionists  petition  the  King  for  Protection  at 
Stamford,     c.  Feb.    1334. 

For  that  great  and  grievous  discords  have  been  for  a  long 
time  and  still  are  in  the  University  of  Oxford,  by  reason  of  the 
great  multitude  there  of  different  people,  and  many  homicides, 
crimes,  robberies  and  other  evils  without  number  have  been 
done  there,  and  happen  from  one  day  to  another,  which  neither 
the  Chancellor  nor  the  force  of  the  town  can  punish  or 
appease  ;  and  many  of  the  masters  and  scholars  have  with- 
drawn themselves,  and  dare  not  go  to  the  town  aforesaid  for 
such  reasons,  through  fear  of  death  and  loss  of  their  property; 
and  are  living  at  Stamford,  and  wish,  if  it  please  our  Lord  the 
King,  for  safety  of  themselves  and  the  other  scholars  who  dare 

286  Oxford  University 

de  Oxenford  aprocher  et  pur  esthauncher  les  grants  mals  et 
affrais  auanditz  illoques  demorer  et  estudier,  prient  les  dits 
meistres  et  escolers  a  notre  seigneur  le  Roy  pur  dieu  et  pur 
seynte  charite  qe  luy  plese  de  sa  bone  grace  grantier  a  eux  son 
real  assent  a  les  auoir  en  sa  proteccion  pur  estauncher  touz 
les  mals  auantditz,  et  en  amendement  de  seynte  eglise  et  de  la 
clergie  de  son  roialme. 

The  King  orders  the  Sheriff  of  Lincolnshire  to  go  to  Stamford 
and  issue  Proclamation  that  no  Universities  are  allowed 
except  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge.     8  Aug.  1334. 

[Close  Roll,  8  Edw.  Ill,  m.  17  d.] 

Rex  vicecomiti  Lincoln,  salutem. 

Quia  datum  est  nobis  intelligi  quod  quamplures  magistri 
et  scolares  universitatis  nostre  Oxonie  colore  quarundam  dis- 
sensionum  in  universitate  predicta  nuper  ut  dicitur  exortarum 
et  aliis  coloribus  quesitis  se  ab  eadem  universitate  retrahentes 
apud  villam  de  Stamford  se  divertere  et  ibidem  studium  tenere 
ac  actus  scolasticos  excercere  presumunt  assensu  nostro  seu 
licencia  minime  requisito,  quod  si  toleraretur  non  tantum  in 
nostrum  contemptum  et  dedecus,  set  eciam  in  dispersionem 
universitatis  nostre  predicte  cederet  manifeste ;  Nos  nolentes 
scolas  seu  studia  alibi  infra  regnum  nostrum  quam  in  locis  ubi 
universitates  nunc  sunt  aliqualiter  teneri,  tibi  precipimus  firmiter 
iniungentes  quod  ad  predictam  villam  de  Stamford  personaliter 
accedas,  et  ibidem  ac  alibi  infra  ballivani  tuam,  ubi  expedire 
videris,  ex  parte  nostra  publice  proclamari  et  inhiberi  facias,  ne 
qui,  sub  forisfactura  omnium  que  nobis  forisfacere  poterunt,  alibi 
quam  in  universitatibus  nostris  predictis  studium  tenere  vel  actus 
scolasticos  excercere  presumant  quoquo  modo,  et  de  nominibus 
illorum  quos  post  proclamacionem  et  inhibicionem  predictas 
inveneris  contrarium  facientes  nobis  in  Cancellaria  nostra 
sub  sigillo  tuo  distincte  et  aperte  constare  faceretis   indilate. 

Secession  to  Stamford  287 

not  approach  the  said  town  of  Oxford,  and  to  staunch  the 
great  evils  and  assaults  aforesaid,  to  stay  and  study  there, 
the  said  masters  and  scholars  pray  our  lord  the  King,  for 
God  and  for  holy  charity,  that  it  may  please  him  of  his  good 
grace  to  grant  them  his  royal  assent  to  take  them  under  his 
protection,  to  stop  all  the  evils  aforesaid,  for  the  advancement 
of  holy  church  and  of  the  clergy  of  his  realm. 

The  King  orders  the  Sheriff  of  Lincolnshire  to  go  to  Stamford 
and  issue  Proclamation  that  no  Universities  are  allowed 
except  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge.     8  Aug.  1334. 

The  King  to  the  Sheriff  of  Lincoln,  greeting. 

Whereas  we  are  informed  that  many  masters  and  scholars 
of  our  University  of  Oxford,  under  pretext  of  certain  dissensions 
lately  arisen,  as  it  is  said,  in  the  University  aforesaid  and  other 
colourable  pretexts,  withdrawing  themselves  from  the  same 
University  presume  to  go  to  the  town  of  Stamford  and  there 
hold  school  and  perform  scholastic  acts,  without  our  assent 
or  licence,  which  if  it  should  be  tolerated  would  clearly 
redound  not  only  to  contempt  of  us  and  our  disgrace,  but 
also  to  the  dispersion  of  our  University  aforesaid  ;  We,  not 
wishing  that  schools  or  studies  should  be  kept  elsewhere 
within  our  realm  except  in  the  places  where  Universities  are 
now  in  some  sense  held,  command  you,  firmly  enjoining  you 
to  go  in  person  to  the  said  town  of  Stamford,  and  there  and 
elsewhere  within  your  bailiwick  where  you  shall  deem  it  ex- 
pedient, cause  public  proclamation  and  inhibition  to  be  made 
on  our  behalf  that  none  presume,  on  pain  of  forfeiture  of  all 
they  can  forfeit  to  us,  to  hold  a  University  or  do  scholastic 
acts  in  any  way  elsewhere  than  in  our  Universities  aforesaid, 
and  you  shall  without  delay  certify  clearly  and  openly  to  us  in 
our  Chancery  under  your  seal  the  names  of  those  whom  after 
such  proclamation  and  inhibition  you  shall  find  disobedient. 

288  The  Pope  sends  Benedictine 

Volumus  enim  omnibus  et  singulis  qui  de  violenciis  aut  iniuriis 
apud  dictam  villam  Oxonie  illatis  coram  iusticiariis  nostris 
ibidem  ad  hoc  specialiter  deputatis  se  conqueri  voluerint  celerem 
iusticiam  exhiberi  prout  decet. 

Teste  Rege  apud  VVyndesore  secundo  die  Augusti  per 
ipsum  Regem  et  concilium. 

Consimile  breve  dirigitur  maiori  et  ballivis  ville  regis 
Oxonie  mutatis  mutandis.     Teste  ut  supra. 

[A  writ  was  addressed  to  the  Sheriff  of  Lincolnshire  from 
Newcastle-on-Tyne  on  i  Nov.  following,  stating  that  the  King 
heard  that  both  masters  and  scholars  had  disobeyed  the  pro- 
clamation, and  directing  the  sheriff  to  go  again  and  seize  all  the 
books  and  other  goods  of  the  disobedient.  On  7  Jan.  1335  the 
King  wrote  to  William  Trussel,  escheator  this  side  Trent,  to  go 
with  the  sheriff  (Pat.  8  Edw.  Ill,  m.  28).  The  sheriff  did  not 
go.  The  Stamford  'clerks'  sent  another  petition  in  Jan.  1335, 
saying  they  were  living  under  the  protection  of  John,  Earl 
of  Warren,  and  asking  to  be  allowed  to  stay,  as  people  of 
all  kind  of  occupations  {touz  maneres  de  fuestiers)  can  dwell 

Papal  Statutes  for  Education  of  Benedictine 
Monks.     1335. 

[B.  M.  Cott.  F'aust.  vi.  (Durham  I'riory  Register).] 

Constitutiones  Benedicti  Pape  ejus  nomine  XII  super 
monachos  nigros. 

Cap.  7.     De  studiis. 

Quia  vero  per  exercitium  lectionis  acquiritur  scientiae 
margarita  et  per  studium  sacrae  paginae  ad  cognitionem 
excellentiae  divinae  familiarius  pervenitur,  ac  per  cognitionem 
humani   juris   animus   rationabilior   efficitur,    et  ad   justitiam 

Monks  to  the  Universities  289 

For  we  will  that  speedy  justice  shall  be  done,  as  is  proper, 
to  all  and  singular  who  shall  before  our  justices,  there  specially 
assigned  for  that  purpose,  complain  of  any  violence  or  wrong 
done  to  them  in  the  said  town  of  Oxford. 

Witness  the  King  at  Windsor,  2  August,  by  the  King  and 

A  like  writ  is  directed  to  the  Mayor  and  Bailiffs  of  the 
King's  town  of  Oxford,  mutatis  mutandis.     Witness  as  above. 

in  any  lordship  if  they  are  in  the  King's  allegiance.  It  was  in 
vain.  On  28  March  the  King  wrote  to  the  escheator,  as  the 
sheriff  would  not  go,  to  take  down  the  names  of  the  disobedient. 
On  Wednesday  after  25  July,  the  escheator  held  an  inquisition 
by  a  jury,  when  17  masters,  5  Stamford  clergy,  i  bachelor,  and 
14  scholars,  with  Philip,  manciple  of  Brasenose,  were  found 
there.  As  to  their  goods  the  jury  were  in  ignorance.  They 
must  then  have  left  Stamford,  as  the  episode  ends  with  a  letter 
from  Oxford  to  Cambridge  University  asking  them  not  to 
admit  as  a  master  there  the  '  perjured '  ringleader,  William  of 

Papal  Statutes  for  Education  of  Benedictine 
Monks.     1335. 

Statutes  of  Pope  Benedict  of  that  name  the  Twelfth 
for  the  Black  Monks. 

Chapter  7.     On  Universities. 

Because  by  the  practice  of  reading  the  pearl  of  learning 
is  acquired,  and  by  the  study  of  the  sacred  page  we  arrive  at 
a  more  familiar  acquaintance  with  the  divine  excellence,  and 
through  the  knowledge  of  human  law  the  mind  is  made  more 

L.  19 

290  Papal  Statutes  for 

certius  informatur,  Nos  cupientes  ut  viri  ejusdem  ordinis  seu 
religionis  in  agro  dominico  laborantes  in  primitivis  et  deinde 
in  divini  et  humani  canonici  videlicet  et  civilis  jurium 
scientiis  instruantur  constitutioni  dementis  praedecessoris 
nostri  de  monachis  in  scientiis  primitivis  instruendis  infra 
monasteria  quibus  degunt  editae  inhaerentes,  illam  volumus 
et  praecipimus  firmiter  observari ; 

Et  nichilominus  adjiciendo  statuimus  et  ordinamus  ut  in 
quibuslibet  ecclesiis  cathedralibus  et  monasticis,  prioratibus 
aut  aliis  conventualibus  et  solempnibus  locis  quibus  ad  haec 
suppetunt  facultates,  ordinis  seu  religionis  hujusmodi,  dein- 
ceps  habeatur  magister  qui  monachos  eorum  doceat  in 
hujusmodi  scientiis  primitivis,  viz.  grammatica,  logica  et 
philosophia ; 

Proviso  attentius  ut  seculares  cum  ipsis  monachis  docendi 
in  eisdem  ecclesiis,  monasteriis,  prioratibus  et  locis  aliis  nul- 
latenus  admittantur. 

Qui  vero  magister  si  monachus  non  fuerit  ipsius  ordinis  seu 
religionis  de  pane  et  vino  et  pittancia  providere  cotidie  sicut 
uni  ex  monachis  ecclesiarum,  monasteriorum,  prioratuum  et 
locorum  hujusmodi  teneantur  illi,  qui  talia  tenentur  in  eis 
capitulis  ecclesiarum,  monasteriorum,  prioratuum  et  locorum 
ipsorum  conventibus  seu  monachis  ministrare ;  Necnon  pro 
vestimentis,  calciamentis  et  salario  congrua  pensio  annua 
assignetur  quae  tamen  xxti  librarum  Turorum  parvorum 
summam  nequaquam  excedat  quae  de  infrascripta  communi 
contributione  solvetur,  donee  pro  ea  pensionibus  monachorum 
studentium  ad  generalia  seu  solempnia  sludia  mittendorum 
certi  et  perpetui  redditus  assignati  fuerint,  prout  infra  ex- 
pressius  et  plenius  continetur. 

Si  vero  in  ecclesiis,  monasteriis,  prioratibus  et  locis  praedictis 
sit  monachus  ydoneusad  praedicta,  monachus  ipse  per  antistites 
in  cathedralibus  ecclesiis,  in  monasteriis  vero  et  aliis  locis 
praefatis  per  superiores  suos  instituere  fideliter  monachos  ipsos 
in  praedictis  studiis  deputetur,  et  ad  hoc  sincere  fuerit  com- 
pellatus ;  cui  scilicet  monacho  institutori  decern  librae  Turon. 

Education  of  Benedictine  Monks         291 

logical  and  obtains  more  certain  knowledge  for  doing  justice, 
We,  desiring  that  men  of  the  same  [Benedictine]  order  or 
vows  labouring  in  the  Lord's  field  may  be  instructed  in  the 
elementary  sciences  and  afterwards  in  those  of  God's  and 
man's,  that  is  canon  and  civil,  laws,  adhering  to  the  constitution 
published  by  our  predecessor  Clement  as  to  the  instruction  of 
monks  in  the  elementary  sciences  in  the  monasteries  in  which 
they  live,  will  and  command  that  it  shall  be  firmly  observed  ; 

And  adding  thereto,  we  decree  and  ordain  that  in  all 
monastic  cathedral  churches,  priories  or  other  conventual 
and  solemn  places  of  sufficient  means  belonging  to  such 
order  or  vows,  there  shall  henceforth  be  kept  a  master  to 
teach  their  monks  such  elementary  sciences,  viz.  grammar, 
logic  and  philosophy ; 

Provided  always  that  seculars  shall  on  no  account  be 
admitted  to  be  taught  with  the  monks  in  the  same  churches, 
monasteries,  priories  or  other  places. 

And  this  master,  if  he  is  not  a  monk  of  that  order  or 
vows,  those  in  the  chapters  of  the  churches,  monasteries, 
priories  and  places,  who  are  bound  to  serve  with  such  things 
their  convents  or  monks,  shall  be  bound  to  provide  with 
bread  and  wine  and  a  pittance  daily  as  they  are  one  of  the 
monks  of  such  churches,  monasteries,  priories  and  places ; 
also  for  clothes,  shoes  and  salary  a  proper  yearly  pension 
shall  be  assigned,  not  exceeding  ;!^20  of  small  Tours  money, 
which  shall  be  paid  out  of  the  common  contribution  mentioned 
below,  until  instead  of  it  certain  perpetual  rents  shall  be 
assigned  for  the  pensions  of  the  student  monks  to  be  sent 
to  general  or  solemn  schools,  as  is  more  at  large  and  fully 
contained  below. 

If,  however,  there  is  in  the  churches,  monasteries,  priories, 
and  places  aforesaid  a  monk  fit  for  the  aforesaid,  that  monk 
shall  be  deputed  by  the  prelates  of  the  cathedral  churches 
and  the  superiors  of  the  monasteries  and  other  places  aforesaid 
faithfully  to  instruct  the  monks  in  the  aforesaid  studies,  and 
shall  be  compelled  to  do  so;  and  this  teaching  monk  shall  have 

19 — 2 

292  Papal  Statutes  for 

ultra  victum  et  vestitum  pro  Hbris  omnimodis  vel  aliis  suis 
necessitatibus  juxta  dispositionem  antistitis,  vel  dictorum 
superiorum,  deputetur. 

Antistites  vero  et  alii  superiores  praedicti  dictos  monachos 
qui  dociles  fuerint  cum  consilio  proborum  et  seniorum 
ecclesiarum  [etc.]  eligere  teneantur,  et  ordinare  de  certo 
numero  eorumdem  ac  de  locis  et  temporibus,  quibus 
lectionibus,  ([uibusve  divinis  officiis  seu  obsequiis  aliis  oppor- 
tunis  intendant. 

Possintque  antistites  et  superiores  dictos  magistros  instir 
tutores  et  instruendos  cum  consilio  proborum  et  seniorum 
praedictorum,  prout  eis  visum  fuerit  expediens,  removere  et 
loco  eorum  alios  subrogare. 

De  studentibus  ad  generalia  studia  mittendis. 

Caeterum,  quia  expedire  dinoscitur,  ut  postquam  prefati 
monachi  in  predictis  scienciis  primitivis  eruditi  fuerint  ad  sacre 
theologie  vel  canonum  transeant  facultates ;  Statuinnis  et  ordi- 
namiis  ut  ecclesie  monasteria  prioratus  et  alia  loca  hujusmodi, 
singula  videlicet  eorum,  cum  suis  membris  inferius  declarandis, 
de  quolibet  numero  vicenario  monachorum  unum  aptum  pro 
fructu  majoris  scientie  acquirendo  ad  generalia  seu  solenia 
studia  mittere  teneantur  et  quemlibet  ipsorum  mittendorum  de 
infrascripta  pensione  annua  providere.  Sic  autem  hujusmodi 
numerum  vicenarium  volumus  computari :  ut  illi  dumtaxat 
monachi  numerum  ipsum  efificiant  in  hoc  casu,  qui  sunt  seu 
erunt  in  ecclesiis  monasteriis  vel  locis  principalibus,  et  in 
locis  aliis  eisdem  ecclesiis  monasteriis  et  locis  principalibus 
subjectis,  habentibus  octo  monachos  sive  plures  ;  et  hii  solum 
cum  monachis  ecclesiarum  monasteriorum  et  locorum  prin- 
cipalium  hujusmodi,  in  computatione  ac  missione  hujusmodi 
conjungantur. ...Eligantur  quoque  ipsi  monachi  mittendi  prout 
in  scientia  theologie  vel  juris  canonici,  seu  magis  in  unaquaque 
vel  alia  ipsorum,  aptiores  poterunt  inveniri  :  Sic  tamen  quod  si 
apti  reperiantur  pro  ipso  theologie  studio  ad  minus   medietas 

Education  of  Benedictine  Monks         293 

J[,\o  Tours,  besides  food  and  clothing,  assigned  to  him  for  his 
books  of  all  kinds  and  other  necessaries  according  to  the 
arrangement  of  the  prelate  or  the  said  superiors. 

The  prelates  and  other  superiors  aforesaid  shall  be  bound 
to  elect,  with  the  advice  of  the  approved  and  senior  monks  of 
the  churches  [etc.],  those  monks  who  appear  to  be  teachable, 
and  to  make  orders  as  to  the  number  of  them,  and  as  to 
places  and  seasons,  and  what  lessons  or  what  divine  offices  or 
other  suitable  services  they  are  to  attend. 

And  the  prelates  and  superiors  may  remove  the  said 
teaching  masters  and  those  to  be  instructed,  with  the  advice 
of  the  said  approved  and  senior  [monks],  as  shall  seem  ex- 
pedient, and  put  others  in  their  places. 

Of  Students  to  be  sent  to  Universities. 

But  because  it  is  known  to  be  expedient  that  when  the  said 
monks  have  been  taught  the  said  elementary  sciences  they  should 
pass  on  to  the  faculties  of  sacred  theology  or  canon  law,  we  decree 
and  order  that  the  cathedral  churches,  monasteries,  priories 
and  other  such  places,  each  of  them  that  is  with  its  members 
mentioned  below,  shall  be  bound  to  send  out  of  every  twenty 
monks  one  who  is  fit  to  acquire  the  fruit  of  greater  learning  to 
a  university,  and  to  provide  each  one  so  sent  with  the  yearly 
pension  underwritten.  And  the  number  of  twenty  we  will  shall 
be  thus  reckoned:  that  those  monks  only  shall  make  up  that 
number  for  this  purpose,  who  are  or  shall  be  in  churches,  monas- 
teries or  principal  places,  and  in  other  places  subject  to  the  same 
churches,  monasteries,  and  principal  places,  having  eight  monks 
or  more  ;  and  these  alone  are  to  be  reckoned  with  the  monks  of 
such  churches,  monasteries,  and  principal  places  in  such  reckon- 
ing and  sending.  [Clause  as  to  counting  fractions  of  20.]  These 
monks  shall  be  elected  to  be  sent  according  as  they  are  found 
to  be  most  fit  in  the  science  of  theology  and  canon  law,  or  in 
one  or  other  of  them  ;  so,  however,  that  if  found  fit  for  the  study 
of  theology  at  least  half  of  those  to  be  sent  shall  be  destined 

294  Bachelors  created  in  Beverley 

mittendorum  pro  ipso  theologie  studio  destinetur :  vel  saltern 
quanto  plures  aptiores  potuerint  inveniri ;  ac  reliqua  medietas 
eorundem    mittendorum    ad    ipsius    juris    canonici    studium 

transmittatur Ita  quod   in  festo  Exaltationis   Sancte  Crucis 

[14  Sept.]  vel  circa,  ipsi  taliter  nominati  et  electi  in  studio 
Parisiensi  existant  qui  Parisios  fuerint  destinandi ;  in  aliis  vero 
studiis  in  festo  beati  Luce  [18  Oct.]  vel  circa,  infallibiliter  sint 

Creation  of  Bachelors  in  Beverley  GravDuar 
School.      1338. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Mem.  of  Beverley  Alinster  (Surtees  Soc),  No.  108. 
II.  p.    127.] 

De  cerotecis  contribuendis  ministris  ecclesie. 

In  Dei  nomine.  Auditis  et  intellectis  mentis  cause  seu 
negocii,  que  coram  nobis,  Auditore  causarum  Venerabilis 
Capituli  ecclesie  Sancti  Johannis  Beverlacensis  super  presta- 
cione  et  tradicione  cerothecarum  ministris  ecclesie  memorate 
competencium,  a  Baculariis  de  novo  creandis  in  Scolis  Ciramati- 
calibus  prefate  ecclesie  tradendarum,  ex  nostri  officii  debito 
vertebatur ;  videlicet,  clerico  ("apituli  et  Auditori,  unum  par, 
preconi  Capituli,  unum  par ;  clerico  Camerarii ;  clerico  altaris 
Beate  Marie ;  clerico  tabulum  in  choro  conficienti  :  et  tribus 
sacristis  ecclesie  sepedicte  ;  cuilibet  eorum  unum  par  cerote- 
carum,  ex  consuetudine  legitima  et  diutius  approbata  de  jure 
debitarum ; 

Verum  quia  dictam  consuetudinem  coram  nobis  legitime 
esse  probatam  invenimus,  dictam  consuetudinem  de  cetero 
fideliter  perpetuis  temporibus  in  prestacione  et  solucione 
hujusmodi  cerotecarum  firmiter  observandam ;  inimo  omnes  et 

Minster  Grammar  School  295 

to  study  theology,  and  as  many  more  as  can  be  found  most  fit 
for  this  ;  and  the  other  half  of  those  to  be  sent  shall  be  sent  to 
the  study  of  canon  law.  [Provisions  as  to  oaths  of  abbot  and 
eight  senior  monks  to  elect  the  most  fit]  So  that  on  14 
September  or  thereabouts  those  so  nominated  and  elected 
who  are  going  to  Paris  may  infallibly  be  present  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Paris;  and  those  in  other  universities  on  18  October 
or  thereabouts.  [Provision  for  the  election  devolving  on  the 
next  officer  of  the  monastery  if  the  head  fails  to  have  an 
election  ten  days  before  Lady  Day.  Penalties  for  breach  of 
the  statute  to  be  remitted  only  by  Presidents  of  the  General 
Chapters  of  the  order.  Abbots  etc.  failing  to  pay  the 
pensioner  within  a  month  to  pay  double,  and  if  for  eight 
months  to  be  ipso  facto  excommunicated,  and  if  for  a  year 
to  be  ipso  facto  deprived  of  office  and  benefice.] 

Creation  of  Bachelors  in  Beverley  Gramm,ar 

School.       1338. 

Of  the  Gloves  to  be  given  to  the  Ministers  of  the  Church. 

In  the  name  of  God.  Having  heard  and  understood 
the  merits  of  the  cause  or  matter  which  was  duly  argued 
according  to  the  duty  of  our  office  before  us,  the  auditor  of  the 
causes  of  the  Venerable  Chapter  of  the  church  of  St  John  of 
Beverley,  on  the  presentation  and  delivery  of  suitable  gloves  to 
the  ministers  of  the  said  church  by  the  bachelors  newly  created 
in  the  grammar  school  of  the  aforesaid  church ;  namely,  to  the 
Chapter  clerk  and  auditor,  one  pair  ;  to  the  Chapter's  summoner, 
one  pair ;  to  the  chamberlain's  clerk,  the  clerk  of  St  Mary's 
altar,  the  clerk  making  the  table  in  choir,  and  to  the  three  [sex- 
tons] sacrists  of  the  church  aforesaid,  to  each  of  them  one  pair 
of  gloves,  rightfully  due  by  lawful  and  long  approved  custom  ; 

Now  because  we  have  found  the  said  custom  to  be  proved 
before  us  by  legal  proof,  we  by  way  of  final  judgment  declare 
by  this  writing  that  the  said  custom  shall  be  for  ever  hereafter 
faithfully  observed  in  the  presentation  and  payment  of  such 

296  The  Almonry  Boys,  St  Albans 

singulos  dictani  consuetudinem  de  cetero  infringentes,  seu 
quovismodo  violantes  in  majoris  excommunicacionis  senten- 
ciam,  quater  in  anno  in  prefata  ecclesia  publice  et  notorie 
latam  ipso  facto  incidere,  sentencialiter  et  diffinitive  pronun- 
ciamus  in  hiis  scriptis. 

St  Albans  Almonry  Boys    Statutes. 

[A.  F".  Leach,   V.  C.  //.  Herts,  11.  53,  from  Reg.  Whethamstede  (Rolls 
Series),  11.  315.] 

Ordinacio  facta,  pro  mora  pauperum  Scolarium  in  Eleemo- 
synaria  Sancti  Albani,  die  Sancti  Ambrosii,  anno  Domini 
millesimo  trecentesimo  tricesimo  nono  et  cetera. 

In  Dei  nomine,  Amen.  Incipit  modus  vivendi  pauperum 
Scolarum  in  Elemosinaria. 

Primo,  admittantur  pro  mora  quinque  annorum  ad  maius, 
quibus  hoc  tempus  sufficit  ad  proficiendum  in  grammati- 

Item,  nullus  extra  Eleemosynariam,  sine  licencia  Sub- 
Eleemosynarii,  sub  pena  recedendi  usque  ad  reconsiliacionem, 
se  absentet. 

Item,  quicunque  convictus  vel  notorius  incontinens, 
noctivagus,  inquietus,  discolus,  totaliter  expellatur. 

Item,  admissus  statim  radat  amplam  coronam,  ad  modum 
choristarum  ;  et,  ut  decet  clericos,  tondeantur. 

Item,  quilibet  dicat  cotidie  Matutinas  de  Domina,  pro 
se,  et  omni  die  festo  septem  Psallmos,  pro  Conventu,  et 
fundatoribus  nostris. 

The  Almoner's   Duties,   St  Albans,     c.    1330. 
[//).   from   15.    .M.   Lansdowne  MS.    375.] 

Ad  Elemosinarium  eciam  pertinet  reparacio  Elemo- 
sinarie  et  mansionis  eiusdem  infra  monasterium  situate.  Re- 
paracio eciam  studiorum  et  domus  scolarum  grammaticalium 
in  villa  Sancti  Albani.     Straminacio  forinceci  loculorii.     Verum 

The  Almonry  Boys,  St  Albans  297 

gloves ;  and,  further,  we  pronounce  that  all  and  each  who 
shall  hereafter  infringe  the  said  custom  or  violate  it  in  any  way 
ipso  facto  fall  under  the  sentence  of  greater  excommunication 
publicly  and  notoriously  proclaimed  four  times  a  year  in  the 
aforesaid  church. 

St  Albans  Almonry  Boys    Statutes. 

Ordinance  made  for  the  residence  of  the  Poor  Scholars  in 
the  Almonry  of  St  Albans,  on  St  Ambrose  Day  [4  Apr.], 
A.D.   1339,  et  cetera. 

In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  Here  begins  the  manner  of 
life  of  the  Poor  Scholars  in  the  Almonry. 

First,  let  them  be  admitted  to  live  there  for  a  term  of  five 
years  at  the  most,  to  whom  this  period  suffices  for  becoming 
proficient  in  grammar. 

Item,  no  poor  scholar  shall  absent  himself  from  the 
Almonry  without  the  licence  of  the  sub-almoner,  under  the 
penalty  of  expulsion  until  reconciliation. 

Likewise,  whosoever  is  convicted  or  notorious  for  being 
incontinent,  a  night  walker,  noisy,  disorderly,  shall  be  wholly 

Likewise,  immediately  on  admission,  the  scholar  shall 
shave  an  ample  tonsure,  after  the  manner  of  choristers,  and 
shall  cut  their  hair  as  becomes  clerks. 

Likewise,  every  scholar  shall  say  daily  the  Matins  of  Our 
Lady  for  himself,  and  on  every  festival  day  the  Seven  Psalms 
for  the  convent  and  our  founders. 

Tlie   Almoner's   Duties,   St   Albans,      c.    1330. 

To  the  almoner  also  belongs  the  repair  of  the  Almonry 
and  his  house  in  the  monastery.  The  repair  also  of  the  studies 
[?  of  the  monks  in  the  cloister]  and  of  the  grammar  school 
house  in  the  town  of  St  Albans.      Provision  of  straw  for  the 

298  The  Almonry  Boys,  St  Albans 

eciam  cum  concensu  archidiaconi  ibidem  eidem  pertinet  de 
ydoneo  magistro  gramaticali  providere ;  jura  et  libertates 
cidem  scole  concessa  manutenere  ;  26J.  Zd.  eidem  magistro 
persolvere  pro  erudicione  puerorum  elemosinarie  monasterii  et 
aliis  consuetudinibus  scole  annuatim  ;  eosdem  eciam  pueros  ad 
Elemosinariam  recipere,  et  inde  juxta  consuetudines  eiusdem 
licite  removere,  unum  vel  duos  pueros  et  unum  servientem  et 
pagettum  ibidem  tenere  de  elemosina  ibidem  cum  victualibus 
cum  ceteris  sustentandis  providere.... 

Ad  Elemosinarium  insuper  pertinet  ad  festum  puerorum 
die  Sancti  Nicholai  \2d.  conferre,  et  Passionistis  \2.d.  pro 
eorum  festis  contribuere. 

Solet  eciam  pro  honestate,  licet  non  ex  debito,  mappas 
et  manutergia  pro  mensa  puerorum  et  serviencium  ibidem 

Monachos  eciam  ordinandos  juxta  suum  cursum  ad  ordines 
conducere  et  eorum  expensas  exhibere 

Solet  eciam  pro  expensis  et  habitibus  pauperum  clericorum 
ad  religionem  reperiendorum  ex  precepto  Domini  Abbatis, 
non  tamen  ex  consuetudine,  de  suo  officio  providere. 

Solvit  insuper  Thesaurario  conventus  20^-.  et  pro  pensione 
scolarium  265^.  8^/. 

Hec  sunt  de  albo  libro. 

Mertoii    Grammar    School   Accounts. 

fMerton  Miin.  4105,  4106  h,  c.  4109,  41 10,  41 12.] 

£  s.     d. 

In  membrana        .......  13A 

In  incausto  ........  i 

In    filo    albo   et    viridi   et    ceteris   pertinenciis    ad 
reparacionem   vestium    tarn  arcistarum   quam 

gramaticorum         ......  6 

The  Almonry  Boys,   St  Albans  299 

outer  parlour.  Also,  with  the  consent  of  the  archdeacon, 
there  belongs  to  him  the  provision  of  a  fit  grammar  master ; 
the  maintenance  of  the  rights  and  liberties  granted  to  the  same 
school ;  payment  of  265^.  Zd.  to  the  same  master  for  teaching 
the  boys  of  the  almonry  of  the  monastery  and  other  yearly 
customary  payments  to  the  school ;  the  reception  of  the  same 
boys  to  the  almonry,  and  their  lawful  removal  thence  in 
accordance  with  the  customs  of  the  same,  and  keeping  of  one 
or  two  boys  and  a  servant  and  page  there  by  charity,  and 
finding  them  there  with  victuals  and  other  maintenance.... 

To  the  almoner  also  belongs  the  giving  \2d.  at  the  boys' 
feast  on  St  Nicholas'  Day  [6  Dec]  and  a  contribution  of  \2d. 
to  the  Passionists  for  their  feasts. 

He  usually  also,  for  the  sake  of  good  manners,  not  because 
he  is  obliged  to  do  so,  maintains  table-cloths  and  napkins  for 
the  boys'  and  servants'  table  there.... 

Takes  the  monks  who  are  to  be  ordained  in  their  turn  to 
orders,  and  pays  their  expenses.... 

He  usually  also  provides  out  of  his  office  for  the  expenses 
and  clothes  of  poor  clerks  who  are  got  to  enter  religion,  by  the 
Lord  Abbot's  command,  not  however  by  bindmg  custom. 

He  also  pays  the  convent  treasurer  20s.  and  265'.  8^.  for  the 
pension  of  the  scholars. 

This  comes  out  of  the  White  Book. 

Merton    Grammar    School  Accounts. 



£     s.     d. 
In  parchment        .......  13^, 

In  ink .........  i 

In  white  and  green  thread  and  other  requirements 
for  mending  the  clothes  both  of  the  artists  and 
of  the  grammarians         .....  6 


Merton  Grammar  School 

Magistro  Johanni  Cornubiensi  pro  salario  scole  in 
termino  quadragesimali ..... 

Et  Hostiario  suo  ....... 

Item   Magistro  Johanni  Cornubiensi  pro  termino 
estuali  ........ 

et  hostiario  suo     ....... 

Inprimis   pro   salario   vj   puerorum  gramaticalium 

modo  scribendi  prima  septimana  ante  assump- 

cionem  Sancte  Marie     . 

In  secnnda  septimana  pro  iv  pueris 

3th  [5/V]  iv 

quarta  iv 

quinta  iv 

sexta  iv 

quia  unus  infirmabatur  pro  medietate 

septimane  septime  pro  iij  pueris 

In  pergameno  et  incausto 

Pro    salario    viij    gramaticorum,    viz.    pro    singulis 
4d.ob  in  termino 

£   s. 






Item  in  membranis  emptis  per  vices  pro  arcistis  et 
gramaticis      ....... 

Item  in  debili  libro  Oracii  empto  pro  pueris  .          .  ' 
Item  in   diversis  paribus  tabellarum  alharum   pro 

gramaticis  pro  argumentis  reportandis     .          .  2] 
Item    Magistro    Johanni    Cornt:\vayle    in    termino 

hyemali  pro  salario  domus      ....  12 

et  suo  hostiario     .......  3 

Item  eidem  Johanni  pro  termino  Quadragesimo     .  10 

Hostiario  ad  tunc          ......  2\ 

Item  eidem  Johanni  pro  termino  estivali         .          .  12 

Boys'  Accounts,    i^tk  Century  301 

To  Master  John  of  Cornwall  for  rent  of  the  school 
in  Lent  term  ...... 

And  to  his  usher  ....... 

Also  to  Master  John  of  Cornwall  for  the  summer 
term      ........ 

And  to  his  usher  ....... 

First  for  school  fees  of  6  grammar  boys  learning 
writing  the  first  week  before  the  Assumption 
of  St  Mary    .... 

In  the  2nd  week  for  4  boys  . 

3rd  4  .  . 

4th  4  .         . 

5th  4  .  . 

6th  4  .         . 

because  one  was  ill  for  half  the 
7th  week  for  3  boys    . 

In  parchment  and  ink  . 

For  school   fees  of  8   grammar  boys, 
each  4M.  a  term   . 

namely,  for 

£    s.    d. 






Also  in  parchment  bought  at   different   times  for 
artists  and  grammarians  .... 

Also  in  a  tattered  book  of  Horace  bought  for  the 
boys      ........ 

Also  in  several  pairs  of  white  tablets  for  gram- 
marians for  reporting  arguments 

Also  to  Master  John  Cornwall  in  the  winter  term 
for  rent  of  the  house      ..... 

And  to  his  usher  ....... 

Also  to  the  same  John  for  Lent  term     . 

To  the  usher  for  the  same  time      .... 

.•\lso  to  the  same  John  for  the  summer  term  . 





Merlon  Grammar  School 

Commune  Thome  Gradone. 

£   s. 

In  septimana  S.  Petri  ad  Vincula 

in  communis 

in  battelis      ... 
In  2  [sic]  septimana  in  communis 

[and  so  on  in  each  week.] 
et  in  gramaticis  pro  sex  libris 


Expense  Thome  Dolling. 

Et  magistro  suo  speciali  pro  autumpno . 

In  lumine  Sancti  Nicholai     . 

Item  Magistro  suo  in  ordinario 

Et  pro  pencione  termino  yemali    . 

In  Magistro  suo  speciali  pro  eodem  termino 

Item  bedello 

et  datis  de[termin]atori 

In  papiro 

Et  pro  tonsione  capitis 

In  oblacionibus     . 

Magistro  suo  speciali  pro  termino  quadragesimali 

Pro  pencione  camere  pro  termino  quadragesimali 

Item  in  vino  coUato 

In  cirpis        .... 
In  oblacionibus    . 
Pro  pencione  termino  estivali 
Pro  magistro  suo  speciali 
Item  datis  Magistro  informatori  pueros  de  genere 

Necessaria  communia. 


Pro  bedello  . 
Solutis  crramatico  . 




2     6 

2     6 



2     6 


2     6 

13     4 

Boys    Accounts,    i^th  Century 


Thomas  Gradone's  commons 

In  the  week  of  St  Peter  ad  Vincula 

in  commons  . 

in  battels 
In  2nd  week  in  commons 

And  for  grammarians  6  lbs 

L    s. 


Thomas  Boiling's  expenses, 

And  for  his  special  master  for  the  autumn 

In  St  Nicholas'  light     . 

Also  to  his  ordinary  master  . 

And  for  rent  in  the  winter  term 

For  his  special  master  in  the  same  term 

Also  to  the  beadle 

And  given  to  the  determiner 

In  paper       .... 

And   for   shaving   his    head  [hair   cutting  or  the 

clerical  tonsure  ?] . 
In  offerings .... 
For  his  special  master  for  Lent  term 
For  rent  of  the  room  for  Lent  term 

Also  in  wine  given  [viz.  at  determination] 

In  rushes      ...... 

In  offerings  ...... 

For  rent  in  the  summer  term 

For  his  special  master  .... 

Also  given  to  the  Master  teaching  the  Founder's 
kin  boys         ....... 

Common  necessaries. 

For  the  beadle      ....... 

Paid  to  the  grammarian         .  .  .  .  . 


2     6 


2     6 


2     6 

2     6 

13      4 

304  Merton  Gratnmar  School 

£    s.    d. 
Pro  hostiario  .......  6 

Pro  gaudii.s  quando  omncs  socii  aule  transiverunt 

ad  mayying   .......  2 

Pro  camera  pro  2  termini.s,  yemali  et  quadragesi- 

mali       ........  4 

Item  Johanni    Olney    pro    [4?]   termini-s  cum  in- 

formaret  eosdem  ex  ordinacione  custodis         .  6     8  puerorum  de  genere  P'undatoris. 


Wyard,  Thoma.s. 

1°  termino    ........  10     4 

2°        ,,.......         .      [illegible] 

3'        -> 16     5 


Pro  lumine  S.  Nicholai  .....  2 

Pro  salario  Magi.stri  pro  3  terminis  et  pro  pensione 

camere  .......  76 

Pro  gaudiis  sophi.sticorum      .....  8 

Pro  magistro  in  ordinario       .....  2 

c-  1395- 

Pro  scolagio  eorum        ......  68 

Pro  stramine  pro  .scola  .....  8 

In  oblacionibus  in  quadragesima  ....  10 

Item    die   cessacionis   in   expensi.s    Magistri    et   re- 

sponsalium    .......  2 

Boys   Accounts,   \\th  century 


/     s.        d. 

For  the  usher        .......  6 

For  gaudies  when  all  the  fellows  of  the  hall  went 

a-maying        .......  2 

For  the  room  for  2  terms,  winter  and  Lent    .  4 

Also   to   John    Olney    for    [4?]    terms    when    he 

taught  them  by  the  Warden's  order         .         .  6     8 


1st  term 
2nd  ,, 
3''d   M 

Expenses  of  Founder's  kin  boys. 

Wyard,  Thomas. 

10     4 

16     5 


For  St  Nicholas'  light  ...... 

For  the  Master's  salary  for  3  terms  and  for  rent  of 
the  room        ....... 

For  the  sophists'  gaudies       ..... 

For  the  ordinary  Master        ..... 

c-  1395- 
For  their  schoolage       ...... 

For  straw  for  the  school        ..... 

In  offerings  in  Lent       ...... 

Also  on  the  breaking-up  day  in  expenses  of  the 
Master  and  respondents  .... 

7     6 

0     8 


3o6  The  Almonry  Boys,    Westminster 

The    Almonry    School,     Westminster. 
1335— 1540. 

[A.   F.  l^cdich,  Jo itrit.  of  Educ.  Jan.    1905,  from  Westminster  Abbey 
Obedientiaries'  Accounts.] 

Almoner's  Accounts. 


Item  Johanni  BokenhuU  pro  vestura  puerorum  in 

Elemosynaria         ......  30 

Fratri  Johanni  Wallingford  pro  panno  puerorum  in 

Sub-Elemosynaria .         .....  88 


In  panno  pro  pueris  in  Elymosinaria      .         .         .  26     8 

Et  in  j  roba  empta  pro  Magistro  dictorum  puerorum 

cum  stipendio  suo  .         .         .         .         .  26     8 

Et    solutis  ij    pauperibus   scolaribus    euntibus   ad 

Oxoniam       .......  5     o 


Et  liberatis  fratri  Willelmo  Colchester  sub-elemo- 
sinario  pro  pueris  de  Sub-Elemosinaria  contra 

festum  Sancti  Nicolai    .....  9  o 

In  panno  empto  pro  pueris  de  Elemosinaria  .         .  46  8 

Et  in  j  furrura  empta  pro  Magistro  puerorum          .  2  o 

Et  in  stipendio  Magistri  puerorum  hoc  anno.          .  13  4 

Accounts  of  Treasurer  of  Queen  Eleanor's  Manors. 

Magistro  puerorum  (yd.  et  ,xiij  pueris  2^-.  2d.   .         .  28 

The  Almonry  Boys,    Westminster         307 

The    Almonry    School,     Westminster. 
1 335— 1540. 

Almoner's  Accounts. 

£    s.    d. 

Also  to  John  Bokenhull  for  clothing  for  the  boys 

in  the  almonry       .         .         .         .         .         .     i    10     o 

To  brother  John  Wallingford  for  cloth  for  the  boys 

in  the  under-almonry     .....  88 


In  cloth  for  the  boys  in  the  almonry      .  .         .168 

And  in  a  gown  bought  for  the  said  boys'  Master 

with  his  stipend    .          .          .          .  .          .168 

Paid  to  two  poor  scholars  going  to  Oxford  .         '.            5     o 

And    delivered    to    Brother    William    Colchester, 
under-almoner,   for  the    boys    of  the    under- 
almonry  against  St  Nicholas'  day  [6  Dec.  the 
Boy-bishop's  day] ......  90 

In  cloth  bought  for  the  boys  of  the  almonry  .268 

And  in  fur  bought  for  the  Master  of  the  boys         .  2     o 

And  in  the  stipend  of  the  Master  of  the  boys  this 

year 13     4 

Accounts  of  Treasurer  of  Queen  Eleanor's  Manors. 

To  the  Master  of  the  boys  6^^.,  and  to    13  boys 

2S.  2d.  .  .         .         .         .         .         .  28 

3o8         The  Almonry  School,    Westminster 

1385 — 6.  £     s.     d. 

Magistro  puerorum  cum   xxviij  pueris  in   Elemo- 

sinaria  unde  Magistro  pro  se  6^.     .         .         .  52 

Magistro  grammatice  cum  xxij  pueris     ...  42 

Almoner's  Accounts. 

In  pan  no  empto  pro  Magistro  scolarum  et  pueris 
in  Sub-Elemosinaria  una  cum  tonsura  eiusdem 
panni    ........  50 

Et    Magistro    scolarum   pro   erudicione  puerorum 

per  annum  ex  certa  conuencione    .         .         .  134 

Et  Magistro  scolarum  pro  erudicione  puerorum  ex 

noua  conuencione  .         .         .         .         .         20     o 

Et  Magistro    scolarum    pro  erudicione    puerorum 

per  conuencionem,  per  annum  iiij  terminis     .  26     8 

Et  Magistro  scolarum  pro  erudicione  puerorum      .  26     8 

Item  in  pannis  emptis  pro  Magistro  scolarum  et 

pueris,  precii  panni  33^.,  cum  tonsura     .  .4190 

Et  in  furrura  Magistri  ......  2 

Et  datis  cuidam  pauperi   scolari   studenti   Oxonic 

precepto  Domini  Abbatis       .         .         .         .100 

Et  Magistro  scole  pro   erudicione    puerorum   hoc 

anno     .         .         .         .  .         .         .         .  1^4 

The  Almonry  School,    Westminster       309 

1385—6.  €   s.    d. 
To  the   Master  of  the  boys  with   28  boys  in  the 
almonry,   of  which    to    the   Master  for  him- 
self, dd. 52 

To  the  (Irammar  Master  and  22  boys    ...  42 

Almoner's  Accounts. 

For  cloth  bought  for  the  schoolmaster  and  boys  in 
the   under-almonry,    with   shearing    the    same 
cloth     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .2100 

And  to  the  schoolmaster  for  teaching  the  boys  for 

the  year  under  a  certain  agreement         .         .  134 

And  to   the   schoolmaster  for  teaching  the   boys, 

under  a  new  agreement .  .  .  .  .100 

And  to  the  schoolmaster  for  teaching  the  boys,  by 

agreement  for  a  year  for  4  terms     .         .         .      r     6     8 

And  to  the  schoolmaster  for  teaching  the  boys       .168 
Also   in   cloth   bought  for  the   schoolmaster   and 

boys,  price  of  the  cloth  33-f.,  and  shearing  it  .     4   19     o 
And  in  the  master's  fur  .....  20 

And  given  to  a  poor  scholar  studying  at  Oxford  by 

the  Lord  Abbot's  orders         .         .         .         .100 

And  to  the  schoolmaster  for  teaching  the  boys  this 

year 13     4 

3IO       The  Almonry  School,   Westminster 

£  s.    d. 
Et  in  iiij   pannis  dimidio  emptis  pro  Magistro  et 

pueris,  precii  panni  cum  tonsura  43^.      .         .     8  12     o 

Et  in  furrura  Magistri  ......  16 


In  j  carpentario  conducto  per  v  dies  ad  emendan- 
dum  j  groundsell  in  camera  Elemosinarie  et 
ad  faciendum  latrinam  fratrum  laicorum,  mu- 
rum  scole  et  j  tyle  ad  ostium,  capienti  in 
grosso  ........  25 

Et  j  dawbatori  cum  suo  famulo  ad  emendandum 
diversos  defectus  Elemosinarie  et  in  scola  per 
iiij  dies  .......  20 

1421— 2. 

Custus  domorum. 

Custus  nove  domus  scolarum  cum  iiij°''  cameris  et 
iiij"""  caminis,  in  stipendiis  carpentariorum,  in 
grosso  .         .         .         .         .         .         .668 

[Details  of  other  wages  and  materials.] 
Summa  .         .         .         .         .         .   22     9     9 

Sacrist's  Account. 

De  j  domo  edificata  pro  cantaria  de  Knoll  nuper 
dimissa  pro  535'.  nil,  quia  conceditur  Johanni 
Newborough  Magistro  scolarum  et  Margarite 
uxori  eius  ad  terminum  vite  eorundem  sine 
aliquo  inde  reddendo   .....         — 

Et  ad  solvendum  fratri  Ricardo  Eirlyngham  Ele- 
mosinario  pro  parte  panni  puerorum  in  Sub- 
Elemosinaria  ......  20 

Almoner's  Account. 
1426 — 7. 

De  tenementis  in  fine  grangie  iuxta  le  scole-house 

ac  le  Millebank  iuxta  pratum  Elemosinarii      .  i     6 

The  Almonry  School,    Westminster      3 1 1 

/      s.      d. 

And  for  4?r  pieces  of  cloth  bought  for  the  master 

and  boys,  price  of  the  piece  with  shearing,  43^.     812     o 
And  for  fur  for  the  master     .....  16 


For  a  carpenter  hired  for  5  days  to  mend  the 
groundsill  in  the  almonry  chamber  and  to 
make  a  latrine  for  the  lay-brethren,  the  school 
wall  and  a  tile  for  the  door,  taking  altogether .  2     5 

And  for  a  dauber  with  his  man  to  mend  divers 

defects  in  the  almonry  and  school  for  4  days  .  2     o 

1421  —  2. 

Expenditure  on  buildings. 

Cost  of  a  new  schoolhouse  with  4  chambers  and 

4  chimneys,  in  carpenters'  wages,  in  gross       .668 
[Details  of  other  wages  and  materials.] 
Total      .         .         .         .         .         .         .   22     9     9 

Sacrist's  Account. 

Rent  for  a  house  built  for  the  Knell  chantry, 
formerly  let  for  535.,  nothing,  because  it  is 
granted  to  John  Newborough  the  school- 
master and  Margaret  his  wife  for  their  lives 
rent  free         .......  — 

And  to  pay  to  brother  Richard  Birlingham,  the 
almoner,  for  part  of  the  cloth  of  the  boys  in 
the  under-almonry  .         .         .         .         .100 

Almoner's  Account. 
1426 — 7. 

Rent  from  tenements  at  the  end  of  the  grange 
next  the  schoolhouse  and  the  Millbank  by  the 
Almoner's  meadow  .....  16 

3 1 2        The  Almonry  School,    Westminster 

1446—7.  £     s.     d. 

De  tenemento  ibidem  vocato  le  Sope-hous,  nunc 

vocato  Domus  Scolarum,  hoc  anno  nihil         .         — 

Et    solutis    Magistro     scolarum     pro     erudicione 

puerorum  hoc  anno      .         .         .         .         .168 
Et  pro  furrura  toge  predicti  Magistri      ...  14 

Et  solutis  pro  panno  empto  pro  pueris  Elemosinarie, 

precii  panni  cum  tonsura  445.         .         .         .10310 

1479 — 80. 

Stipendia  famulorum. 

Et    solutis    Willelmo    Cornysshe    pro    erudicione 

puerorum  cantancium  pro  dimidio  anno        .  6     8 

Expense  necessarie. 

Et   in   pannis    emptis  pro   Magistro  scolarium   et 

pueris  Elemosinarie  per  annum     .         .         .      7    19     8 

Et  solutis  pro  tonsura  eiusdem      ...  4 

Et  solutis  Magistro  scolarium  pro  eorum  eru- 
dicione .......  26     8 

Et  pro  furrura  dicti  Magistri  ....  16 


Et  in  pannis  emptis  pro  Magistro  scolarum  et 
pueris  Elemosinarie  cum  tonsura  eorumdem 
una  cum  30^-.  solutis  Sub-Elemosinario  pro 
pueris  cantantibus  .         .         .         .         .960 

Et    solutis    Magistro     scolarum     pro     erudicione 

puerorum  gramaticorum         ....  40 

1510  — I. 

Stipendia  famulorum. 

Et  solutis  Jacobo  [blank  in   MS.]  pro  erudicione 

puerorum   hoc  anno       .  .  .  .  .  1 3     4 

The  Almonry  School,    Westminster 

J' J 

1446—7.  £     s.      a 

Rent  from  a  tenement,  there  called  the  Soap-house, 

now  called  the  School-house,  this  year  nothing         — 


And   paid  to    the  schoolmaster  for  teaching  the 

boys,   this  year      .  .  .  .168 

And  for  fur  for  the  aforesaid  master's  gown    .         .  12 

And  paid   for  the  cloth   bought  for  the  almonry 

boys,  price  of  the  cloth  with  the  shearing  445.   10     310 

1479 — 80. 

Wages  of  servants. 

And    paid    to   William   Cornish    for  teaching  the 

singing  boys  for  half  a  year  ...  68 

Necessary  expenses. 

And  for  cloth  bought  for  the  master  of  the  scholars 

and  boys  of  the  almonry  for  the  year      .          .  7    19     8 

And  paid  for  shearing  the  same     ....  4 

And  paid  to  the  master  of  the  scholars  for  their 

teaching        .         .         .         .         .          .         .  i     6     S 

And  for  the  said  master's  fur          ...         .  14 


And  for  cloth  bought  for  the  schoolmaster  and 
almonry  boys,  with  shearing  the  same,  and 
30.J".  paid  to  the  under-almoner  for  the  singing 
boys      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .960 

And    paid   to   the   schoolmaster    for    teaching   the 

grammar  boys        .  .  .  .  .  .200 

Wages  of  servants. 

And  paid  to  James  for  teaching  the  [singing]  boys 
this  year         ....... 

314       The  Almonry  School,    Westminster 

Expense  necessarie.  L    -f-    d. 

Et  solutis  in  pannis  pro  pueris  Elemosinarie  .  .812 
Et  pro  tonsura  eorumdem,  cum  pannis  pro  pueris 

cantantibus   .......         30 

Et    solutis     Magistro    scolarum     pro     erudicione 

puerorum  gramaticorum         ....  40 


Stipendia  famulorum. 

Et  solutis  Precentori  pro  cantatoribus  secularibus 

hoc  anno       .......         40 

Et  solutis  Succentori  hoc  anno      ....  34 

Et  solutis  Willelnio  Gren  pro  erudicione  puerorum 

cantancium  hoc  anno     .         .  .         .         .  134 

Expense  necessarie. 

Et  in  pannis  pro  Magistro  scolarum  et  pueris 
Elemosinarie,  cum  tonsura  eorumdem  \sic\ 
una  cum  305-.  solutis  Sub-Elemosinario  pro 
pueris  cantantibus,   hoc  anno         .  .  .    10     7    10 

Et     solutis     Magistro     scolarum     pro     erudicione 

puerorum  gramaticorum  hoc  anno         .  .  40 

Episcopal  Attack  on  the  Classics  in  the  Diocese 
of  Exeter.      1357. 

[Reg.  Grandisson,  ed.  F,  C.  Ilingeslon-Raiidolph,  II.  1192  (f.  2011.] 
Mandatum  pro  pueris  informandis. 

Johannes  etc.  dilectis  in  Christo  filiis,  singulis  Archidiaconis 
in  Ecclesia  nostra  Cathedraii  Exonie,  et  eorum  Otficialibus, 
salutem  etc. 

Non  sine  frequenti  admiracione  ac  interiori  mentis  com- 
passione,  ipsimet  experti  sumus  et  cotidie  experimur  apud 
puerorum   et   illiteratorum   Magistros  sive    Instructores   nostre 

The  Almonry  School,    Westminster      3 1 5 

Necessary  expenses.  L    s.     d. 

And  paid  for  cloth  for  the  almonry  boys  .  .  8  12  o 
And  for  shearing  the  same,  and  for  cloth  for  the 

singing  boys  .         .         .         .         .         .1100 

And  paid  to    the   schoolmaster  for  teaching  the 

grammar  boys       .         .         .         .         .         .200 


Servants'  wages. 

And  paid  the  precentor  for  the  lay  singers  this 

year      .         .         .         .         .  .         .         .200 

And  paid  the  succentor  this  year  ....  34 

And  paid  William  Green  for  teaching  the  singing 

boys  this  year        .  .  ,  .  .  .  13     4 

Necessary  expenses. 

And  for  cloth  for  the  schoolmaster  and  almonry 
boys,  with  shearing  the  same,  and  30^-.  paid 
to  the  under-almoner  for  the  singing  boys  this 
year       .         .         .  .         .         .         .         .10710 

And  paid  to   the   schoolmaster   for  teaching    the 

grammar  boys  this  year         .  .  .  .200 

Episcopal  Attack  on  the  Classics  in  the  Diocese 
of  Exeter.      1357. 

Mandate  as  to  teaching  boys. 

John  etc.  to  his  beloved  sons  in  Christ,  all  the  arch- 
deacons in  our  cathedral  church  of  Exeter  and  their  Officials, 
health  etc. 

Not  without  frecjuent  wonder  and  a  feeling  of  pity  have  we 
personally  experienced,  and  daily  experience,  among  the  masters 
or  teachers  of  boys  and  of  the  unlearned  of  our  diocese,  that 

1 6      Schoolmasters  ordered  to  teach  from 

Diocesis,  ipsos  in  Gramatica  informantes,  modum  et  ordinem 
docendi  preposteros  et  minus  utiles,  immo  supersticiosos, 
Gentilium  magis  quam  Christianorum  more,  observari,  dum 
ipsi  scolares  suos,  postquam  oracionem  Dominicam  cum 
salutacione  Angelica,  et  Symbolum,  necnon  Matutinas  et 
Horas  Beate  Virginis,  et  similia  que  ad  Fidem  pertinent  et 
anime  salutem,  legere  aut  dicere  eciam  minus  perfecte  didice- 
rint,  absque  eo  quod  quicquam  de  predictis  construere  sciant 
vel  intelligere,  aut  dicciones  ibi  declinare  vel  respondere  de 
partibus  earundem,  ad  alios  libros  niagistrales  et  poeticos  aut 
metricos  ad  [djiscendos  transire  faciunt  premature.  Unde 
contigit  quod  in  etate  adulta,  cotidiana  que  dicunt  aut  legunt 
non  intelligant ;  Fidem,  eciam,  Catholicam  (quod  dampnabilius 
est)  propter  defectum  intelligencie  non  agnoscant. 

Cupientes,  igitur,  abusum  tam  nephandum  ac  fatuum, 
nimis  inolitum  per  nostram  Diocesim,  viis  et  modis  quibus 
possumus  extirpare,  vobis,  et  vestrum  singulis,  committimus  et 
mandamus  quatinus  vestrum  quilibet  Magistris  seu  Instructori- 
bus  puerorum  quibuscumque,  Scolis  Gramadicalibus  \sic\  infra 
fines  sui  Archidiaconatus  presidentibus,  auctoritate  nostra 
precipiat  et  injungat,  prout,  tenore  Presencium,  districte  pre- 
cipiendo,  injungimus  et  mandamus  quatinus  pueros,  quos 
recipiunt  in  Gramadicalibus  imbuendos,  non  tantum  legere 
aut  discere  litteraliter,  ut  hactenus,  ut,  aliis  omnibus  omissis, 
construere  et  intelligere  faciant  Oracionem  Dominicam  cum 
Salutacione  Angelica,  Symbolum,  et  Matutinas,  ac  Horas  de 
Beata  Virgine,  et  dicciones  ibi  declinare  ac  respondere  de 
partibus  earundem,  antequam  eosdem  ad  alios  libros  transire 
permittant.  Denunciantes  eisdem  quod  pueros  aliquos  cleri- 
cal! caractere  insignire  non  intendimus  nisi  per  hunc  modum 
reperti  fuerint  profecisse. 

Datum  in  manerio  nostro  de  Chuddeleghe,  tercio  decimo 
die  mensis  Februarii  a.d.  m°ccc'""lvj'''  et  consecracionis  xxx'"". 

Service  Books  instead  of  Classics        3 1  7 

they,  while  instructing  them  in  grammar,  observe  a  form  and 
order  of  teaching  which  are  preposterous  and  useless,  indeed 
superstitious  and  more  like  heathens  than  Christians,  in  that 
as  soon  as  their  scholars  have  learnt  to  read  or  say  even  very 
imperfectly  the  Lord's  Prayer,  with  the  Hail  Mary  and  the 
Creed,  also  Matins  and  the  Hours  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  and 
the  like,  which  are  necessary  for  faith  and  the  safety  of  their 
souls,  though  they  do  not  know  how  to  construe  or  understand 
any  of  the  things  before-mentioned,  or  to  decline  or  parse  any  of 
the  words  in  them,  they  make  them  pass  on  prematurely  to  learn 
other  school  books  of  poetry  or  in  metre.  And  so  it  happens 
that  when  they  are  grown  up  they  do  not  understand  what 
they  say  or  read  every  day ;  moreover,  which  is  even  more 
damnable,  through  want  of  understanding  they  do  not  know 
the  catholic  faith. 

Desiring,  therefore,  by  all  the  ways  and  means  possible, 
to  root  out  so  dreadful  and  stupid  an  abuse  which  has  become 
too  usual  in  our  diocese,  we  commission  and  command  you 
and  each  of  you  to  order  and  enjoin  on  all  masters  or  teachers 
of  boys,  presiding  over  Grammar  Schools  within  the  boundaries 
of  your  archdeaconry,  by  our  authority,  as  by  virtue  of  these 
presents  we  strictly  order  and  enjoin,  that  they  shall  not  make 
the  boys  whom  they  receive  to  learn  grammar  only  to  read  or 
learn  Latin,  as  hitherto,  but  leaving  everything  else  make  them 
construe  and  understand  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  Ave  Maria, 
the  Creed,  Matins  and  Hours  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  and  decline 
the  words  there  and  parse  them  before  they  let  them  go  on  to 
other  books.  Informing  them  that  we  do  not  intend  to  mark 
any  boys  with  the  clerical  character  unless  they  have  by  this 
means  been  found  to  have  become  proficient. 

Dated  at  our  manor  of  Chudleigh  13  Feb.  1356-7,  and  the 
30th  year  of  our  consecration. 

3  1 8  The  Public  School 

The  Master  of  the  Almonry  School,  Canterbury , 
goes  to  the  Public  School  at  Kingston.      1364. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Surrey,  II.   155,  from  Canterbury  Mun.  Reg. 
L.,  f.  59  b;  printed  in  Lit.  Canttiar.  (Rolls  Series,  No.  85),  il.  464.] 

William  of  Edyngdon,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  to  the  Prior 
of  Canterbury. 

Domine  et  amice  in  Christo  carissime Sane,  referentibus 

nobis  dilectis  filiis  parochianis  nostris  ville  de  Kyngeston, 
pridem  accepimus,  quod  ipsi  informatore  seu  magistro  puero- 
rum  eorundem,  et  aliorum  in  dictam  villam  ubi  consueverant 
scole  exerceri  confluencium,  tediose  carentes,  cum  quodam 
Hugone  de  Kyngeston,  clerico,  de  dicta  villa  oriundo,  nuper 
scolarium  in  domo  Elemosinarie  vestre  digno,  sicut  dicitur, 
petagogo,  ut  informacioni  et  doctrine  dictorum  puerorum  et 
aliorum  scolarium  in  dicta  villa  intenderet,  et  scolas  publicas 
gubernaret,  primo  circiter  festum  Sancti  Michaelis,  et  post- 
modum  in  festo  Natalis  Domini  proximo  praeterito,  conven- 
cionem  fecerunt  et  pactum  fidele  inierunt,  dicti  Hugonis 
fidei  dacione  vallata ;  que  dictus  Hugo,  in  nostra  presencia 
constitutus  et  ad  sancta  Dei  evangelia  iuratus,  publice 
fatebatur ;  offerens  se  premissa  omnia  fideliter  impleturum. 
Verum  cum  vester  commonachus,  Elemosinarius  domus  vestre 
predicte,  de  dicti  Hugonis  recessu  ut  accepimus  anxius  et 
molestus,  quedam  eiusdem  bona  modica  arrestaverit  seu 
sequestraverit,  et  ea  detinuerit  sequestrata,  credens  per  hoc 
ipsum  Hugonem  ad  sua  obsequia  revocare,  vestram  paternitatem, 
nomine  amicitie  de  cuius  integritate  fiduciam  indubiam  reporta- 
mus,  requirimus  et  rogamus,  quatinus  dictum  Elemosinarium 
salutaribus  monicionibus  dignemini  precipere,  ut  dicto  Hugoni, 
vel  harum  baiulo  nomine  suo,  prefata  bona  restitui  et  liberari 
faciat,  et  eundem  Hugonem  super  non-redditu  suo  habere  velit 
propensius  excusatum ;  advertentes,  si  placet,  quod  de  iure 
creandi  sunt  de  vico  populi  magistratus,  et  de  eodem  loco 
dandi  sunt  populi  vinitores. ... 

Scriptum  apud  Essche  vij°  die  mensis  Aprilis. 

at  Kingston-on-Thames,   1364  319 

The  Master  of  the  Almonry  School,  Canterbury ^ 
goes  to  the  Public  School  at  Kingston.      1 364. 

William  of  Edyngdon,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  to  the  Prior 
of  Canterbury. 

My  lord  and  dearest  friend  in  Christ.... We  learnt  some 
time  ago,  on  the  report  of  our  beloved  sons  and  parishioners 
of  the  town  of  Kingston,  that  they  to  their  grief,  being  without 
a  teacher  or  master  of  their  boys  and  others  coming  to  the  said 
town,  where  a  school  has  been  accustomed  to  be  kept,  made 
an  agreement  and  entered  into  a  contract,  confirmed  by 
sureties,  with  one  Hugh  of  Kingston,  clerk,  born  in  the  said 
town,  lately  the  worthy  pedagogue,  as  it  is  said,  of  the  scholars 
in  the  house  of  your  Almonry,  that  he  should  undertake  the 
instruction  and  teaching  of  the  said  boys  and  of  other  scholars 
in  the  said  town  and  preside  over  the  Public  School  there,  first 
about  Michaelmas,  and  again  at  Christmas  last,  as  the  said 
Hugh,  who  came  before  us  and  was  sworn  on  the  Holy 
Gospels,  publicly  confessed,  offering  faithfully  to  fulfil  the 
same.  But  your  fellow-monk,  the  Almoner  of  your  house 
aforesaid,  being,  as  we  hear,  troubled  and  annoyed  at  the 
said  Hugh's  leaving,  seized  or  sequestrated  some  poor 
goods  of  his,  and  keeps  them  still  under  sequestration, 
thinking  by  these  means  to  recall  the  said  Hugh  to  his 
service.  In  the  name  of  that  friendship,  in  the  soundness  of 
which  we  have  undoubting  faith,  we  require  and  ask  your 
fatherhood,  that  you  would  be  good  enough  with  salutary 
warnings  to  order  the  said  Almoner  to  restore  and  deliver  the 
said  goods  to  the  said  Hugh,  or  to  the  bearer  of  these  letters 
in  his  name,  and  that  he  will  hold  the  said  Hugh  excused  for 
not  returning ;  seeing,  if  it  please  you,  that  by  law  magistrates 
should  be  created  from  their  own  town,  and  the  vinedressers  of 
the  people  be  chosen  from  the  same  place 

Written  at  Esher,  7  April  [1364]. 

320  Foundation  Deed  of 

Foundation  Deed  of  Winchester  College. 
20  Octobe}"  1382. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Hist.  Winchester  College,  66.     Photograph  from  original.] 
Uniuersis  sancte  matris  ecclesie  filiis  ad  quos  presentes 
littere  nostre  peruenerint  Willelmus  de  Wykeham  permissione 
diuina  Wyntoniensis  episcopus,  Salutem  in  Eo  qui  est  omnium 
vera  salus. 

Gloriosissimus  et  omnipotens  deus  noster  eterni  triumphator 
imperii,  qui  sua  potencia  inefiabili  et  celestis  disposicione  con- 
silii  nos  ab  utero  matris  nostre  in  banc  vallem  miserie  producere 
dignatus  est  miserum  atque  nudum,  Nos  eciam  licet  immeritos 
qui  nonnunquam  ponit  humiles  in  sublimi  sua  prudencia  in- 
fallibili  et  gracie  ubertate  amplis  ditauit  bonoribus  et  ultra  con- 
dignum  ad  gradus  et  dignitates  varios  sublimauit ;  Hec  nempe 
interna  meditacione  pensantes  quoddam  collegium  perpetuum 
septuaginta  pauperum  scolarium  clericorum  in  Tbeologia 
canonico  et  ciuili  iuribus  et  in  artibus  in  Uniuersitate  Oxonie 
studere  debencium  nuper  ereximus  ac  fundauimus  Domino 
concedente  ad  laudem  gloriam  et  honorem  nominis  Crucifixi 
ac  gloriosissime  Marie  virginis  matris  sue.  Verum  quia,  prout 
magistra  rerum  experiencia  edocet  manifeste,  Gramatica  funda- 
mentum  ianua  et  origo  omnium  liberalium  arcium  aliarum 
existit,  sine  qua  artes  huiusmodi  sciri  non  possunt  nee  ad 
earum  prosecucionem  quisquam  poterit  peruenire  ;  Consider- 
antes  preterea  quod  per  litterarum  scienciam  iusticia  colitur  et 
prosperitas  humane  condicionis  augetur  quodque  nonnulli 
studentes  in  scienciis  aliis  propter  defectum  bone  doctrine 
sufificientis  eciam  litterature  in  Gramatica  in  deficiendi  plerum- 
que  incidunt  periculum  ubi  proficiendi  posuerant  appetitum. 
Sunt  eciam  et  erunt  in  posterum  ut  creditur  plerique  scolares 
pauperes  disciplinis  scolasticis  insistentes  defectum  pecuniarum 
et  indigenciam  pacientes  quibus  ad  continuandum  et  pro- 
ficiendum  in  arte  gramatica  supradicta  prope  non  sujipetunt 
facultates  nee  suppetent   in  futurum.     Huiusmodi   scolaribus 

Winchester  College,   1382  321 

Foundation  Deed  of  Winchester  College. 
20  October  1382. 

To  all  the  sons  of  holy  mother  church  to  whom  these  our 
present  letters  shall  come,  William  of  Wykeham,  by  divine 
permission  bishop  of  Winchester,  health  in  Him  who  is  the 
true  health  of  all. 

Our  most  glorious  and  almighty  God,  the  leader  of  the 
triumph  of  the  everlasting  empire,  who  by  His  ineffable  power 
and  the  decree  of  His  heavenly  council  has  deigned  to  bring 
us  miserable  and  naked  from  our  mother's  womb  to  this  vale 
of  misery,  who  sometimes  places  the  lowly  on  high,  has  in 
His  infallible  providence  and  by  His  overflowing  grace  en- 
riched us,  though  unworthy,  with  ample  honours  and  beyond 
our  deserts  raised  us  to  divers  degrees  and  dignities.  Weighing 
these  things  in  our  inmost  thoughts  we,  by  the  Lord's  grant, 
have  lately  erected  and  founded  a  perpetual  college  of  seventy 
poor  scholars,  clerks,  to  study  theology,  canon  and  civil  law  and 
arts  in  the  University  of  Oxford,  to  the  praise,  glory  and  honour 
of  the  name  of  the  Crucified  and  the  most  glorious  virgin  Mary 
His  mother.  But  whereas  experience,  the  mistress  of  all 
things,  plainly  teaches  that  grammar  is  the  foundation,  gate  and 
source  of  all  the  other  liberal  arts,  without  which  such  arts 
cannot  be  known,  nor  can  anyone  arrive  at  practising  them ; 
considering  moreover  that  by  the  knowledge  of  grammar  justice 
is  cultivated  and  the  prosperity  of  the  estate  of  humanity  is 
increased,  and  that  some  students  in  other  sciences,  through 
default  of  good  teaching  and  sufficient  learning  in  grammar, 
often  fall  into  the  danger  of  failing  where  they  had  set  before 
themselves  the  desire  of  success  :  whereas  too  there  are  and 
will  be,  it  is  believed,  hereafter  many  poor  scholars  intent  on 
school  studies  suffering  from  want  of  money  and  poverty,  whose 
means  barely  suffice  or  will  suffice  in  the  future  to  allow  them 
to  continue  and  profit  in  the  aforesaid  art  of  grammar.     For 

L.  21 

32  2  Foundation  Deed  of 

clericis  pauperibus  et  indigentibus  presentibus  et  futuris,  ut 
litterarum  studio  immorari  seu  vacare  ac  in  facultate  et  sciencia 
gramaticali  predicta  per  dei  graciam  uberius  et  liberius  pro- 
ficere  valcant  et  ad  sciencias  seu  artes  liberales  fiant  ut  exj)edit 
aptiores,  ad  omnium  scienciarum  facultatum  et  arcium  liberalium 
titulum  ampliandum  ac  studencium  et  proficiencium  in  eisdem 
c]uantum  in  nobis  est  numerum  dilatandum,  de  facultatibus  et 
bonis  nobis  a  Deo  coUatis  sub  forma  proponimus  infrascripta, 
diuina  nobis  assistente  clemencia,  manus  nostras  apponere 
adiutrices  et  caritatis  subsidium  impartiri. 

Ea  propter  nos  Willelmus  de  Wykeham,  Wintoniensis 
Episcopus  antedictus,  diuersa  mesuagia  terras  et  pratum  cum 
pertinenciis  in  Soka  Wyntonie  nostre  Wyntoniensis  diocesis  et 
prope  ipsam  ciuitatem  de  licencia  Illustrissimi  Principis  et 
domini  nostri  Domini  Ricardi  secundi  Regis  Anglie  et  Francie 
adquisiuimus  nobis  et  successoribus  nostris  Episcopis  Wynto- 
niensibus  videlicet  de  priore  et  conuentu  sancti  Swithuni 
Wyntoniensis  unum  mesuagium  unam  acram  terre  et  dimidiam 
et  tres  acras  prati  cum  pertinenciis  in  Soka  ^Vyntonie  et  iuxta 
ciuitatem  Wyntonie ;  De  Thoma  Tannere  de  Soka  Wyntonie 
unum  mesuagium  cum  pertinenciis  in  eadem  Soka ;  et  de 
Thoma  Lavyngton  unum  mesuagium  cum  pertinenciis  in  Soka 
predicta  :  In  et  super  quibus  tribus  mesuagiis  terra  et  prato 
cum  pertinenciis  sic  per  nos  ut  premittitur  adquisitis  necnon 
in  et  super  tribus  aliis  mesuagiis  cum  pertinenciis  in  dicta  Soka 
iuxta  ciuitatem  Wyntonie  supradictam,  que  nos  ut  parcellam 
temporalium  episcopatus  nostri  Wyntoniensis  tenemus  in 
nomine  summe  et  individue  Trinitatis  patris  et  filii  et  spiritus 
sancti  ad  laudem  gloriam  et  honorem  nominis  Crucifixi,  glorio- 
sissime  virginis  Marie  matris  eius  gloriosorumque  patronorum 
ecclesie  nostre  Wyntoniensis  beatorum  apostolorum  Petri  et 
Pauli  beatorumque  Birini,  Edde,  Swithuni  et  Athehvoldi 
eiusdem  ecclesie  Wyntoniensis  confessorum  et  pontificum, 
.sustentacionemquc  et  exaltacionem  fidei  Christiane  ecclesieque 
profectum  et  honorem  cultus  diuini  arciumque  scienciarum 
liberalium  et  facultatum  huiusmodi  incrementum,  gratum   per 

Winchester  College,    1382  32, 

such  poor  and  needy  scholars,  clerks,  present  and  to  come,  in 
order  that  they  may  be  able  to  stay  or  be  busy  at  school,  and 
by  the  grace  of  God  become  more  amply  and  freely  proficient 
in  the  faculty  and  science  of  grammar,  and  become  as  is  de- 
sirable more  fit  for  the  sciences  or  liberal  arts,  to  increase  the 
roll  of  all  the  sciences,  faculties  and  liberal  arts,  and  expand 
as  far  as  in  us  lies  the  number  of  those  studying  and  profiting 
in  them,  we  propose  from  the  means  and  goods  bestowed  on 
us  by  God,  with  the  aid  of  the  clemency  of  God,  to  hold  out 
helping  hands  and  give  the  assistance  of  charity  in  manner 

Therefore  we,  the  aforesaid  William  of  Wykeham,  bishop  of 
Winchester,  having  acquired  for  us  and  our  successors  bishops 
of  Winchester  divers  messuages,  lands  and  a  meadow,  with 
their  appurtenances,  in  the  soke  of  Winchester  in  our  diocese 
of  Winchester,  and  near  the  city  itself,  by  the  licence  of  our 
most  illustrious  prince  and  lord  the  Lord  Richard  the  Second, 
king  of  England  and  France,  viz.,  from  the  prior  and  convent 
of  St  Swithun's,  Winchester,  a  messuage,  \\  acres  of  land  and 
three  acres  of  meadow,  with  their  appurtenances,  in  the  soke 
of  Winchester,  and  by  the  city  of  Winchester ;  from  Thomas 
Tanner,  of  the  soke  of  Winchester,  a  messuage  and  appurte- 
nances in  the  same  soke ;  and  from  Thomas  Lavington  a 
messuage  with  appurtenances  in  the  soke  aforesaid  :  In  and  on 
which  three  messuages,  land  and  meadow,  with  their  appur- 
tenances so  by  us  acquired  as  is  aforesaid,  also  in  and  on  three 
other  messuages,  with  their  appurtenances,  in  the  said  soke  by 
the  city  of  Winchester  aforesaid,  which  we  hold  as  parcel  of 
the  temporalities  of  our  bishopric  of  Winchester,  in  the  name 
of  the  highest  and  undivided  Trinity,  Father,  Son  and  Holy 
Ghost,  to  the  praise,  glory  and  honour  of  the  name  of  the 
Crucified  and  the  most  glorious  virgin  Mary  His  mother  and 
the  glorious  patrons  of  our  church  of  Winchester,  the  blessed 
apostles  Peter  and  Paul,  and  the  blessed  confessors  and  bishops 
of  the  same  church  of  Winchester,  Birinus,  Hasddi,  Swithun 
and  Ethelwold,  and  for  the  maintenance  and  exaltation  of  the 
Christian  faith  and  the  profit  of  the  church,  and  for  the  honour 
of  the   worship  of  God  and  the  increase  of  the  liberal  arts. 

324  Foundation  Deed  of 

hoc  deo  obsequium  prestare  sperantes,  de  licencia  et  auctoritate 
sedis  apostolict,  dote  per  nos  primitus  assignata  iuxta  formam 
litterarum  apostolicarum  in  hac  parte  concessarum,  necnon  de 
licencia  dicti  domini  nostri  Regis  illustrissimi  concurrenti- 
busque  omnibus  aliis  et  singulis  in  ea  parte  de  iure  seu  alias 
quomodolibet  requisitis  quoddam  Collegium  perpetuum  pau- 
perum  scolarium  clericorum  prope  ciuitatem  Wyntoniensem 
predictam  realiter  et  effectualiter  instituimus  fundamus  stabili- 
mus  ac  etiam  ordinamus : 

Quod  quidem  collegium  consistere  volumus  inperpetuum 
atque  debet  in  et  de  numero  septuaginta  pauperum  et 
indigencium  scolarium  clericorum  collegialiter  viuencium  in 
eodem,  studenciumque  et  proficiscencium  in  gramaticalibus 
siue  in  arte  facultate  seu  sciencia  gramaticali  per  Dei  graciam 
temporibus  perpetuis  duraturum ; 

Volentesque  institucionem  fundacionem  et  ordinacionem 
dicti  nostri  collegii  ulterius  effectui  mancipare  magistrum 
Thomam  de  Cranle,  in  theologia  bacalaureum,  virum  prouidum 
et  discretum  in  spiritualibus  et  temporalibus  circumspectum  ac 
moribus  et  sciencia  approbatum  eiusdem  nostri  collegii  pre- 
ficimus  in  custodem ;  septuagintaque  pauperes  et  indigentes 
scolares  clericos  in  gramaticalibus  siue  in  arte  facultate  seu 
sciencia  gramaticali  studere  debentes  admittimus  ipsosque 
eidem  custodi  iungimus;  et  in -eodem  nostro  collegio  realiter 
ponimus  ac  eosdem  collegialiter  aggregamus  quorum  scolarium 
clericorum  nomina  in  munimentis  dicti  nostri  collegii  plenius 
sunt  scripta;  et  volentes  eidem  nostro  collegio  nomen  imponere 
prout  decet  ipsum  Sancte  Marie  Collegium,  vulgariter  Seinte 
Marie  College  of  Wynchestre,  nominamus  ac  eciam  nuncupamus, 
et  illud  eodem  nomine  seu  nuncupacione  volumus  imperpetuum 
nominari  ac  eciam  nuncupari  : 

Archamque  siue  cistam  communem  dictis  custodi  et 
scolaribus  clericis  in  eodem  nostro  collegio  collegialiter  ut 
premittitur  aggregatis  damus  tradimus  ac  eciam  assignamus  ; 

Statuimus  eciam  ordinamus  et  volumus  quod  dicti  custos 
et  scolares  clerici  ac  alii  futuris  temporibus  loco  ipsorum  pro 
perpetuo  in  eodem  nostro  collegio  assumendi  tanquam  persone 

Winchester  College,    1382  325 

sciences  and  faculties,  thereby  hoping  to  do  pleasing  service  to 
God,  by  the  licence  and  authority  of  the  apostolic  [i.e.  papal] 
see,  an  endowment  being  first  assigned  by  us  in  the  form  of 
the  apostolic  [i.e.  papal]  letters  granted  us  in  this  behalf,  also 
by  the  licence  of  our  said  most  illustrious  lord  the  King,  and 
with  the  consent  of  all  and  singular  other  persons  whose  con- 
sent is  in  that  behalf  lawfully  or  otherwise  required,  actually 
and  effectually  institute,  found,  establish  and  also  ordain  a  per- 
petual college  of  poor  scholars  clerks  by  the  city  of  Winchester. 

And  this  college  we  will  and  it  ought  for  ever  to  consist 
in  and  of  the  number  of  70  poor  and  needy  scholars  clerks 
living  college-wise  in  the  same,  studying  and  becoming  pro- 
ficient in  grammaticals  or  the  art  faculty  or  science  of  grammar, 
by  the  grace  of  God  for  ever  to  endure. 

And  wishing  further  to  give  effect  to  the  institution,  founda- 
tion and  ordinance  of  our  said  college,  we  appoint  Master 
Thomas  of  Cranley,  bachelor  in  theology,  a  man  prudent  and 
discreet  in  spiritual  and  circumspect  in  temporal  matters,  and 
of  approved  life  and  learning,  warden  of  our  same  college ; 
and  we  admit  seventy  poor  and  indigent  scholars  clerks  who 
are  to  study  in  grammaticals  or  the  art  faculty  or  science  of 
grammar  and  join  them  to  the  same  warden ;  and  we  place 
actually  in  our  same  college,  and  assemble  college-wise,  the 
same  scholars  clerks,  whose  names  are  more  fully  written  in 
the  muniments  of  our  said  college ;  and  wishing  to  give  a  name 
to  the  same  college,  as  is  proper,  we  name  and  also  call  it 
^  Sancte  Marie  Collegium,'  in  the  vulgar  tongue  '  Seinte  Marie 
College  of  \^'ynchestre,'  and  will  that  it  shall  be  for  ever  named 
and  also  called  by  the  same  name  or  title. 

And  we  give,  deliver  and  assign  a  common  box  or  chest  to 
the  warden  and  scholars  clerks  in  our  same  college  college-wise 
assembled,  as  is  aforesaid  ; 

Also  we  make  a  statute,  order  and  will  that  the  said  warden 
and  scholars  clerks  and  others  in  time  to  come  for  ever  to  be 
admitted    in   their   place   in   our   said  college    shall   associate 


26  Foundation  Deed  of 

collegiales  et  collegiate  simul  conuersentur  ac  in  eodem  colle- 
gialiter  stent  et  viuant ; 

Scolares  insuper  predictos  presentes  et  futuros  omnes  et 
singulos  ac  ceteros  officiarios  et  niinistros  quoscunque  eidem 
nostro  collegio  necessaries  sub  custodia  disposicione  et  regimine 
dicti  custodis  et  successorum  siiorum  custodum  qui  pro  tem- 
pore fiunt  volumus  et  disponimus  pro  perpetuo  permanere 
iuxta  statuta  et  ordinaciones  nostri  collegii  memorati ; 

Quodque  custos  et  scolares  dicti  collegii  et  successores 
eorundem  custodis  et  scolarium  clericorum  qui  pro  tempore 
fuerint  omnes  et  singuli  eciam  suis  successiuis  temporibus 
omnia  et  singula  statuta  et  ordinaciones  nostras  huiusmodi  im- 
perpetuum  obseruent  et  teneant  inconcusse  et  ad  omnia  singula 
statuta  et  ordinaciones  premissa  bene  integre  et  fideliter  in 
omnibus  tenenda  et  inuiolabiliter  obseruanda  predicti  custos  et 
successores  sui  in  eorum  profeccione  tactis  sacrosanctis  euan- 
geliis  corporale  teneantur  et  prestare  debeant  iuramentum  ; 

Eisdemque  custodi  et  scolaribus  clericis  et  eorum  succes- 
soribus  imperpetuum  in  hac  nostra  primaria  fundacione  eiusdem 
collegii  nostri  damus  et  concedimus  ac  presenti  carta  nostra 
confirmamus  omnia  predicta  mesuagia  terram  et  pratum  cum 
omnibus  suis  pertinenciis  tenenda  et  possidenda  videlicet 
communiter  et  in  conmiuni  eisdem  custodi  et  scolaribus  clericis 
et  successoribus  eorundem  pro  mora  et  inhabitacione  suis  in 
collegio  nostro  predicto  de  nobis  et  successoribus  nostris  epis- 
copis  Wynton.  in  liberam  puram  et  perpetuam  elemosinam 
imperpetuum  libere  integre  pacifice  pariter  et  quiete  ; 

Tenore  tamen  presencium  ulterius  ordinandi  et  statuendi 
scolaribus  et  clericis  dicti  nostri  collegii  regulas  vite  scolastice 
et  arcium  scolasticarum  directiuas,  faciendique  et  edendi  statuta 
et  ordinaciones  de  et  super  regimine  gubernacione  ac  statu 
ipsius  nostri  collegii  et  personaruni  eiusdem  eisdemque  regulis 
ordinacionibus  et  statutis  addendi  et  diminuendi  ipsac]ue  omnia 
et  singula  in  parte  vel  in  toto  mutandi  interpretandi  et  eciam 
declarandi  nobis  dumtaxat  potestatem  plenam  et  liberam  rcser- 

Winchester  College,   1382  327 

together  as  colleagues  and  collegiate  persons  and  in  the  same 
college  stay  and  live ; 

We  will  and  direct  moreover  that  all  and  singular  the  said 
scholars  now  and  to  come  and  all  other  officers  and  servants 
whatsoever  necessary  for  our  same  college  shall  for  ever  remain 
under  the  wardenship,  direction  and  rule  of  the  said  warden 
and  his  successors  for  the  time  being,  in  accordance  with  the 
statutes  and  ordinances  of  our  said  college. 

And  that  the  warden  and  scholars  of  the  said  college  and 
the  successors  of  the  same  warden  and  scholars  clerks  for  the 
time  being,  one  and  all  in  their  successive  times,  shall  for  ever 
observe  and  keep  all  and  every  such  our  statutes  and  ordinances 
unalterably,  and  the  said  warden  and  his  successors  on  their 
presentation  shall  be  held  in  duty  bound  to  take  their  corporal 
oath  with  their  hands  on  the  most  holy  Gospels  to  keep  and 
inviolably  observe  all  and  singular  the  statutes  and  ordinances 
aforesaid  well  wholly  and  faithfully  in  all  things. 

And  we  give  and  grant  and  by  this  our  charter  confirm 
to  the  same  warden  and  scholars  clerks  and  their  successors 
for  ever  in  this  the  first  foundation  of  our  same  college  all 
the  aforesaid  messuages  land  and  meadow  with  all  their 
ai)purtenances,  namely  to  hold  and  possess  as  a  community  and 
in  common  to  the  same  warden  and  scholars  clerks  and  their 
successors  for  their  dwelling  and  habitation  in  our  college 
aforesaid  of  us  and  our  successors  bishops  of  Winchester  in 
free  pure  and  perpetual  alms  for  ever  freely  wholly  peacefully 
equally  and  quietly. 

We  reserve  however  by  the  tenor  of  these  presents  to 
ourselves  only  full  and  free  power  of  further  ordaining  and 
establishing  for  the  scholars  and  clerks  of  our  said  college  rules 
for  the  direction  of  their  school  life  and  scholastic  arts,  and  of 
making  and  issuing  statutes  and  ordinances  of  and  concerning 
the  rule  governance  and  estate  of  our  college  itself  and  the 
parsons  of  the  same,  and  of  adding  to  or  taking  from  the  same 
rules  ordinances  and  statutes,  and  of  changing  construing  and 
also  declaring  the  same  one  and  all  in  whole  or  in  part. 

328  A  Lollard  School? 

In  quorum  omnium  testimonium  atque  fidem  presentes 
litteras  nostras  per  notarium  publicum  infrascriptum  scribi  et 
publicari  mandauimus  nostrique  sigilli  appensione  fecimus 
communiri.  Datis  et  actis  in  capella  infra  manerium  nostrum 
de  Suthwerk  nostre  Wyntoniensis  diocesis  anno  ab  Incarnacione 
domini  secundum  computacionem  ecclesie  anglicane  millesimo 
trescentesimo  octogesimo  secundo,  Indiccione  sexta,  pontificatus 
sanctissimi  in  Christo  patris  et  domini  nostri  domini  Urbani 
diuina  prouidencia  pape  sexti  anno  quinto,  mensis  Octobris 
die  vicesima  anno  regni  Regis  Ricardi  secundi  post  conqUestum 
sexto,  et  nostre  consecracionis  anno  sexto  decimo:  presentibus 
venerabilibus  et  discretis  viris  magistris  Johanne  de  Bloxham, 
ArchidiaconoWyntoniensi,  JohannedeBukyngham  Eboracensis, 
Johanne  de  Lydford  Exoniensis  et  Johanne  de  Campeden 
Suthwellensis  ecclesiarum  canonicis  et  aliis  testibus  ad  premissa 
vocatis  specialiter  et  rogatis. 

[The  attestation  of  two  notaries  follows.] 

A   Lollard  Scliool\?\  or  Conventicle.      1382. 

[Chron.  II.  Knighton  (Rolls  Series),  ii.   182.] 

Quidam  dominus  Ricardus  Waytestathe,  capellanus,  et 
Willelmus  Smyth  antedictus  [ab  artificio  sic  vocatus  ;...qui... 
vinum  et  cervisiam  quasi  venenum  recusavit,  nudis  pedibus  per 
plures  annos  incedens,  medio  tempore  abcedarium  didicit  et 
manu  sua  scribere  fecit]  moram  adinvicem  traxerunt  in  quadam 
capella  sancti  Johannis  Baptistae  extra  Leycestriam  prope 
mansionem  leprosorum  ubi  caeteri  de  illasectasaepeconvenerunt 

conventiculaque    confecerunt Ibi    enini    erat    hospitium    et 

diversorium  omnium  talium  adventantium,  et  ibi  hahuerunt 
gingnasium  malignorum  dogmatum  et  opinionum  et  errorum 
haereticorumque  communicationem.  Capella  quae  olim  Deo 
dedicata  est  jam  blasphemis  et  ecclesiae  Christi  inimicis  atque 
haereticis  receptorium  et  sedes  facta  est. 

A  Lollard  School?  329 

In  witness  and  faith  whereof  we  have  directed  these  our 
present  letters  to  be  written  and  published  by  the  underwritten 
notary  public  and  have  caused  them  to  be  authenticated  by 
appending  our  seal.  Given  and  done  in  the  chapel  in  our  manor 
of  Southwark  in  our  diocese  of  Winchester  in  the  year  from 
the  Incarnation  of  the  Lord  according  to  the  reckoning  of 
the  Church  of  England  1382,  in  the  Sixth  Indiction,  in  the 
fifth  year  of  the  bishopric  of  the  most  holy  father  in  Christ 
and  our  lord  the  Lord  Urban  the  sixth  by  divine  providence 
Pope,  on  the  20th  day  of  October,  in  the  sixth  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  Richard  the  second  after  the  conquest  and 
the  sixteenth  year  of  our  consecration ;  in  the  presence  of 
the  venerable  and  discreet  men  Masters  John  of  Bloxham, 
archdeacon  of  Winchester,  John  of  Buckingham,  John  of 
Lydford,  and  John  of  Campdon,  respectively  canons  of  the 
churches  of  York,  Exeter  and  Southwell,  and  other  witnesses 
specially  called  and  invited  to  the  premises. 

[Then  follow  the  attestation  clauses  of  two  notaries,  filling 
27   lines  of  a  printed  quarto  page.] 

A   Lollard  Scliool[?"\  or  Conventicle.      1382. 

One  Sir  Richard  Waytestathe,  chaplain,  and  the  said 
William  Smith  [so  called  from  his  craft... who... refused  wine 
and  beer  as  poison,  and  going  barefoot  for  some  years,  mean- 
while learnt  the  alphabet  and  wrote  it  with  his  own  hand]  lived 
by  turns  in  a  chapel  of  St  John  the  Baptist  outside  Leicester 
by  the  lepers'  hospital,  where  others  of  that  sect  often  met 
together  and  made  conventicles. ...For  it  was  a  hospice  and 
inn  for  all  such  who  came  there,  and  there  they  had  a  school 
of  malignant  dogmas  and  opinions  and  exchange  of  heretical 
errors.  The  chapel  once  dedicated  to  God  was  now  made 
a  receptacle  and  seat  tor  blasphemers  and  enemies  of  the 
church  of  Christ  and  heretics. 

330  Foundation  Deed  of 

Foundation  of  Wotton-under-Edge  Free 
G7^a7)imar  Schoot.      1384. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Gloucestershire,  II.  396,  from  Reg.  Ep. 
Worcester,  II.  Wakfeld,  p.    72.] 

Ordinacio  domus  scolarium  de  Wotton-sub-Egge. 

Carta  domine  Kitterine  de  Berkeleye. 

Uniuersis  Sancte  matris  ecclesie  filiis  Katerina,  que  fui 
uxor  domini  Thome  de  Berkeley  nuper  doniini  de  Berkeleye, 
Walterus  Burnet,  capellanus,  Willelmus  Pendok,  capellanus, 
salutem  in  eo  qui  est  omnium  vera  salus. 

Nos  dicta  Katerina  considerantes  propensius  et  attente 
propositum  multorum  in  gramatica,  que  est  fundamentum 
omnium  arcium  liberalium,  informari  volencium,  per  penuriam 
et  inopiam  indies  subtrahi  et  annullari ;  ea  propter  et  ad 
sustentacionem  et  exaltacionem  sancte  matris  ecclesie,  cultus- 
que  diuini  et  aliarum  arcium  et  scienciarum  liberaliumque 
incrementum  de  bonis  nobis  a  Deo  collatis,  certa  terras  et 
tenementa  subscripta,  dictos  Walterum  et  Willelmum  ad- 
quirere  procurauimus,  sibi  et  heredibus  suis  in  feodo,  ut  ipsi 
quandam  domum  scolarum  in  Wotton  under  Egge  de  nouo 
construere  et  pro  inhabitacione  siue  fundacione,  et  similiter 
pro  sustentacione,  unius  magistri  et  duorum  pauperum 
scolarium  artis  gramatice  ea  valeant  disponere ;  qui  quidem 
magister  et  successores  sui  gubernabunt  et  informabunt  omnes 
scolares  ad  eandem  domum  siue  scolam  pro  erudicione  huius- 
modi  artis  venientes  absque  aliquo  pro  labore  suo  ab  eis  seu 
eorum  aliquo  capiendo. 

Nos  eciam  dicti  Walterus  et  Willelmus  salubre  propositum 
et  piam  intencionem  dicte  domine  Katerine  in  hac  parte  in 
omnibus  supplere  cupientes,  licencia  domini  regis  ac  aliorum 
dominorum  quorum  interest  mediante,  in  et  de  quadam  placea 
nostra  continente  duas  acras  terre  cum  pertinenciis  in  Wotton 

Wotton-under-Ecige  Free  Grammar  School     331 

Foundation  of  Wotton-under-Edge  Free 
Grammar  School.      1 384. 

Ordinance  of  the  House  of  Scholars  of  Wotton-under-Edge 

Deed  of  Lady  Katharine  of  Berkeley. 

To  all  the  sons  of  holy  mother  church,  I  Katharine,  who 
was  wife  of  Sir  Thomas  of  Berkeley,  late  lord  of  Berkeley, 
Walter  Burnet,  chaplain,  William  Pendock,  chaplain,  health  in 
Him  who  is  the  true  health  of  all. 

We  the  said  Katharine,  closely  and  attentively  considering 
that  the  purpose  of  many  wishing  to  be  taught  grammar,  which 
is  the  foundation  of  all  the  liberal  arts,  is  daily  diminished  and 
brought  to  naught  by  poverty  and  want  of  means,  therefore 
and  for  the  maintenance  and  exaltation  of  holy  mother  church 
and  increase  of  divine  worship  and  of  the  other  arts  and  liberal 
sciences,  out  of  the  goods  bestowed  on  us  by  God,  caused 
the  said  Walter  and  William  to  acquire  to  them  and  their  heirs 
in  fee  the  lands  and  tenements  underwritten,  that  they  might 
newly  build  a  school-house  in  Wotton-under-Edge  for  the 
habitation  and  foundation  and  likewise  dispose  of  them  for 
the  maintenance  of  a  master  and  two  poor  scholars  of  the  art 
of  grammar;  which  master  and  his  successors  shall  govern  and 
teach  all  scholars  coming  to  the  same  house  or  school  for 
instruction  in  such  art,  without  taking  anything  for  their  pains 
from  them  or  any  of  them. 

We  too,  the  said  Walter  and  William,  desiring  to  fulfil  the 
healthful  purpose  and  pious  intention  of  the  said  Lady  Katharine 
in  this  behalf  in  all  points,  with  the  licence  of  the  lord  king 
and  other  lords  interested,  really  and  effectively  found,  con- 
stitute, establish  and  also  ordain  in  and  of  a  certain  place 
of  ours  containing  two  acres  of  land  with  the  appurtenances 

;^;^2  Foundation  Deed  of 

under  Egge  sumptu  et  prouidencia  dicte  domine  Katerine 
adquisita  de  licencia  predicta,  quandam  domum  scolarum 
perpetuam  unius  magistri  et  duorum  pauperum  scolarium 
clericorum  realiter  et  affectualiter  \_sic  for  effectualiter] 
fundamus,  constituimus,  stabilimus  ac  eciam  ordinamus. 

Quam  quidem  domum  scolarium  consistere  volumus 
imperpetuum  atque  debet  in  et  de  numero  unius  magistri  et 
duorum  pauperum  scolarium  clericorum  collegialiter  viuen- 
cium  temporibus  perpetuis  duraturam ;  Volentesc}ue  funda- 
cionem,  institucionem  et  ordinacionem  dicte  domus  ulterius 
effectui  mancipare,  lohannem  Stone,  presbiterum  et  magistrum 
in  artibus,  virum  prouidum  et  discretum  ac  moribus  et  sciencia 
approbatum,  eiusdem  domus  prefecimus  in  magistrum  ad 
scolas  in  eadem  ut  premittitur  regendas  siue  gubernandas, 
duosque  pauperes  et  indigentes  scolares  clericos  in  dicta 
arte  gramatica  proficisci  volentes  admittimus,  ipsosque  eidem 
magistro  adiungimus  et  eadem  domo  realiter  ponimus,  ac 
eosdem  collegialiter  aggregamus,  quorum  scolarium  cleri- 
corum nomina  sunt  hec,  lohannes  Beenleye  et  Walterus 

Statuimus  eciam  ordinamus  et  volumus  quod  dicti  magister 
€t  scolares  clerici  ac  alii  futuris  temporibus  loco  ipsorum  pro 
perpetuo  in  eadem  domo  assumendi,  tanquam  persone  collegiales 
et  collegiate  simul  conuersent  ac  in  eadem  collegialiter  stent 
et  viuant ;  scolares  insuper  predictos,  presentes  et  futuros, 
possessiones  eciam  eiusdem  domus  quascumque  tam  a  nobis 
in  hac  nostra  primaria  fundacione  collatas  quam  similiter  a 
nobis  et  quibusuis  aliis  imposterum  conferendas,  sub  custodia 
disposicione  et  regimine  dicti  magistri  et  successorum  suorum 
magistrorum,  qui  pro  tempore  fuerint,  volumus  et  disponimus 
pro  perpetuo  permanere  iuxta  statuta  et  ordinaciones  per  dictam 
dominam  Katerinam  et  nos,  dictos  Walterum  et  Willelmum, 
facienda ;  que  quidem  statuta  et  ordinaciones  dicti  magistri 
€t  scolares  et  eorum  successores  successiuis  temporibus 
imperpetuum  obseruent  et  custodiant  inconcusse. 

Eidemque     magistro     et     scolaribus     clericis,     et     eorum 

Wotton-under-Ecige  Free  Grammar  School     }f'}y'iy 

in  Wotton-under-Edge  acquired  by  us  at  the  cost  and  provision 
of  the  said  Lady  Katharine  with  the  Hcence  aforesaid,  a 
perpetual  school-house  of  a  master  and  two  poor  scholars 
clerks ; 

Which  house  of  scholars  we  will  to  consist  and  ought 
to  endure  for  ever  in  and  of  the  number  of  a  master  and  two 
poor  scholars  clerks  living  college-wise  therein  ;  and  wishing 
further  to  give  effect  to  the  foundation  institution  and  ordinance 
of  the  said  house,  we  have  preferred  John  Stone,  priest  and 
master  in  arts,  a  prudent  and  discreet  man,  approved  in 
character  and  learning,  as  master  of  the  same  house  to  teach 
or  govern  school  in  the  same  as  aforesaid,  and  we  now  admit 
two  poor  and  needy  scholars  clerks  wishing  to  become  proficient 
in  the  said  art  of  grammar,  and  join  them  to  the  same  master 
and  place  them  in  person  in  the  same  house  and  unite  them 
college-wise,  the  names  of  which  scholars  clerks  are  these, 
John  Beenly  and  Walter  Morkyn. 

We  decree,  too,  ordain  and  will  that  the  said  master 
and  scholars  clerks  and  others  to  be  hereafter  for  ever 
admitted  in  the  same  house  in  their  place  shall  live  together 
as  collegial  and  collegiate  persons,  and  in  the  same  college 
shall  remain  and  live ;  we  will  and  dispose  too  the  scholars 
aforesaid,  present  and  future,  and  whatsoever  possessions  of  the 
same  house  have  been  given  by  us  in  this  our  first  foundation, 
as  well  as  those  which  shall  be  likewise  afterwards  conferred 
by  us  or  anyone  else,  shall  for  ever  remain  under  the  guardian- 
ship, disposition  and  rule  of  the  said  master  and  his  successors, 
the  masters  for  the  time  being,  according  to  statutes  and 
ordinances  to  be  made  by  the  said  lady  Katharine  and  us  the 
said  Walter  and  William,  which  the  said  master  and  scholars 
and  their  successors  shall  in  their  successive  times  for  ever 
unshakenly  observe  and  keep. 

And   to   the  same   master  and   scholars   clerks   and   their 

334        Statutes  of  Wotton-under-Edge 

successoribus,  imperpetuum,  in  hac  nostra  primaria  fundacione, 
eiusdem  de  licencia,  damus  et  concedimus  ac  present!  carta 
nostra  confirmauinius  dictam  placeam  continentem  duas  acras 
terra  cum  pertinenciis  in  Wotton  under  Egge  tenendum 
videlicet  communiter  et  in  communi  eisdem  magistro  et 
scolaribus  clericis,  et  successoribus  eorumdem,  pro  mora  et 
inhabitacione  suis  in  eadem  domo  imperpetuum  possidendum 
libere  integre  pacifice  pariter  et  quiete. 

Damus  eciam  eisdem  magistro  et  scolaribus... [grant  of 
property  for  endowment  and  warranty  of  title.     Witness  clause]. 

Datis  apud  Wotton  under  Egge  vicesimo  die  mensis 
Octobris  anno  regni  Regis  Ricardi  secundi  octauo. 

[Ordinaciones  et  Statuta.] 

In  ipsius  vero  primaria  domus  fundacione  fecimus  certas 
ordinaciones  et  statuta  quas  super  ipsius  regimine  imposterum 
perpetuis  temporibus  volumus  obseruari. 

In  primis  volumus  et  ordinamus  quod  dicte  domus  scolarium 
magister,  quicumque  pro  tempore  fuerit,  presbiter  sit,  et  in 
capella  Beate  Katerine  manerii  de  Wotton,  dummodo  ego 
Katerina  predicta  vel  alii  domini  vel  domine  dicti  manerii 
de  Wotton  presentes  fuero  vel  fuerint  aut  moram  fecero  seu 
fecerint  ibidem  ;  et,  cum  alibi  fuero,  seu  cum  fuerit  dominus 
ipsius  manerii,  in  ecclesia  parochiali  dicte  ville  idem  magister 
celebrabit  imperpetuum  pro  salubri  statu  nostro  ac  predictorum 
Domini  Thome  de  Berkeley,  nunc  domini  de  Berkeley,  et 
Domine  Margarete  consortis  eiusdem,  necnon  Domini  lohannis 
de  Berkeley,  militis,  et  Elizabethe  consortis  ipsius,  et  pro 
animabus  nostris  cum  ab  hac  luce  migrauerimus,  et  similiter 
pro  animabus  Thome  dudum  de  Berkeley,  domini  et  mariti 
mei,  Katerine  predicte,  Petri  de  Veel  similiter  quondam  domini 
et  mariti  mei  dicte  Katerine,  lohannis  de  Clyuedon,  militis, 
et  Emme  consortis  ipsius,  patris  et  matris  meorum  dicte 
Katerine,  et  omnium  progenitoruni  et  parentum  dicti  domini 
Thome,  nunc  domini  de  Berkeleye,  et  meorum  Katerine 
predicte,   absque  aliquo   stipendio  siue   salario  a  quocumque 

Free  GratJimar  School,    1384  335 

successors  for  ever  in  this  our  first  foundation  by  the  same 
licence  we  give  and  grant  and  by  this  our  deed  have  confirmed 
the  said  place  containing  two  acres  of  land  with  the  appurte- 
nances in  Wotton-under-Edge  to  hold,  that  is  to  say,  as  a 
common  property  in  common  to  the  same  master  and  scholars 
clerks  and  their  successors,  for  their  dwelling  and  living  in  the 
same  house  for  ever  to  possess  freely  wholly  and  at  the  same 
time  peacefully  and  quietly. 

We  give  also  to  the  same  master  and  scholars... [grant  of 
property  for  endowment  and  warranty  of  title.     \V'itness  clause]. 

Dated  at  Wotton-under-Edge  on  the  20th  day  of  the  month 
of  October  in  the  eighth  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Richard  the 
Second  [1384]. 

[Ordinances  and  Statutes.] 

On  the  first  foundation  of  the  House  we  have  made  certain 
ordinances  and  statutes  for  its  rule  which  we  will  shall  be  for 
ever  observed. 

First  we  will  and  ordain  that  the  Master  of  the  said  House 
of  Scholars  for  the  time  being  shall  be  a  priest  and  shall  always 
celebrate  in  St  Katharine's  chapel  in  the  manor-house  of  Wotton 
when  I  the  said  Katharine  or  other  the  lord  or  lady  of  the  said 
manor  of  Wotton  shall  be  there;  and  when  I  or  the  lord  of  the 
said  manor  shall  be  elsewhere,  then  in  the  parish  church  of 
the  said  town,  for  the  healthy  estate  of  us  and  of  the  said  Sir 
Thomas  of  Berkeley,  now  lord  of  Berkeley,  and  the  lady  Margaret 
his  consort,  also  for  Sir  John  of  Berkeley,  knight,  and  the  lady 
Elizabeth  his  consort,  and  for  our  souls  when  we  shall  have 
passed  from  this  light,  and  likewise  for  the  souls  of  Thomas 
late  of  Berkeley,  lord  and  husband  of  me  Katharine  aforesaid, 
and  of  Peter  of  Veel  likewise,  formerly  the  lord  and  husband 
of  me  the  said  Katharine,  of  John  of  Clyvedon  knight  and 
Emma  his  consort,  father  and  mother  of  me  the  said  Katharine, 
and  of  all  the  progenitors  and  parents  of  the  said  Sir  Thomas 
now  lord  of  Berkeley  and  of  me  the  aforesaid  Katharine,  without 
taking  any  stipend  or  salary  from  anyone  besides  the  rents  and 

2,^6         Statutes  of  Wot ton-under- Edge 

recipiendo  preter  redditus  et  prouentus  in  prima  fundacione  et 
dotacione  dicte  domus  scolarum  per  nos  collatos  et  donates 
eidem,  vel  postea  ex  donacione  fidelium  conferendos,  vel  alio 
modo  licito  adquirendos  in  augmentacionem  prouentuum 
domus  antedicte. 

[The  master  to  be  presented  by  Lady  Berkeley  during  her 
life,  and  afterwards  by  Sir  Thomas  Berkeley  and  his  heirs  male, 
whom  failing  by  Sir  John  Berkeley,  her  second  son,  and  his 
heirs  male,  whom  failing  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  of  Wotton.] 

Item,  volumus  quod  magister  lohannes  Stone,  magister 
in  artibus,  ad  regimen  dicte  domus  et  gubernacionem  dictorum 
scolarium  primus  magister  intitulatus  et  duo  pauperes  et 
indigentes  scolares,  videlicet  lohannes  Beenleye  et  Walterus 
Morkyn,  in  arte  gramatica  adiscere  et  proficere  volentes  dicte 
domus  magistro  adiuncti  et  in  eadem  domo  positi  et  coUegialiter 
aggregati,  et  de  terris  redditibus  et  aliis  prouentibus,  quos  eis 
assignauimus  et  donauimus  in  dicte  domus  fundacione  pro 
eorum  sustentacione  et  aliis  oneribus  incumbentibus,  simul 
stent  et  in  eadem  remaneant,  ut  subicitur,  et  coUegialiter  viuant, 
quodque  possessiones  dicte  domui  collate  et  imposterum 
conferende  sub  custodia  disposicione  et  regimine  dicti  magistri, 
et  successorum  suorum  dicte  domus  magistrorumsuistemporibus 
successiuis,  imperpetuum  permaneant,  iuxta  statuta  et  ordi- 
naciones  nostras  in  presenti  scriptura  inserta,  ad  que  statuta 
et  ordinaciones  obseruanda  iidem  magister  et  scolares,  ipso- 
rumque  successores,  in  admissione  eorum  corporali  iuramento 
erunt  astricti ;  dictique  magistri  et  eorum  successores  dictas 
scolas  regent  fideliter  et  utiliter  gubernabunt  secundum  posse 
suum,  scolaresque  quoscumque  pro  erudicione  dicte  artis 
gramatice  quocumque  et  undecumque  venientes  ea  de  causa 
benigne  recipient,  et  ipsos  in  eadem  arte  debite  informabunt, 
absque  aliquo  commodo  siue  lucro  pro  labore  suo  nomine 
stipendii  siue  salarii  exigendo,  vendicando  vel  recipiendo  ab 
eis,   de  quo  poterit  argui  ambicio  magistrorum  predictorum. 

Volumus  insuper  et  ordinamus  quod  dicti  magister  et 
successores  sui  a  regimine  dictarum  scolarum  non  cessabunt. 

Free  Grammar  School^   1384  337 

profits  by  us  bestowed  and  given  to  the  same  in  the  first 
foundation  and  endowment  of  the  said  schoolhouse  or  hereafter 
to  be  bestowed  by  gift  of  the  faithful,  or  otherwise  lawfully 
acquired  in  augmentation  of  the  income  of  the  house  aforesaid. 

[The  master  to  be  presented  by  Lady  Berkeley  during  her 
life,  and  afterwards  by  Sir  Thomas  Berkeley  and  his  heirs  male, 
whom  failing  by  Sir  John  Berkeley,  her  second  son,  and  his 
heirs  male,  whom  failing  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  of  Wotton.] 

Also  we  will  that  Master  John  Stone,  M.A.,  the  first  master 
to  be  given  a  title  to  the  rule  of  the  said  house  and  governance 
of  the  said  scholars,  and  the  two  poor  and  needy  scholars, 
namely,  John  Beenly  and  Walter  Morkyn,  wishing  to  learn  the 
art  of  grammar  and  to  become  proficient  in  it,  joined  to  the 
master  of  the  said  house  and  placed  and  gathered  together 
college-wise  in  the  said  house,  shall  stay  together  and  remain 
in  the  same,  as  is  provided  below,  and  shall  live  college-wise 
on  the  lands,  rents  and  other  possessions,  which  we  assigned 
and  gave  them  on  the  foundation  of  the  said  house  for  their 
maintenance  and  other  charges  on  them,  and  that  the  posses- 
sions bestowed  and  hereafter  to  be  bestowed  on  the  said 
house  shall  for  ever  remain  under  the  custody,  disposition 
and  control  of  the  said  master  and  his  successors,  masters  of 
the  said  house  in  their  time  successively,  in  accordance  with 
our  statutes  and  ordinances  contained  in  this  present  writing, 
to  the  observance  of  which  the  same  master  and  scholars  and 
their  successors  shall  on  their  admission  be  bound  by  their 
corporal  oath.  And  the  said  masters  and  their  successors  shall 
keep  the  school  faithfully,  and  usefully  govern  it  after  their 
power,  and  shall  kindly  receive  all  scholars  whatsoever,  how- 
soever and  whencesoever  coming  for  instruction  in  the  said  art 
of  grammar,  and  duly  instruct  them  in  the  same  art,  without 
exacting,  claiming  or  taking  from  them  any  advantage  or  gain 
for  their  labour  in  the  name  of  stipend  or  salary,  so  that  the 
masters  aforesaid  could  be  accused  of  solicitation. 

We   will   also   and   ordain   that   the    said    master   and    his 
successors  shall  not  cease  from  keeping  the  said  school,  except 
L.  22 

T,2,S  Statutes  of  Wotton-under-Bdge 

nisi  a  festo  sancti  Thome  apostoli  usque  in  crastinum  Epiphanie, 
et  a  dominica  in  Ramis  Palmarum  usque  ad  octauas  Pasche, 
et  a  vigilia  Pentecoste  usque  in  crastinum  Sancte  Trinitatis, 
et  a  festo  sancti  Petri  ad  vincula  usque  in  festum  exaltacionis 
Sancte  Crucis,  pro  perpetuo... 

[All  alienation  or  diminution  of  property  of  the  house 
forbidden  except  with  the  consent  of  the  patron  in  full  court 
of  the  homage  of  the  lordship,  and  if  made  to  be  void.] 

Volumus  eciam  et  ordinamus  quod  dicti  magister  et 
successores  sui  honeste  sint  conuersacionis,  et  quod  cure 
regiminis  sui  supradicti  diligenter  intendant,  et  quod  domos, 
edificia,  terras  et  tenementa,  et  omnes  possessiones  eidem 
domui  collatas  et  conferendas,  in  statu  competenti  manutenebunt 
et  sustentabunt,  et  debitam  sustentacionem  in  esculentis  et 
poculentis  dictis  duobus  scolaribus  in  dicta  domo,  ut  premittitur, 
positis  et  aggregatis,  et  aliis  loco  eorum  imposterum  in  eadem 
admittendis  habitacionem  et  omnia  alia  necessaria  preter 
vesturam  et  calciaturam  de  prouentibus  possessionum  pre- 
dictarum  inuenient  et  ministrabunt  imperpetuum;  residuum 
vero  dictorum  prouentuum,  ultra  sustentacionem  magistri  domus 
et  dictorum  suorum  scolarium  qui  pro  tempore  fuerint,  et 
similiter  ultra  manutenenciam  et  sustentacionem  dictarum 
possessionum  aliarumque  expensarum  debitarum  vel  hones- 
tarum  in  usum  et  commodum  dicte  domus  et  magistri  ipsius 

Volumus  eciam  et  ordinamus  quod  dicti  duo  scolares  in 
dicta  domo  nunc  positi,  ut  premittitur,  et  omnes  illi  qui  loco 
eorum  ibidem  imposterum  admittentur  quos  in  ipsorum  prima 
admissione  etatem  decem  annorum  excedere  nolumus,  citra 
auteni  etatem  illam  supposita  abilitate  personarum  huiusmodi 
admissionem  eandem  interdicere  non  intendimus,  honeste  sint 
conuersacionis  scolis  intendentes,  et  magistro  suo  obedientes,  et 
quod  per  magistrum  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit  ad  aliqua  officia 
siue  ministeria  exercenda  non  ponantur,  sed  erudicioni  et 
studio  continue  vacare  compellantur.  [If  disobedient  and  this 
proved  before  patron  to  be  removed.] 

Free  Grammar  School,    1384  339 

from  St  Thomas'  day  [21  Dec]  to  the  morrow  of  the  Epiphany 
[7  Jan.],  and  from  Palm  Sunday  to  eight  days  after  Easter,  and 
from  Saturday  before  Whitsunday  to  the  day  after  Trinity 
Sunday,  and  from  St  Peter  ad  vincula  [i  Aug.]  to  the  Exaltation 
of  the  Holy  Cross  [14  Sept.]  for  ever... 

[AH  alienation  or  diminution  of  property  of  the  house 
forbidden  except  with  the  consent  of  the  patron  in  full  court 
of  the  homage  of  the  lordship,  and  if  made  to  be  void.] 

We  will  also  and  ordain  that  the  said  master  and  his 
successors  shall  be  of  good  behaviour,  and  diligently  attend 
to  the  care  of  his  rule  above-mentioned,  and  shall  maintain  and 
sustain  the  houses  buildings  lands  and  tenements  and  all  the 
possessions  bestowed  and  to  be  bestowed  on  the  same  house 
in  a  competent  state,  and  shall  for  ever  find  and  minister  due 
maintenance  in  food  and  drink  to  the  said  two  scholars  placed 
and  assembled  in  the  said  house  as  before-mentioned,  and  the 
others  hereafter  to  be  admitted  in  their  place,  lodging  and  all 
other  necessaries  except  clothing  and  shoes  from  the  revenues 
of  the  possessions  aforesaid.  The  residue  of  the  said  revenues 
beyond  the  maintenance  of  the  master  of  the  house  and  his 
said  scholars  for  the  time  being,  and  likewise  beyond  the 
maintenance  and  support  of  the  said  possessions  and  other 
due  or  proper  expenses,  shall  be  commuted  to  the  use  and 
advantage  of  the  said  house  and  the  master  himself. 

[During  a  vacancy  in  the  mastership  the  property  to  be  in 
the  custody  of  the  bailiff  of  the  manor  of  Wotton.  Provision 
for  pension  of  five  marks  (^3.  6.v.  8</.)  a  year  to  a  master  who 
has  to  retire  through  no  fault  of  his  own.] 

[If  the  lord  of  Wotton  is  a  minor  the  patronage  of  the  school 
to  be  exercised  by  the  Abbot  of  St  Augustine's,  Bristol.] 

We  will  also  and  ordain  that  the  said  two  scholars  now 
placed  in  the  said  house,  as  is  before-mentioned,  and  all  those 
who  shall  be  afterwards  admitted  there  in  their  place,  whose 
age  on  their  first  admission  shall  not  exceed  ten  years  (though 
we  do  not  intend  absolutely  to  forbid  such  admission  before 
that  age,  supposing  the  persons  admitted  are  of  sufficient 
ability),  shall  be  of  good  behaviour  attending  school  and 
obedient  to  their  master,  and  shall  not  be  set  by  the  master 
for  the  time  being  to  do  any  oftice  or  service,  but  shall  be 
compelled  continually  to  devote  their  time  to  learning  and 

340  Grammar  Schools  till  1349 

Item  volumus  quid  prefati  juuenes  pauperes  duo  scolares 
dicto  magistro  domus  scolarium  sic  adiuncti  ut  prefertur 
postquam  in  eisdem  scolis  per  sex  annos  continues  fuerint 
amoueantur  omnino  et  alii  substituantur  in  locum  ipsorum 
et  nominentur  per  magistrum  ct  admittantur  per  dominum 
predictum.  Et  si  quicumque  infra  dictos  sex  annos  sint  in- 
disciplinati  et  nolint  vacare  doctrine  et  post  debitam  am- 
monicionem  et  castigacionem  se  emendare  noluerint  per 
magistrum  per  superuisum  domini  vel  senescalli  sui  expel- 
lantur  et  alii  subrogentur. 

[Master  for  disobedience  to  statutes  may  be  removed  by 
the  patron  after  three  warnings.] 

English  Boys  translate  Latin  into  French.     1327. 

[Higden,  Polychronicoit  (Rolls  Series,  41),  II.  157.] 

Angli  quoque,  quamquam  ab  initio  tripartitam  sortirentur 
linguam  austrinam  scilicet,  mediterraneam  et  borealem,  veluti 
ex  tribus  Germaniae  populis  procedentes,  ex  commixtione 
tamen  primo  cum  Danis,  deinde  cum  Normannis,  corrupta 
in  multis  patria  lingua  peregrines  jam  captant  boatus  et 
garritus.  Haec  quidem  nativae  linguae  corruptio  provenit 
hodie  multum  ex  duobus ;  quod  videlicet  pueri  in  scholis 
contra  morem  caeterarum  nationum  a  primo  Normannorum 
adventu,  derelicto  proprio  vulgari,  construere  Gallice  com- 
pelluntur ;  item  quod  filii  nobilium  ab  ipsis  cunabulorum 
crepundiis  ad  Gallicum  idioma  informantur.  Quibus  pro- 
fecto  ruralc'S  homines  assimilari  volentes,  ut  per  hoc  specta- 
biliores  videantur,  francigenare  satagunt  omni  nisu. 

translate  Latin  into  French  341 

Also  we  will  that  the  aforesaid  two  poor  young  scholars 
thus  added  to  the  said  master  of  the  House  of  Scholars,  as 
aforesaid,  after  they  have  been  in  the  same  school  for  six  years 
continuously  shall  be  wholly  removed  and  others  put  in  their 
place  nominated  by  the  master  and  admitted  by  the  lord  afore- 
said ;  and  if  any  of  them  within  the  said  six  years  shall  be 
undisciplined,  and  shall  be  unwilling  to  devote  his  time  to 
learning,  and  shall  after  due  warning  and  chastisement  refuse 
to  amend,  they  shall  be  expelled  by  the  master  under  the 
supervision  of  the  lord  or  his  steward,  and  others  put  in 
their  places. 

T7'anslation    of  Latin    into    English    instead  of 
French.      1 349, 

[Tre visa's  translation  of  Higden's  Polychronicon.'\ 

Also  Englische  men,  they  hadde  from  the  begynnynge  thre 
manere  speche,  northerne,  sowtherne  and  middel  speche  in  the 
myddel  of  the  lond,  as  they  come  of  thre  manere  peple  of 
Germania.  Notheles  by  comyxtioun  and  mellynge  firste  with 
Danes  and  afterward  with  Normans,  in  meny  the  contray 
longage  is  apayred,  and  som  useth  straunge  whafferynge, 
chiterynge,  harrynge  and  garrynge  grisbayting.  This  apayr- 
ynge  of  the  burthe  of  the  tunge  is  bycause  of  tweie  thinges; 
oon  is  for  children  in  scole  a3enst  the  usage  and  manere  of 
alle  othere  naciouns  beeth  compelled  for  to  leue  hire  owne 
langage,  and  for  to  construe  hir  lessouns  and  here  thynges  in 
Frensche,  and  so  they  have  seth  the  Normans  come  first  in  to 
Engelond.  Also  gentil  men  children  beeth  i-tau3t  to  speke 
P^ensche  from  the  tyme  that  they  beeth  i-rokked  in  here 
cradel  and  kunneth  speke  and  playe  with  a  childes  broche ; 
and  vplondisshe  men  wil  likne  hym  self  to  gentil  men,  and 
fondeth  with  greet  besynesse  for  to  speke  Frensce,  for  to  be 

342     Grammar  and  Song  School  combined 

Appointment  of  Master  of  Song  and  Grammar 
School,   Northallerton.      15  December  1385. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  Early  Yorkshire  Schools,  ii.  6i,  from  K.  M.  Cott. 
Faustin.   A.  vi.  f.   (104)  78.] 

Robertus  Prior  Ecclesie  Cathedralis  Dunelmensis,  Ordi- 
narius  Spiritualitatis  Beati  Cuthberti  in  diocesi  Eboracensi, 
Dilecto  nobis  in  Christo  Domino  VVillelmo  de  Ledis,  capel- 
lano,  salutem  in  amplexibus  Salvatoris. 

Te,  ad  informandos  pueros  tarn  in  cantu  quam  in  gramatica, 
ex  laudabili  testimonio  fidedignorum  sufficientem  et  ydoneum 
reputantes,  Scolas  nostras  de  Allerton,  tarn  cantuales  quam 
gramaticales,  prout  hactenus  conferri  consueverunt,  tibi  con- 
ferimus  per  presentes,  intuitu  caritatis,  Habendas  et  regendas 
a  dato  presencium  usque  ad  terminum  trium  annorum  proximo 
sequenciuni,  dummodo  te  bene  et  honeste  habueris,  ac  circa 
pueros  informandos  personaliter  diligenciam  adhibueris  effi- 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium  sigillum  nostrum  presentibus  est 

Datis  Dunelmie  xv  die  mensis  Decembris  a.d.  millesimo 
ccc""^  octogesimo  quinto. 

Grammar  and  Song  School  combined     343 

i-tolde  of.  This  manere  was  moche  i-vsed  to  for  firste  deth 
and  is  siththe  sumdel  i-chaunged ;  for  lohn  Cornwaile,  a 
maister  of  grammer,  chaunged  the  lore  in  gramer  scole  and 
construccioun  of  Frensche  in  to  Englische ;  and  Richard 
Pencriche  lerned  the  manere  techynge  of  hym  and  othere 
men  of  Pencrich ;  so  that  now,  the  3ere  of  oure  Lorde  a 
thowsand  thre  hundred  and  foure  score  and  fyve,  and  of  the 
secounde  kyng  Richard  after  the  conquest  nyne,  in  alle  the 
gramere  scoles  of  Engelond,  children  leue  P>ensche  and  con- 
strue and  lerne  an  Englische,  and  haue  therby  auauntage  in 
oon  side  and  disauauntage  in  another  side  ;  here  auauntage  is, 
that  they  lerne  her  gramer  in  lasse  tyme  than  children  were 
i-woned  to  doo ;  disauauntage  is  that  now  children  of  gramer 
scole  conneth  na  more  Frensche  than  can  hir  lift  heele,  and 
that  is  harme  for  hem  and  they  schulle  passe  the  see  and 
trauaille  in  straunge  landes  and  in  many  other  places.  Also 
gentil  men  haue  now  moche  i-left  for  to  teche  here  children 

Appointment    of  Master  of  Song  and  Gj'atnmar 
School,'  Northallerton.      15  December  1385. 

Robert  Prior  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Durham,  Ordinary 
of  the  Spiritualities  of  St  Cuthbert  in  York  diocese,  to  our 
beloved  in  Christ,  Sir  William  of  Leeds,  chaplain,  health  in  the 
embraces  of  the  Saviour. 

Considering  you  on  the  praiseworthy  evidence  of  trust- 
worthy persons  sufficient  and  fit  to  teach  boys  as  well  song 
as  grammar.  We  confer  on  you  by  these  presents  our  school 
of  Allerton,  as  well  of  song  as  of  grammar,  as  they  have  been 
heretofore  accustomed  to  be  conferred,  by  way  of  charity,  To 
have  and  to  rule  from  the  date  of  these  presents  for  the  term  of 
three  years  next  following  as  long  as  you  behave  yourself  well 
and  uprightly,  and  personally  show  effective  diligence  in 
teaching  boys. 

In  witness  whereof  our  seal  is  appended  to  these  presents. 

Dated  at  Durham  15  December,  a.d.  1385. 

344         Monk  aiid  Friar  hate  Learning 

Characteristics   of  a    Monk,    a    Friar,    and   an 
Oxford  Scholar.      1388. 

[Chaucer's    Canterbury    Talcs,    Prologue,    ed.    W.    W.    Skeat,    1895, 
p.   420.] 

A  monk  ther  was,  a  fair  for  the  maistrye, 

An  out-rydere,  that  lovede  venerye ; 

A  manly  man,  to  been  an  abbot  able. 

Ful  many  a  deyntee  hors  hadde  he  in  stable. 

He  yaf  nat  of  that  text  a  pulled  hen, 

That  seith,  that  hunters  been  nat  holy  men  ; 

Ne  that  a  monk,  when  he  is  cloisterlees, 

Is  lykned  til  a  fish  that  is  waterlees  ; 

This  is  to  seyn,  a  monk  out  of  his  cloistre. 

But  thilke  text  held  he  nat  worth  an  oistre  ; 

And  I  seyde,  his  opinioun  was  good. 

What  sholde  he  studie,  and  make  himselven  wood. 

Upon  a  book  in  cloistre  alwey  to  poure, 

Or  swinken  with  his  handes,  and  laboure 

As  Austin  bit?     How  shal  the  world  be  served? 

Lat  Austin  have  his  swink  to  him  reserved. 

His  botes  souple,  his  hors  in  greet  estat. 
Now  certeinly  he  was  a  fair  prelat ; 
He  was  nat  pale  as  a  for-pyned  goost, 
A  fat  swan  loved  he  best  of  any  roost, 
His  palfrey  was  as  broun  as  is  a  berye. 

A  frere  there  was,  a  wantovvn  and  a  merye, 
A  limitour,  a  ful  solempne  man. 
In  alle  the  ordres  foure  is  noon  that  can 
So  muche  of  daliaunce  and  fair  langage. 

The  Oxford  Scholar  loves  it  345 

For  there  he  was  nat  lyk  a  cloisterer, 
With  a  thredbar  cope,  as  is  a  poore  scoler, 
But  he  was  lyk  a  maister  or  a  pope. 
Of  double  worsted  was  his  semi-cope. 
That  rounded  as  a  belle  out  of  the  presse. 
Somwhat  he  lipsed,  for  his  wantownesse. 
To  make  his  English  swete  upon  his  tonge. 

A  clerk  ther  was  of  Oxenford  also, 
That  un-to  logik  hadde  longe  y-go. 
As  lene  was  his  hors  as  is  a  rake, 
And  he  nas  nat  right  fat,   I  undertake ; 
But  loked  holwe,  and  ther-to  soberly. 
Ful  thredbar  was  his  overest  courtepy ; 
For  he  had  geten  him  yet  no  benefyce, 
Ne  was  so  worldly  for  to  have  offyce. 
For  him  was  lever  have  at  his  beddes  heed 
Twenty  bokes,  clad  in  blak  or  reed, 
Of  Aristotle  and  his  philosophye, 
Than  robes  riche,  or  fithele,  or  gay  sautrye. 
But  al  be  that  he  was  a  philosophre. 
Yet  hadde  he  but  litel  gold  in  cofre  ; 
But  al  that  he  mighte  of  his  freendes  hence, 
On  bokes  and  on  lerninge  he  it  spente. 
And  bisily  gan  for  the  soules  preye 
Of  hem  that  yaf  him  wher-with  to  scoleye. 
Of  studie  took  he  most  care  and  most  hede, 
Noght  a  word  spak  he  more  than  was  nede. 
And  that  was  seyd  in  forme  and  reverence, 
And  short  and  quik,  and  ful  of  hy  sentence. 
Souninge  in  moral  vertu  was  his  speche. 
And  gladly  wolde  he  lerne,  and  gladly  teche. 

34^      A   City  Song  and  Reading  School 

A   City  Song  and  Reading  School.      1388. 

[//'.,   The  Prioresses  I'ale,  p.  499-] 

Ther'  was  in  Asie,  in  a  greet  citee, 
Amonges  Cristen  folk,  a  lewerye 

And  thurgh  the  strete  men  inighte  ryde  or  wende 
For  it  was  free,  and  open  at  either  ende. 
A  litel  scole  of  Cristen  folk  ther  stood 
Doun  at  the  ferther  ende,  in  which  ther  were 
Children  an  heep,  y-comen  of  Cristen  blood, 
That  lerned  in  that  scole  yeer  by  yere 
Swich  maner  doctrine  as  men  used  there. 
This  is  to  seyn,  to  singen  and  to  rede. 
As  smale  children  doon  in  hir  childhede. 

Among  these  children  was  a  widwes  sone, 

A  litel  clergeon,  seven  yeer  of  age, 

That  day  by  day  to  scole  was  his  wone. 

And  eek  also,  wher-as  he  saugh  th'  image 

Of  Cristes  moder,  hadde  he  in  usage. 

As  him  was  taught,  to  knele  adoun  and  seye 

His  Ave  Marie,  as  he  goth  by  the  weye. 

This  litel  child,   his  litel  book  lerninge, 

As  he  sat  in  the  scole  at  his  prymer, 

He  Alma  redemptoris  herde  singe, 

As  children  lerned  hir  antiphoner  ; 

And,  as  he  dorste,  he  drough  him  ner  and  ner, 

And  herkned  ay  the  wordes  and  the  note. 

Til  he  the  firste  vers  coude  al  by  rote. 

Noght  wiste  he  what  this  Latin  was  to  seye. 
For  he  so  yong  and  tendre  was  of  age  ; 
But  on  a  day  his  felaw  gan  he  preye 

A   City  Song  and  Reading  School     347 

T'expounden  him  this  song  in  his  langage, 
Or  telle  him  why  this  song  was  in  usage; 
This  preyde  he  him  to  construe  and  declare 
Ful  ofte  tyme  upon  his  knowes  bare. 

His  felaw,  which  that  elder  was  than  he, 

Answerde  him  thus  :    '  This  song  I  have  herd  seye, 

Was  maked  of  our  blisful  lady  free, 

Hir  to  salue,  and  eek  hir  for  to  preye 

To  been  our  help  and  socour  whan  we  deye. 

I  can  no  more  expounde  in  this  matere  ; 

I  lerne  song,   I  can  but  smal  grammere.' 

'And  is  this  song  maked  in  reverence 
Of  Cristes  moder?'  seyde  this  innocent; 
'  Now  certes,  I  wol  do  my  diligence 
To  conne  it  al,  er  Cristemasse  is  went ; 
Though  that  I  for  my  prymer  shal  be  shent, 
And  shal  be  beten  thryes  in  an  houre, 
I  wol  it  conne,  our  lady  for  to  honoure.' 

His  felaw  taughte  him  homward  prively, 
From  day  to  day,  til  he  coude  it  by  rote, 
And  than  he  song  it  wel  and  boldely 
Fro  word  to  word,  according  with  the  note ; 
Twyes  a  day  it  passed  thurgh  his  throte, 
To  scoleward  and  homward  whan  he  wente ; 
On  Cristes  moder  set  was  his  entente. 

As  I  have  seyd,  thurgh-out  the  lewerye 
This  litel  child,  as  he  cam  to  and  fro, 
Ful  merily  than  wolde  he  singe,  and  crye 
O  Alma  redeniptoris  ever-mo. 
The  swetnes  hath  his  herte  perced  so 
Of  Cristes  moder,  that,   to  hir  to  preye, 
He  can  nat  stinte  of  singing  by  the  weye. 

34^  A  Schoolmaster- Mayor 

The  Schoolmaster  of  Higham  Ferj^ers  is  Mayor. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  A^ort/iants,  li.  218,  from  Higham  Ferrers  Mun. 
Court  Roll,  14  Ric.  II.] 

Memo,  quod  xj  die  mensis  Aprilis  anno  regni  Regis  quarto 
decimo  Walter  Hontyngdone  de  Heigham  Ferreres  remisit 
relaxavit  et  omnino  imperpetuum  quietum  clamavit  Magistro 
Henrico  Bartone,  Scolemayster  de  eadem,  heredibus  et  assig- 
natis  suis,  totum  ius  et  clameum  quod  habuit  in  toto  illo  bur- 
gagio  cum  pertinentiis  scituato  in  le  Newiond  de  eadem  — 

Et  propter  hoc  predictus  Walterus  suam  possessionem  per 
presens  habuit  in  dicto  burgagio  iure  et  titulo  Margarete  uxoris 

Examinata  vero  fuit  predicta  Margareta  per  Ricardum 
Brabasoun  et  Thomam  Raundes  clericum  burgi  de  eadem, 
quibus  commissa  fuit  potestas  Maioratus  per  predictum 
Henricum  quia  Maior  tunc  temporis,  causa  examinacionis 
dicte  Margarete  puphce  in  predicta  curia  tenta  xxvj'^  die 
mensis  Maii,  ad  evitandum  cuiuscunque  suspicionem. 

Statutes  of  Neiv  College,  Oxford,  and  in  part  of 
Winchester  College.      1400. 

{^Statutes  of  the  Colleges  of  Oxford,  vol.   i.] 

Liber  Statutorum   Collegii   Beate   Marie  Wintonie  in  Oxonia, 
vulgariter  nuncupati  New  College. 

In  nomine  sancte  et  indiuidue  Trinitatis,  Patris,  et  Filii,  et 
Spiritus  Sancti,  necnon  beatissime  Marie  Virginis  gloriose, 
omniumque  sanctorum  Dei.  Nos  ^^'illelmus  de  ^V]cham, 
permissione   diuina    Wintoniensis    episcopus...,  de  bonis  for- 

A  Schoolmaster- Mayor  349 

The  Schoolmaster  of  Higham  Ferrers  is  Mayor. 


Be  it  remembered  that  on  nth  April,  in  the  14th  year  of 
the  king's  reign,  Walter  Huntingdon  of  Higham  Ferrers  re- 
mitted, released  and  for  ever  quit  claimed  to  Master  Henry 
Barton,  schoolmaster  of  the  same,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  all 
the  right  and  claim  which  he  had  in  all  that  burgage  with  the 
appurtenances  situate  in  the  Newland  of  the  same 

And  because  of  this  the  aforesaid  Walter  had  possession 
of  the  said  burgage  in  right  and  title  of  Margaret  his 
wife . . . 

The  said  Margaret  was  examined  by  Richard  Brabazon  and 
Thomas  Raundes,  borough  clerk,  of  the  same  [town],  to  whom 
the  Mayor's  power  had  been  granted  by  the  said  Henry 
because  he  himself  was  Mayor,  to  take  the  examination  of 
the  said  Margaret  publicly  in  the  court  aforesaid  held  on 
26  May  to  avoid  suspicion  on  anyone's  part. 

Statutes  of  New  College,  Oxford,  and  in  part  of 
Winchester  College.      1400. 

Book  of  the  Statutes  of  the  College  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of 
\Vinchester  in  Oxford,  commonly  called  New  College. 

In  the  name  of  the  Holy  and  Undivided  Trinity,  Father, 
Son  and  Holy  Ghost,  also  of  the  most  blessed  Mary  the 
glorious  Virgin  and  of  all  the  Saints  of  God.  We  William  of 
Wykeham,  by  divine  sufferance  bishop  of  Winchester...,  out  of 

350         Stattites  of  New  College,   Oxford 

tune,  que  nobis  in  hac  vita  de  sue  plenitudinis  gracia  tribuit 
abundanter,  duo  perpetua  collegia ;  unum  videlicet  collegium 
perpetuum  pauperum  et  indigencium  scolarium  clericorum, 
in  studio  Uniuersitatis  Oxonie,  Lincolniensis  dioeceseos,  in 
diuersis  scienciis  et  facultatibus  studere  ac  proficere  deben- 
cium,  Seinte  Mary  College  of  Wynchestre  in  Oxenford, 
vulgariter  nuncupatum ;  et  quoddam  aliud  collegium  per- 
petuum alioruni  pauperum  et  indigencium  scolarium  cleri- 
corum gramaticam  addiscere  debencium,  prope  ciuitatem 
Wintonie,  Seinte  Mary  College  of  Wynchestre,  similiter  nuncu- 
patum ;  ad  laudem,  gloriam  et  honorem  nominis  Crucifixi  ac 
gloriosissime  Marie  matris  eius,  sustentacionem  et  exaltacionem 
fidei  Christiane,  Ecclesie  sancte  profectum,  diuini  cultus,  liber- 
aliumque  arcium,  scienciarum  et  facultatum  augmentum, 
auctoritate  Apostolica  et  Regia,  ordinauimus,  instituimus, 
fundauimus  et  stabiliuimus ;  prout  in  cartis  et  litteris  nostris 
patentibus  super  ordinacionibus,  institucionibus  ac  funda- 
cionibus,  collegiorum  ipsorum  confectis,  plenius  continetur. 
Unde  nos  volentes  aliqua,  que  in  present!  nostre  occurrunt 
inemorie,  facere,  statuere  ac  eciam  ordinare,  que  dicto  nostro 
coUegio  Oxonie  scolaribus  clericis,  et  personis  aliis,  ac  posses- 
sionibus  et  bonis  eiusdem  collegii,  necnon  salubri  regimini 
eorundem,  necessaria  et  utilia  reputamus,  et  que  doctrinam, 
incrementum  et  profectum,  ipsorum  respicere  dignoscuntur, 
Christi  nomine  primitus  inuocato,  ad  futuram  et  perpetuam 
rei  memoriam  ad  eam  procedimus  in  hunc  modum. 

Rubrica  i.  De  totali  numero  scolarium  clericorum,  presby- 
terorum  et  aliorum  ministrorum  capelle  dicti  Collegii  Oxonie, 
et  studencium  numero  particular!  in  diuersis  scienciis  et 
facultatibus  in  eodem. 

Imprimis  siquidem,  ut  sacra  Scriptura  seu  pagina,  scienci- 
arum omnium  aliarum  mater  et  domina,  sua  liberius  ac  pre 
ceteris  dilatet  tentoria,  et  cum  ea  pacifice  militet  utriusque  iuris, 
canonici,  videlicet,  et  ciuilis,  facultas,  nee  philosophia  desit  pro 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        351 

the  goods  of  fortune,  which  out  of  the  grace  of  His  fulness  He 
has  given  us  abundantly  in  this  life,  have  with  apostolic  and  royal 
authority  ordained,  instituted,  founded  and  established  two  ever- 
lasting colleges ;  namely,  one  everlasting  college  of  poor  and 
needy  scholars  clerks  who  are  to  study  and  become  proficient  in 
divers  sciences  and  faculties  in  the  school  of  the  University  of 
Oxford  in  the  diocese  of  Lincoln,  commonly  called  Seinte  Mary 
College  of  Wynchestre  in  Oxenford ;  and  another  everlasting 
college  of  other  poor  and  needy  scholars  clerks  who  are  to 
study  grammar  near  the  city  of  Winchester,  likewise  called 
Seinte  Mary  College  of  Wynchestre,  to  the  praise,  glory  and 
honour  of  the  name  of  the  Crucified  and  the  most  glorious 
Mary  His  mother,  the  maintenance  and  exaltation  of  the 
Christian  faith,  the  profit  of  Holy  Church,  the  increase  of 
divine  worship,  and  the  liberal  arts,  sciences  and  faculties, 
as  in  our  deeds  and  letters  patent  made  for  the  ordering, 
institution  and  foundation  of  the  same  colleges  more  fully 
appears.  And  so  we  wishing  to  make  establish  and  also 
ordain  certain  things  which  now.  occur  to  us  which  we 
think  necessary  and  useful  for  our  said  college  at  Oxford  for 
the  scholars  clerks  and  other  persons  and  the  possessions  and 
goods  of  the  same  college  and  their  healthful  regulation,  and 
which  are  thought  to  regard  their  learning,  increase  and  profit, 
first  invoking  the  name  of  Christ,  for  their  future  and  everlasting 
remembrance  proceed  thus. 

Rubric  i.  Of  the  whole  number  of  the  scholars  clerks,  priests, 
and  other  ministers  of  the  chapel  of  the  said  college  at 
Oxford,  and  the  particular  number  of  those  studying  in 
the  same  in  different  sciences  and  faculties. 

In  the  first  place  then,  that  the  Holy  Writ  or  page,  the 
mother  and  mistress  of  all  the  other  sciences,  may  more  freely 
and  beyond  the  rest  extend  its  tents,  and  that  the  faculty  of 
both  laws,  namely,  canon  and  civil,  may  peacefully  fight 
alongside  of   her,  and   that  philosophy  may  not   be  wanting 

152         Statutes  of  New  College y  Oxford 

ceteris  imbuendis,  prefatum  nostrum  Oxonie  Collegium  in  et 
de  numero  unius  Custodis  ac  septuaginta  pauperum  indigencium 
scolarium  clericoruni,  in  dictis  scienciis  et  facultatibus  studere 
debencium,  subsistere  statuimus  ac  eciam  ordinamus,  et  sic 
ipsum  Collegium  de  diuersis  quas  in  unum  congregabit 
personis  existere  dignoscetur,  sic  in  eodem  CoUegio  vigeat 
per  Dei  graciam  scienciarum  diuersitas  et  eciam  facultatum, 
philosophic  scilicet,  iurium  ciuilis  et  canonici,  et  ut  precipue 
feruentius  ac  frequentius  Christus  euangelizetur,  et  fides 
cultusque  diuini  nominis  augeatur  et  fortius  sustentetur,  sacre 
insuper  theologie;  ut  sic  dilatetur  laus  Dei,  gubernetur  ecclesia, 
rigor  atque  feruor  Christiane  religionis  calescant,  sciencie  quoque 
et  virtutes  amplius  conualescant ;  necnon  ut  generalem  morbum 
militie  clericalis,  quam  propter  paucitatem  cleri,  ex  pestilentiis, 
guerris  et  aliis  mundi  niiseriis,  contingentem,  grauiter  vulnera- 
tam  conspeximus,  desolacioni  compatientes  tarn  tristi  partim 
alleuare  possimus,  quem  in  toto  sanare  ueraciter  non  valemus  : 
ad  quod  reuera  pro  nostro  paruitatis  modulo  nostros  apponimus 
libenter  labores. 

Et  insuper  ut  custos,  scolares  et  socii,  dicti  nostri  Collegii; 
quod  ad  sui  regiminis  rectitudinem  et  munimen,  viros  diuer- 
sarum  scienciarum  et  facultatum,  qui  collegium  ipsum  eius- 
demque  possessiones  spirituales  ac  temporales,  libertates  et 
iura,  impugnare  volentibus  resistere  sciant  et  valeant,  ex  aduerso 
habere  indiget  eruditos  ;  et,  exercitati  iugiter  in  scienciis  et 
facultatibus  supradictis,  viros  de  seipsis  continue  reperiant 
circumspectos,  prouidos  et  discretos,  ac  aliis  extraneis  veri- 
similiter  diligentiores,  fideliores,  et  eciam  promptiores  ad 
conseruandum,  tuendum  et  viriliter  defendendum,  res  et 
bona,  terras,  redditus,  et  possessiones  alias  spirituales  et 
temporales,  libertates  et  iura  quecunque  collegii  memorati, 
causas  quoque,  lites  et  placita,  occasione  premissorum  emer- 
gencia,  prosequendum  et  fideliter  defendendum,  necnon  ad 
faciendum,  procurandum,  exercendum  et  eciam  exequendum, 
omnia  alia  et  singula  ipsius  Collegii  negocia,  que  pro  eius 
tranquillitate,  utilitate,  commodo  et  honore  occurrerint,  et 
fuerint    facienda ;     cupientes    preterea,    quod,    sicut    prefati 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        353 

to  give  its  dye  to  the  rest,  we  decree  and  also  ordain  that 
our  said  college  at  Oxford  shall  consist  in  and  of  the  number 
of  one  warden  and  seventy  poor  needy  scholars  clerks  to  study 
in  the  said  sciences  and  faculties,  and  as  the  college  itself  will 
consist  of  divers  persons  whom  it  will  collect  into  one,  so  in 
the  same  college  there  shall,  by  God's  grace,  flourish  different 
sciences  and  faculties,  namely,  of  philosophy,  civil  and  canon 
law,  and  above  all  that  Christ  may  be  preached  more  fervently 
and  frequently,  and  that  the  faith  and  worship  of  God's  name 
may  be  increased  and  more  strongly  supported,  beyond  all  of 
holy  theology ;  that  so  the  praise  of  God  may  be  spread,  the 
church  directed,  the  strength  and  fervour  of  the  Christian 
religion  grow  hotter,  and  all  knowledge  and  virtue  be  increased 
in  strength  ;  also  that  we  may  relieve  in  part,  though  in  truth 
we  cannot  wholly  cure,  that  general  disease  of  the  clerical  army, 
which  we  have  seen  grievously  wounded  through  the  want  of 
clergy  caused  by  plagues,  wars  and  other  miseries  of  the  world,, 
in  compassion  for  its  sad  desolation  ;  to  this  in  our  small  way 
we  willingly  spend  our  labours. 

And  further  that  the  warden,  scholars  and  fellows  of  our 
said  college,  which,  as  regards  the  rights  and  protection  of  its 
rule,  needs  learned  men  of  divers  sciences  and  faculties  who  may 
have  the  knowledge  and  ability  to  resist  those  wishing  to  attack 
the  college  itself  and  its  spiritual  and  temporal  possessions, 
liberties  and  rights,  and  being  themselves  continually  exercised 
in  the  sciences  and  faculties  aforesaid,  may  find  men  from  their 
own  ranks  wise,  prudent  and  discreet  and  probably  more 
diligent,  faithful  and  ready  than  others  taken  from  outside 
to  preserve,  protect  and  manfully  defend  the  goods  and 
chattels,  lands,  revenues  and  other  possessions  spiritual  and 
temporal,  and  all  liberties  and  rights  of  the  said  college,  and  to 
prosecute  and  faithfully  defend  the  causes,  lawsuits  and  pleas 
which  may  arise  in  respect  of  them,  and  also  to  do,  procure  to 
be  done,  exercise  and  execute  all  the  business  of  the  same 
college,  which  may  be  necessary  to  be  done  for  its  tranquillity, 
use,  advantage  and  honour ;  desiring,  moreover,  that  as  the 
L.  23 

354         Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

scolares  clerici,  predictis  diuersis  scienciis  et  facultatibus 
intendentes,  per  collaciones  et  communicaciones  mutuas 
ubique  inueniant  quod  addiscant,  et  proficientes  continue  in 
eisdem  semper  fiant,  ut  conuenit,  meliores ;  sic  quoque  multi- 
tudinis  ipsorum  ad  unum  finem  tendencium  sit  semper  cor 
unum  et  anima  una ;  quodque  per  ipsorum  conuersaciones 
laudabiles,  Deo  gratas,  eorum  corda  diuini  amoris  ignita  radiis 
dileccionis  fraterne  feruore  ac  mutue  caritatis  dulcedine  citius 
ac  feruencius  copulentur,  ut  sic,  propiciacionis  diuine  assistente 
clemencia,  dictum  nostrum  Collegium,  tot  scienciarum  ac 
facultatum  viris  preditum  et  fulcitum,  firmius,  securius, 
quietius  atque  fortius,  in  pacis  pulchritudine  feliciter  persistere 
valeat  et  perpetuo  permanere  ; 

Statuimus  proinde  ut  scolarium  clericorum  predictorum 
decern  iura  ciuilia,  et  alii  decem  iura  canonica  audire,  et  in 
ipsorum  iurium  separatim  facultatibus  cum  efifectu  studere, 
debeant  et  eciam  teneantur,  nisi  cum  id  fieri  non  poterit 
propter  causas  inferius  describendas;  videlicet,  cum  de  numero 
in  facultate  iuris  ciuilis  sic  studencium  quis  se  faciat  ad  sacer- 
docium  promoueri  ante  tempus  nostris  ordinacionibus  et  statutis 
inferius  limitatum,  et  sic  iura  ciuilia  publice  ulterius  audire  non 
valens  ad  facultatem  iuris  canonici  necessario  se  diuertere 
oportebit ;  vel  si  quis  de  ipsa  facultate  iuris  ciuilis  existens 
post  lecturam  libelli  Institucionum  completam,  antequam  in 
ipsa  facultate  gradum  Doctoratus  assumat,  ad  facultatem  iuris 
canonici,  ut  in  eadem  facultate  ad  sui  et  dicti  Collegii  utili- 
tatem  pariter  et  honorem  proficiat,  effectualiter  transferatur ; 
tunc  demum  in  utroque  casu  predicto  prefatum  ciuilistarum 
decennarium  numerum  minui,  dictumcjue  decennarium  canonis- 
tarum  numerum  per  tres  huiusmodi  precise  personas,  simul  vel 
eciam  successiue,  prout  opus  fuerit,  permittimus  augmentari. 

Reliquus  vero  numerus,  videlicet  quinquaginta,  artes,  seu 
philosophiam  ac  theologiam,  particulariter  ac  diligenter  audiant 
et    addiscant.      Permittimus    nihilominus    quod   duo  ex   ipsis 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        355 

aforesaid  scholars  clerks,  being  intent  on  divers  sciences 
and  faculties,  may  by  mutual  conferences  and  communication 
always  find  what  they  wish  to  learn  and  always  becoming  more 
proficient  in  the  same  may  become,  as  is  right,  better;  and  so 
in  that  large  number  aiming  at  one  end  there  may  be  one 
heart  and  one  mind,  and  that  by  their  good  lives,  pleasing  to 
God,  their  hearts  set  on  fire  by  the  rays  of  the  divine  love 
may  more  quickly  and  fervently  be  united  in  the  warmth  of 
brotherly  love  and  sweetness  of  mutual  charity,  that  so,  through 
the  clemency  of  God,  our  said  college,  endowed  and  supported 
by  men  of  so  many  sciences  and  faculties,  may  more  firmly, 
securely,  peacefully  and  strongly  persist  and  for  ever  endure  in 
the  beauty  of  peace  ; 

We  have  therefore  decreed  that  of  the  scholars  clerks  afore- 
said it  shall  be  the  duty  of  ten,  and  they  shall  be  bound,  to 
attend  lectures  on  civil  law,  and  another  ten  on  canon  law  and 
to  study  effectively  in  the  three  separate  law  faculties,  unless 
this  is  impracticable  for  the  reasons  stated  below ;  for  instance, 
when  any  of  the  number  so  studying  in  civil  law  causes  him- 
self to  be  promoted  to  priest's  orders  before  the  time  fixed  by 
our  ordinances  and  statutes,  so  that  he  cannot  any  longer 
attend  public  lectures  on  civil  law  and  must  necessarily  pass 
to  the  faculty  of  canon  law ;  or,  if  any  of  the  same  faculty  of 
civil  law,  after  he  has  finished  lectures  on  the  Institutes,  before 
he  takes  his  doctor's  degree  in  that  faculty,  is  actually  trans- 
ferred to  the  faculty  of  canon  law  so  that  he  may  become  pro- 
ficient in  that  faculty  for  the  advantage  and  at  the  same  time 
the  honour  of  himself  and  the  said  college;  then  in  either  of 
such  cases  we  allow  the  said  number  of  ten  civilians  to  be 
diminished,  and  the  number  of  ten  canonists  to  be  increased  by 
three  such  persons,  together  or  at  intervals,  as  may  be  necessary. 

[Similar  provision  that  if  the  number  of  canonists  is  not  full 
the  number  may  be  made  up  with  civilians,  so  long  as  there 
are  not  more  than  twenty  altogether  in  both  laws.] 

The  rest  of  the  number,  namely  fifty,  shall  severally  diligently 
attend  lectures  in  and  learn  arts,  or  philosophy  and  theology. 
We  allow  however  that  two  of  them  may  employ  themselves 


356         Statutes  of  Neiv  College,   Oxford 

scientie  medicine,  dum  tamen  Doctor  actualiter  regens  fuerit 
in  facultate  eadem,  et  alii  duo  duntaxat  sciencie  astronomie 
vacent  pariter  et  intendant. 

Nolentes  tamen,  quod  aliquis  ad  medicine  facultatem  se 
conuertat,  nisi  de  voluntate  et  consensu  custodis  et  decani 
facultatis  theologie,  et  nisi  prius  in  arcium  facultate  seu  sciencia 
realiter  inceperit,  et  formam  compleuerit  in  eadem  Universitate 
Oxonie  requisitam.  Quos  sic  in  facultate  medicine  studentes, 
si  Doctor  in  facultate  ipsa  actualiter  regens  non  fuerit,  ad 
studium  theologie  conuertere  se  volumus  ac  proficere  in 
eodem ; 

Statuentes  preterea  ac  eciam  ordinantes,  quod,  preter  et 
ultra  numerum  unius  custodis  et  septuaginta  scolarium  pre- 
dictorum,  sint  semper  et  continue  decem  presbyteri  et  tres 
clerici  stipendiarii  capelle  predicte  ministri,  seruientes  quotidie 
in  eadem,  sufficientis  litterature,  ac  bone  condicionis,  et  con- 
uersacionis  honeste,  vocem  competentem  habentes,  in  lectura 
et  cantu  sufficienter  instructi ;  necnon  sexdecim  pueri  scientes 
competenter  legere  et  cantare,  sicut  et  prout  in  aliis  nostris 
statutis  inferius  plenius  est  expressum. 

R.   2.      Quales  et  qui  sunt  eligendi  in  [nostrum]  Collegium 
Oxonie  supradictum. 

Statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod  in  omni  eleccione 
scolarium  predictorum  futuris  temporibus  in  dictum  nostrum 
Collegium  Oxonie  facienda,  principaliter  et  ante  omnes  alios 
ille  ac  illi  qui  sunt  vel  erunt  de  consanguinitate  nostra  et  genere, 
si  qui  tales  sint,  dum  tamen  competenter  in  gramatica  eruditi 
existant,  ubicunque  fuerint  oriundi  seu  moram  traxerint,  per 
viam  specialis  prerogatiue  in  veros  et  perpetuos  socios,  absque 
difficultate  qualibet  seu  aliquo  probacionis  tempore  admittantur, 
et  de  bonis  communibus  dicti  nostri  Collegii,  sicut  ceteri  veri 
socii  et  perpetui  eiusdem,  honeste  et  debite  sustententur. 

Et  quia  inter  opera  misericordie  Christus  precipit  pauperes 
recipere  in  hospicia...,  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod 
omnes  et  singuli  in  Collegium  nostrum  Oxonie  ad  annos  pro- 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxfo7'd        357 

and  attend  to  the  science  of  medicine,  as  long  as  he  shall  be 
an  actually  regent  doctor  in  that  faculty,  and  two  others  the 
science  of  astronomy  only. 

We  do  not  wish  however  that  anyone  should  turn  to  the 
faculty  of  medicine  without  the  will  and  consent  of  the  warden 
and  the  dean  of  the  faculty  of  theology,  and  that  only  if  he 
has  first  really  incepted  in  the  faculty  or  science  of  arts,  and 
completed  the  course  prescribed  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 
And  we  wish  that  these  students  in  the  faculty  of  medicine, 
unless  actually  regent  doctors  in  the  same  faculty,  shall  pass  to 
the  study  of  theology  and  become  proficient  in  the  same ; 

Decreeing  and  also  ordaining  that  above  and  beyond  the 
number  of  one  warden  and  seventy  scholars  aforesaid  there 
shall  be  always  and  continuously  ten  priests  and  three  clerks, 
paid  servants  of  the  chapel  aforesaid,  daily  serving  in  the 
same,  of  sufficient  learning  and  good  standing  and  upright  life, 
having  good  voices  and  sufficiently  instructed  in  reading  and 
singing;  also  sixteen  boys  sufficiently  taught  to  read  and  sing, 
as  is  below  more  fully  expressed  in  our  other  statutes. 

Rubric  2.     What  sort  and  who   are  to  be   elected  into   our 
Oxford  College  aforesaid. 

[According  to  divine  and  human  law  and  the  custom  of  the 
realm  the  founder's  heirs  ought  to  inherit  the  property  which 
he  acquired  and  of  which  he  has  made  Christ  his  heir  by  giving 
it  to  the  college.  So  that  if  they  feel  aggrieved  in  one  respect 
they  may  be  relieved  in  another,  not  inflicting  on  them  a 
double  penalty,] 

We  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  at  every  election  of  the 
scholars  aforesaid  to  be  hereafter  held  for  our  college  at  Oxford, 
first  and  before  all  others  that  one  or  those  who  are  or  shall 
be  of  our  blood  and  family,  if  any  such  are  competently  in- 
structed in  grammar,  wherever  they  have  been  born  or  lived, 
by  way  of  special  prerogative  shall  be  admitted  as  true  and 
perpetual  fellows  without  any  difficulty  and  without  any  period 
of  probation,  and  be  honourably  and  properly  maintained  from 
the  common  property  of  our  said  college,  like  the  rest  of  the 
true  and  perpetual  fellows  of  the  same. 

And  because  among  the  works  of  mercy  Christ  enjoins  the 
reception  of  poor  in  hospitals... we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that 
all  who  are  to  be  elected  into  our  college  at  Oxford  for  years 

158        Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

bacionis  eligendi  post  nostros  consanguineos  sint  pauperes 
indigentes  scolares  clerici,  primam  tonsuram  clericalem 
habentes,  bonis  moribus  ac  condicionibus  perornati,  suffi- 
cienterque  in  gramatica  eruditi,  et  conuersacione  honesti,  ad 
studium  habiles  et  idonei  et  in  studio  proficere  cupientes,  in 
nulla  sciencia  graduati,  alioue  collegio  collegiati  nisi  solum- 
modo  in  collegio  nostro  prope  Wintoniam,  iuxta  modum  et 
formani  inferius  describendos :  qui,  et  non  alii,  in  dictum 
nostrum  Collegium  eligantur  et  pro  probacionis  tempore  ad- 

Item,  quia  summe  affectamus  et  volumus  quod  numerus 
scolarium  et  sociorum  in  dicto  collegio  nostro  Oxonie  per  nos 
superius  institutus  plene  ac  perfecte,  per  Dei  graciam,  perpetuis 
futuris  temporibus  sit  completus ;  ac  considerantes  attente 
quod  gramatica,  que  prima  de  artibus  seu  scienciis  liberalibus 
reputatur,  fundamentum,  ianua  et  origo,  onmium  aliarum 
liberalium  arcium  ac  scienciarum  existit,  quodque  sine  ea 
cetere  artes  seu  sciencie  perfecte  sciri  non  possunt,  nee  ad 
earum  veram  cognicionem  ac  perfeccionem  quisquam  poterit 
peruenire ;  ea  propter,  diuina  fauente  dementia,  de  bonis 
nobis  a  Deo  collatis,  unum  aliud  collegium  prope  ciuitatem 
Wintonie,  ut  superius  memoratur,  instituimus,  fundauimus  et 
stabiliuimus,  in  et  de  numero  unius  Custodis  septuagintaque 
pauperum  indigencium  scolarium  clericorum,  tam  de  sanguine 
nostro  et  genere  quam  de  aliis  gramaticam  addiscere,  et  in  ipsa 
arte  seu  sciencia  gramaticali  studere  et  per  Dei  graciam  pro- 
ficere, debencium  in  eodem,  prout  in  statutis  et  ordinacionibus 
ipsius  nostri  coUegii  prope  Wintoniam  plenius  continetur. 
Cupientesque  ut  in  ipso  nostro  collegio  prope  Wintoniam 
dulcis  et  suauis  doctrine  ipsius  primitiue  sciencie  potus  re- 
periatur  lacteus, ...quodque  idem  collegium  nostrum  prope 
Wintoniam,  principium  et  origo  coUegii  nostri  Oxonie  pre- 
dicti,  velut  hortus  irriguus  ac  vinea  pubescens  in  gemmas 
ipsum  collegium  nostrum  Oxonie  fructifera  prole  fecundet, 
flores  et  fructus  mellifluos  in  vinea  Domini  Sabaoth  per 
ipsius  graciam  allaturum ; 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        359 

of  probation,  next  to  our  kin,  shall  be  poor  and  needy  scholars 
clerks,  having  the  first  clerical  tonsure,  adorned  with  good 
character  and  behaviour,  sufficiently  instructed  in  grammar, 
upright  in  conduct,  and  able  and  fit  for  study  and  desiring  to 
become  proficient  therein,  who  have  not  taken  a  degree  in 
any  science,  or  been  members  of  any  college,  other  than  our 
college  near  Winchester,  as  hereinafter  described;  and  they  and 
no  others  shall  be  elected  into  our  said  college  and  admitted 
for  a  period  of  probation. 

Also,  because  we  above  all  desire  and  wish  that  the  number 
of  scholars  and  fellows  in  our  said  college  at  Oxford  above 
settled  may  be  full  and  complete  by  the  grace  of  God  for  ever; 
and  considering  attentively  that  grammar,  which  is  reputed  to 
be  the  first  of  the  liberal  arts  or  sciences,  is  the  foundation, 
gate  and  source  of  all  other  liberal  arts  and  sciences,  and  that 
without  it  the  rest  of  the  arts  or  sciences  cannot  be  perfectly 
known,  and  no  one  can  attain  to  true  or  complete  knowledge  of 
them  ;  therefore,  by  the  favour  of  the  divine  clemency,  out  of 
the  goods  bestowed  on  us  by  God,  we  have  instituted,  founded 
and  established  one  other  college  near  the  city  of  "Winchester,  as 
above  stated,  in  and  of  the  number  of  one  warden  and  seventy 
poor  needy  scholars  clerks,  as  well  of  our  blood  and  kin,  as  of 
others  who  are  in  the  same  to  learn  grammar  and  study  and  by 
God's  grace  become  proficient  in  the  same  art  or  science  of 
grammar,  as  is  more  fully  contained  in  the  statutes  and  ordi- 
nances of  our  same  college  near  Winchester.  And  being 
desirous  that  in  our  same  college  near  Winchester  the  milky 
drink  of  sweet  and  sound  learning  in  this  same  first  science 
may  be  found,... and  that  our  same  college  near  Winchester, 
the  reason  and  source  of  our  college  at  Oxford,  may  like  a  well- 
watered  garden  and  a  budding  vine  engender  a  fruitful  progeny 
for  our  college  at  Oxford,  to  bring  forth  flowers  and  honeyed 
fruits  in  the  vineyard  of  the  Lord  of  Sabaoth  by  His  grace ; 

360        Statutes  of  Neiv  College,   Oxford 

Idcirco  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod  sanguineis 
nostris  deficientibus...prinio  pauperes  scolares  clerici  de  coUegio 
nostro  predicto  prope  Wintoniam  qui  per  annum  steterint  in 
eodem,  si  tot  habiles  [ad  tunc]  inibi  reperiantur,  alioquin  illi 
qui  prius  fuerant  in  eodem  per  annum  eruditi,  sufficienterque 
probati,  habiles  et  idonei,  secundum  condiciones  superius  et 
inferius  recitatas,  ipsum  collegium  nostrum  Oxonie  eli- 
gantur,  et  ad  duos  annos  probacionis  eciam  admittantur... 
volentes  tamen  quod  illi  de  locis  et  parochiis  in  quibus 
possessiones  spirituales  et  temporales  collegiorum  nostrorum 
Oxonie  et  prope  Wintoniam  existunt  pre  ceteris  [eligantur] ; 
quibus  eciam  deficientibus,  tunc  pauperiores  indigentes  scolares 
clerici  oriundi  de  dioecesi  Wintonie  primo,  deinde  seriatim  de 
comitatibus  Oxonie,  Berks,  Wilts,  Somersett,  Bucks,  Essex, 
Middlesex,  Dorset,  Kant,  Sussex,  et  Cantabrigie,  et  postea  de 
aliis  partibus  quibuscunque  regni  Anglie  existentes,  cum  tamen 
de  dicto  collegio  nostro  prope  Wintoniam  fuerint,  et  in  eodem 
per  annum  eruditi 

Statuentes  insuper,  quod  nullus  qui  vicesimum  etatis  sue 
annum  excedit,  nee  aliquis  qui  quintumdecimum  etatis  sue 
annum  non  compleuerit,  in  dictum  nostrum  collegium  Oxonie 
eligatur  nee  eciam  assumatur ;  preter  illos  qui  sunt  et  erunt  de 
nostro  sanguine  et  genere  procreati,  quos  volumus  in  dictum 
collegium  nostrum  Oxonie  recipi,  dum  tamen  tricesimum  etatis 
sue  annum  non  excedant,  si  morigerati  et  in  gramatica  eruditi 

Statuentes  preterea,  quod  nullus  qui  morbo  incurabili 
laborauerit,  vel  qui  mutilacionem  membrorum  enormem  et  ap- 
parentem,  seu  defectum  patitur  corporalem  vel  alium  ex  suo 
facto  vel  culpa  prouenientem,  propter  quern  redditur  omnino 
inhabilis  ad  sacros  ordines  suspiciendos,  in  ipsum  collegium 
nostrum  Oxonie  eligatur  seu  eciam  admittatur. 

Item  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod  nullus  habens 
terras,  tenementa,  possessiones  vel  annuos  redditus,  spirituales 
aut  temporales,  quorum  redditus  et  prouentus  quinque  mar- 
carum    sterlingorum    valorem    annuum    excedant,   in    dictum 

Statutes  of  New  College,  Oxford        361 

Therefore  we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  in  default  of  our 
next  of  kin, ...first  poor  scholars  clerks  of  our  said  college  near 
Winchester  of  a  year's  standing  in  the  same,  if  so  many  shall 
then  be  found  fit,  otherwise  those  who  have  formerly  been 
educated  in  the  same,  and  are  sufficiently  approved,  able  and 
fit  according  to  the  conditions  above  and  below  mentioned... 
shall  be  elected  into  our  college  at  Oxford,  and  admitted  to  two 
years'  probation  in  the  same, ...wishing  however  that  those  of 
the  places  and  parishes  in  which  the  spiritual  and  temporal  pos- 
sessions of  our  colleges  at  Oxford  and  near  Winchester  are,  shall 
be  preferred ;  and  failing  them,  then  the  poorer  needy  scholars 
clerks  born  in  the  diocese  of  Winchester  first,  next  in  order 
those  of  the  counties  of  Oxford,  Berks,  Wilts,  Somerset,  Bucks, 
Essex,  Middlesex,  Dorset,  Kent,  Sussex,  and  Cambridge,  and 
afterwards  those  of  any  other  part  of  the  kingdom  of  England, 
as  long  as  they  have  been  in  our  college  near  Winchester  and 
educated  in  the  same  for  a  year... 

Decreeing  moreover  that  no  one  who  has  passed  the  20th 
year  of  his  age  or  who  has  not  completed  his  15th  year  shall  be 
elected  or  taken  into  our  college  at  Oxford  ;  except  those  who 
are  or  shall  be  begotten  of  our  blood  and  kin,  whom  we  wish 
to  be  admitted  into  our  said  college  at  Oxford,  as  long  as  they 
have  not  passed  the  30th  year  of  their  age,  if  they  are  of  good 
conduct  and  learned  in  grammar. 

Decreeing  moreover  that  none  who  is  suffering  from  an 
incurable  disease,  or  who  is  suffering  from  some  great  and 
evident  mutilation  of  limbs  or  other  bodily  defect,  or  any 
coming  from  his  own  act  or  fault,  which  renders  him  wholly 
incapable  of  taking  holy  orders,  shall  be  elected  or  admitted 
to  our  same  college  at  Oxford. 

Also  we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  no  one  having  lands, 
tenements,  possessions,  or  yearly  incomes,  spiritual  or  temporal, 
the  rents  and  profits  of  which  exceed  the  yearly  value  of  five 
marks  sterling  [^3.  6x.  8^/.],  shall  be  elected  or  admitted  into 

362         Statutes  of  New  College,  Oxford 

Oxonie  collegium  eligatur  vel  eciam  admittatur ;  nostris  con- 
sanguineis  supradictis  duntaxat  exceptis,  quos  in  dictum 
nostrum  collegium  Oxonie  recipi  volumus  et  admitti  in  veros 
socios,  ut  prefertur,  eciamsi  habeant  possessiones  spirituales  aut 
temporales,  quorum  redditus  et  prouentus  viginti  marcarum 
sterlingorum  supportatis  oneribus  valorem  annuum  non  ex- 

R.  3.  De  tempore  et  modo  superuisionis  et  scrutinii  fiendis 
in  coUegio  nostro  prope  Wintoniam,  et  forma  eleccionis 
scolarium  de  eodem  ad  collegium  Oxonie. 

Item  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod  singulis  annis, 
inter  festum  Translacionis  Sancti  Thome  Martyris  et  primum 
diem  mensis  Octobris  proxime  tunc  sequentem,  custos 
collegii  nostri  Oxonie  et  unus  de  discretioribus  sociis  eiusdem 
collegii,  gradu  magistratus  in  facultate  philosophic,  seu  in 
theologia  graduatus,  ac  unus  alius  gradu  doctoratus  aut 
baccalaureatus  in  facultate  iurisciuilis  aut  canonici.-.sumptibus 
collegii  nostri  Oxonie  accedant  ad  collegium  nostrum  prope 
Wintoniam,  sic  quod  sex  equorum  numerum  non  excedant ;  et 
ibidem  super  regimine  ipsius  collegii  custodis  ac  magistri  in 
gramatica  informatoris,  hostiarii  sub  ipso,  scolariumque  et 
aliarum  personarum  degencium  in  eodem,  ac  super  informa- 
cione  doctrine  et  profectu  scolastico  scolarium  ipsius  collegii, 
et  qualiter  in  victualibus  prouideatur  eisdem,  ac  super  aliis 
articulis  in  statutis  eiusdem  collegii  Wintonie  contentis,  dili- 
genter  inquirant  et  scrutinium  faciant :  corrigenda  et  reformanda 
eciam  in  eodem... corrigant  et  reforment. 

Quo  quidem  superuisionis  et  scrutinii  tempore,  volumus 
quod,  si  totalis  numerus  scolarium  et  sociorum  in  dicto  collegio 
nostro  Oxonie,  nostris  statutis  limitatus,  in  uno,  duobus  aut 
pluribus,  eciam  quotcunque,  fuerit  diminutus,  tunc  superuisores 
predicti,  una  cum  custode  et  vicecustode  et  magistro  in- 
formatore  scolarium  eiusdem  collegii  prope  Wintoniam,  statim 
post  superuisionem  et  scrutinium  supradicta,  pauperes  scolares 
de  dicto  collegio  nostro  prope  Wintoniam,  et,  si  opus  fuerit. 

Statutes  of  New  College,  Oxford        363 

the  said  college  at  Oxford ;  except  our  kin,  whom  we  will  shall 
be  admitted  into  our  said  college  at  Oxford  as  true  fellows,  as 
aforesaid,  even  if  they  have  spiritual  or  temporal  possessions, 
the  rents  and  profits  of  which,  all  charges  borne,  do  not 
exceed  the  yearly  value  of  twenty  marks  sterling  [;^i3.  6j.  ^d.\ 

Rubric  3.  Of  the  time  and  manner  of  the  survey  and  scrutiny 
to  be  held  in  our  college  near  Winchester,  and  the  form  of 
election  of  scholars  from  the  same  to  the  Oxford  college. 

Also  we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  every  year  between  the 
Translation  of  St  Thomas  the  Martyr  [Becket,  7  July]  and 
the  first  of  October  following,  the  warden  of  our  college  at 
Oxford  and  one  of  the  discreeter  fellows  of  the  same  college, 
of  the  degree  of  a  master  in  the  faculty  of  philosophy  or  a 
graduate  in  theology,  and  another  of  the  degree  of  doctor  or 
bachelor  in  the  faculty  of  civil  or  canon  law. ..shall,  at  the  cost 
of  our  college  at  Oxford,  go  to  our  college  near  Winchester, 
with  no  more  than  six  horses  ;  and  there  diligently  inquire 
and  hold  a  scrutiny  on  the  government  of  the  warden  of  the 
same  college  and  the  master  teacher  in  grammar,  the  ushers 
under  him,  and  the  scholars  and  other  persons  living  in  the 
same,  and  on  the  teaching  and  progress  in  school  of  the 
scholars  of  the  same  college,  and  the  quality  of  the  food  pro- 
vided for  the  same,  and  other  articles  contained  in  the  statutes 
of  the  college  at  Winchester ;  and  shall  correct  and  reform 
anything  needing  correction  or  reform. 

At  the  time  of  this  survey  and  scrutiny  we  will  that  if 
the  total  number  of  the  scholars  and  fellows  in  our  said 
college  at  Oxford  fixed  in  our  statutes  shall  have  been 
diminished  by  one,  two  or  more,  however  many,  then  the 
surveyors  aforesaid,  with  the  warden  and  subwarden  and 
master  teacher  of  the  scholars  of  the  same  college  near 
Winchester,  immediately  after  the  survey  and  scrutiny  afore- 
said, shall  diligently  and  faithfully  examine  the  poor  scholars  of 
our  said  college  near  Winchester,  and,  if  necessary,  those  who 

364        Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

alios  qui  prius  fuerant  in  eodem,  diligenter  et  fideliter 
exaniinent  super  sufficiencia  literature  in  gramatica,  con- 
dicionibus,  moribusque  ac  qualitatibus  superius  limitatis : 
qua  examinacione  si  facta,  et  habilitate  sufficientiaque  ipsorum 
scolarium  in  premissis  omnibus  et  singulis  per  comniunem 
consensum  dictorum  examinancium  approbatis,  de  ipsis 
scolaribus  magis  idoneos  tot  eligant  dicti  examinantes  ad 
dictum  collegium  nostrum  Oxonie  quot  possunt  supplere 
deficientem  numerum  in  eodem,  secundum  ordinem  per- 
sonarum  et  locorum  modumque  et  formam  in  proximo 
precedenti  statuto  plenius  recitatos,  et  eisdeni  in  omnibus 

Quo  insuper  superuisionis  tempore,  alii  pueri  et  choriste 
capelle  ibidem,  in  lectura,  piano  cantu  et  antiquo  Donato, 
competenter  instructi,  et  infra  etatem  nostris  statutis  limitatam 
constituti,  per  dictos  examinatores  et  superuisores  examinen- 
tur ;  et  qui  habiles  et  idonei  reperti  fuerint  eligantur,  de 
quibus  numerus  scolarium  ibidem  tunc  deficiens  inipleatur ; 
ceterorumque  puerorum,  sic,  ut  prefertur,  instructorum  et 
examinatorum,  nomina  et  cognomina  in  indenturis  predictis 
scribantur,  quos  ordine  illo  quo  in  indenturis  predictis  scripti 
et  nominati  fuerint  in  dictum  collegium  prope  Wintoniam  per 
custodem,  vel  in  ipsius  absencia  vicecustodem,  et  magistrum 
informatorem  predictos  recipi  volumus  loco  scolarium  ad 
collegium  nostrum  Oxonie,  ut  premittitur,  mittendorum, 
decedencium,  seu  alias  recedencium  ab  eodem. 

R.  4.     Quod  collegia  predicta  iuuent  se  mutuo  in  causis 
et  litibus. 

Et  cum  prefata  duo  nostra  collegia,  licet  locis  situata 
diuersis,  ex  una  stirpe  prodeant,  originalitercjue  ab  uno  fonte 
procedant,  in  substancia  eciam  non  discrepent,  quorum 
naturaliter  non  est  diuersus  efiectus,  conuenit,  congruit,  ex- 
pedit  atque  decet,  ut  qua  cognacione  vicina  congaudent,  unius 
eiusdemque  nominis  seu  vocabuli  titulo  presignantur,  quocies 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        365 

have  been  in  the  same,  on  the  sufficiency  of  their  learning 
in  grammar,  their  conduct  and  character  and  other  qualities 
above  defined ;  and  when  the  examination  has  been  held 
and  the  ability  and  sufficiency  of  the  same  scholars  in  all  and 
every  the  premises  has  been  approved  by  the  conmion  consent 
of  the  said  examiners,  the  said  examiners  shall  elect  to  our 
said  college  at  Oxford  so  many  of  the  most  fit  of  the  same 
scholars  as  shall  be  enough  to  supply  the  number  wanting 
in  the  same  in  the  order  of  persons  and  places,  manner  and 
form,  more  fully  set  out  in  the  last  preceding  statute,  the  same 
being  in  every  respect  fully  observed. 

[The  Oxford  electors  to  swear  to  do  their  duty  without  fear 
or  favour,  prayer  or  price.] 

And  further,  at  the  time  of  the  survey,  other  boys  and 
choristers  of  the  chapel  there  who  are  competently  instructed 
in  reading,  plain  song  and  old  Donatus,  and  within  the 
age  limited  by  our  statutes,  shall  be  examined  by  the  said 
examiners  and  surveyors  ;  and  those  who  are  found  able  and 
fit  shall  be  elected,  and  the  number  wanting  in  the  scholars 
there  shall  be  filled  up  from  them  ;  and  the  names  and  sur- 
names of  the  rest  of  the  boys  who  have  been  so  instructed  and 
examined,  as  before  mentioned,  shall  be  written  in  the  said 
indentures,  and  we  will  that  they  shall  be  received  into  the 
said  college  near  Winchester  by  the  warden,  or  in  his  absence 
the  sub-warden,  and  master  teacher  aforesaid,  in  the  order  in 
which  they  have  been  written  and  named  in  the  said  inden- 
tures, in  place  of  the  scholars  who  are  to  be  sent  to  our  college 
at  Oxford,  as  before  mentioned,  or  are  leaving  or  otherwise 
departing  from  the  same. 

Rubric  4.     That  the  colleges  aforesaid  shall    mutually   help 
each  other  in  causes  and  actions. 

And  since  our  two  colleges  aforesaid,  though  situated  in 
different  places,  grow  from  one  stem,  and  originally  issue  from 
the  same  source,  and  do  not  differ  in  substance,  and  naturally 
do  not  produce  a  different  effect,  it  is  convenient,  fitting, 
expedient  and  becoming  that,  as  they  rejoice  in  near  rela- 
tionship, and  arc  known  by  one  and  the  same  name  or  title, 

366        Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

opus  fuerit  mutuis  se  prosequantur  suffragiis,  et  fauoribus  sibi 
inuicem  subueniant  opportunis. ... 

R.  5.     De  iuramento  scolarium  admittendorum  in  collegium 
Oxonie  ad  annos  probacionis. 

...Item,  quod  non  ero  detractor  susurro,  seu  faciens 
obloquia,  aut  prouocans  odium,  iram,  discordias,  inuidiam, 
contumelias,  rixas  vel  iurgia,  aut  speciales  vel  precellentes 
prerogatiuas  nobilitatis,  generis,  scienciarum,  facultatum  aut 
diuitiarum,  allegans ;  nee  inter  socios  eorundem  collegiorum, 
aut  alios  Uniuersitatis  Oxonie  scolares  australes,  aquilonares 
seu  boreales,  aut  scienciarum  ad  sciencias,  facultatum  ad 
facultates,  patrie  ad  patriam,  generis  ad  genus,  nobilitatis  ad 
nobilitatem  vel  ad  ignobilitatem,  seu  alias  qualitercunque  com- 
paraciones  que  odiose  sunt,  in  verbo  vel  in  facto,  causa 
commouendi  maliciose  socios  vel  scolares,  aut  sciencias 
aliquas,  faciam  quouismodo  tacite  vel  expresse.  Item,  quod 
nullas  conuenticulas,  conspiraciones,  confederaciones  seu  pac- 
ciones  aliquas,  ubicunque  infra  regnum  Anglie  vel  extra, 
contra  ordinaciones  et  statuta  dicta  collegia  concernencia,  vel 
contra  ipsorum  collegiorum  statum,  commodum  et  honorem, 
custodes  vel  vicecustodes  vel  aliquem  socium  eorundem 
collegiorum,  illicite  faciam,  nee  ipsa  procurabo  seu  per- 
mittam  ab  aliis  fieri  quantum  in  me  fuerit  quomodolibet  in 

R.  14.      De  Decanis  proficiendis  et  eorum  officio. 

Item  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volumus,  quod  quinque 
socii  nostri  collegii  predicti,  de  discretioribus  et  maturioribus, 
iuxta  discrecionem  et  arbitrium  custodis  ac  vicecustodis, 
ac  tredecim  aliorum  seniorum  sociorum,  quorum  tredecim 
seniorum  quinque  persone  de  facultatibus  iurium  ciuilis  et 
canonici  existant,  nominentur  et  eciam  assumantur  ;  prouiso 
quod  nullus  in  decanum  iuris  ciuilis  aut  canonici  assumatur 
nisi  per  tres  de  quinque  iuristis  predictis  fuerit  nominatus. 
Qui  sub  dicto  custode,   tanquam  eius   coadiutores,  scolarium 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        367 

they  should  support  each  other  whenever  necessary  with  mutual 
prayers  and  exchange  opportune  favours. 

Rubric  5.     Of  the  oath  of  the  scholars  to  be  admitted  to  years 
of  probation  in  the  college  at  Oxford. 

[To  obey  the  statutes.]  Also  that  I  will  not  be  a  back- 
biter, scandal-monger,  mischief-maker,  or  provoker  of  hatred, 
anger,  quarrels,  envy,  insults,  strife  or  bickering,  or  asserter 
of  special  or  preferable  prerogatives  of  nobility,  family, 
sciences,  faculties  or  riches  ;  and  that  I  will  not  in  any  way 
implied  or  expressed  make  any  comparisons,  which  are 
odious,  between  the  fellows  of  the  same  colleges  and  other 
scholars  of  the  University  of  Oxford,  southerners  or  northerners, 
or  of  science  with  science,  or  faculty  with  faculty,  country  with 
country,  family  with  family,  good  birth  with  good  birth  or  for 
the  want  of  it,  or  any  other  comparisons  whatsoever,  in  word 
or  deed,  for  the  sake  of  malicious  disturbance  of  the  fellows 
or  scholars  or  of  any  science.  Also  that  I  will  not  unlawfully 
make  any  associations,  conspiracies,  confederacies,  or  com- 
pacts, anywhere  in  the  kingdom  of  England  or  outside,  against 
the  ordinances  and  statutes  of  the  said  colleges,  or  against  the 
estate  of  the  colleges  themselves,  their  advantage  or  honour, 
the  wardens  or  sub-wardens  or  any  fellow  of  the  same  colleges, 
nor  will  I  procure  or  permit  any  such  to  be  made  by  others  so 
far  as  in  me  lies  in  any  way  in  the  future. 

Rubric  24.     Of  the  Deans  and  their  duties. 

Also  we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  five  of  the  discreeter 
and  more  mature  fellows  of  our  college  aforesaid  shall  be 
named  and  appointed  at  the  discretion  and  choice  of  the 
warden,  sub-warden,  and  thirteen  other  senior  fellows,  of 
which  thirteen  seniors  five  persons  shall  be  of  the  faculties  of 
civil  and  canon  law ;  provided  that  no  one  shall  be  made  dean 
of  civil  or  canon  law  unless  nominated  by  three  of  the  five 
jurists  aforesaid.     They,  under  the  warden  and  as  his  assistants, 


68         Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

et  sociorum  curani  et  regimen  habeant,  qualiter  scilicet  in 
studio  scolastico  et  morum  honestate  proficiant,  et  eis  super- 
intendere,  ac  eos  delinquentes  corripere  et  increpare,  ipsorumque 
transgressiones,  excessus,  delicta  et  crimina,  custodi  et  vice- 
custodi  denunciare,  et  ut  ipsi  iuxta  ordinaciones  et  statuta 
nostra  corrigantur  et  puniantur  diligenter  instare  iuxta  posse> 
debeant  et  eciam  teneantur. 

Quorum  quinque,  duo  magistri  in  artibus  provectiores  et 
maturiores  in  theologia  minime  graduati  existant,  qui,  vel 
eorum  alter,  singulis  disputacionibus  artistarum,  tercius  vero 
legista  disputacionibus  legistarum,  quartus  eciam  canonista 
in  singulis  disputacionibus  canonistarum,  et  quintus  unus  de 
senioribus  in  theologia  in  disputacionibus  theologorum,  a 
principio  interesse  et  usque  ad  finem,  impedimento  cessante 
legitimo,  exspectare  debeant  ac  eciam  teneantur.  Quos  omnes 
sic  prefectos  Decanos  volumus  nuncupari. 

Permittentes  quod  illi  ambo  decani  facultatum  iuris 
canonici  et  ciuilis  eligi  poterint  de  facultate  iuris  canonici 
vel  ciuilis,  secundum  quod  eligentibus  huiusmodi  videbitur 
melius  expedire,  ac  secundum  quod  in  una  facultate  vel  alia 
maturiores  et  discretiores  existant. 

R.   26.      De  tempore  assumendi  gradus  in  qualibet  facultate. 

Item  statuimus,  ordinamus  et  volunms,  ut  quilibet  socius 
perpetuus  vel  scolaris  dicti  nostri  Collegii,  ad  quamcunque 
scienciam  seu  facultatem  deputatus,  annos  in  ipsa  sciencia 
seu  facultate,  iuxta  ritum,  morem,  statuta  et  consuetudines 
Uniuersitatis  predicte,  in  huiusmodi  sciencia  seu  facultate 
necessarios,  statutos  et  haberi  consuetos,  absque  remissione 
temporis  aut  complecionis  forme,  habeat  integros  et  completos, 
antequam  ad  statum  baccalaureatus  in  eadem  facultate  seu 
sciencia  quomodolibet  admittatur. 

Quibus  annis  completis,  si  iudicio  custodis  [etc.]  exami- 
natus,  habilis,  sufficiens  et  idoneus,  repertus  fuerit,  statum 
baccalaureatus  assumat,  et  extunc  ad  legendum  continue,  vel 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford        369 

shall  have  the  care  and  government  of  the  scholars  and  fellows, 
as  to  their  proficiency  in  scholastic  studies  and  good  conduct, 
and  shall  superintend  them  and  pull  them  up  and  rebuke 
them  when  in  default,  and  denounce  their  trespasses,  excesses, 
faults  and  crimes  to  the  warden  and  sub-warden,  and  they 
shall  and  shall  be  bound  to  insist  on  their  being  corrected  and 
punished  according  to  our  ordinances  and  statutes. 

Of  these  five  two  shall  be  of  the  more  advanced  and 
mature  masters  in  arts,  not  graduates  in  theology,  and  they 
or  one  of  them  ought  and  shall  be  bound  to  be  present  at 
every  disputation  of  artists ;  the  third,  a  lawyer,  at  every 
disputation  of  lawyers ;  the  fourth,  a  canonist,  at  every 
disputation  of  canonists ;  and  the  fifth,  one  of  the  seniors 
in  theology,  at  every  disputation  of  the  theologians,  from  the 
beginning  to  the  end,  unless  there  is  some  lawful  impediment. 
All  these  prefects  we  will  shall  be  called  deans. 

Allowing  that  both  deans  of  the  faculties  of  canon  and 
civil  law  may  be  elected  from  the  faculty  of  canon  or  civil  law 
as  shall  seem  most  expedient  to  the  electors,  and  as  there  may 
be  riper  and  more  discreet  persons  in  the  one  faculty  or  the 

Rubric  26.     Of  the  time  of  taking  degrees  in  each  faculty. 

Also  we  decree,  ordain  and  will  that  every  perpetual  fellow 
or  scholar  of  our  said  college,  to  whatever  science  or  faculty 
he  is  assigned,  shall  keep  wholly  and  completely  the  years  in 
the  same  science  or  faculty  which  according  to  the  practice, 
custom,  statutes  and  ordinances  of  the  University  aforesaid  are 
necessary,  statutable  and  customary  in  this  science  or  faculty, 
without  any  remission  of  the  time  or  of  completion  of  the 
course,  before  he  shall  be  admitted  to  the  degree  of  bachelor 
in  the  same  faculty  or  science. 

And  when  these  years  are  completed,   if  in  the  opinion 

of  the  warden  [etc.]  after  examination  he  shall  be  found  able, 

sufficient  and  fit,  he  shall  take  the  bachelor's  degree,  and  shall 

then  at  once  devote  himself  to  lecture  continuously  or  exercise 

L.  24 

370        Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford 

actus  alios  exercendum,  in  eadem  sciencia  pro  forma  bacca- 
laureatus  illico  se  conuertat :  et  statim,  cornpleta  forma  in 
dicta  Uniuersitate  statuta  et  eciam  limitata,  in  quacunque 
fuerit  facultate  seu  sciencia,  et  uno  anno  ultra  formam  eandem, 
ad  recipiendum  et  assumendum  gradum  magistratus  seu 
doctoratus  in  ipsa  sciencia  seu  facultate... effectualiter  sit 
paratus  ;  et  infra  annum. ..incipere  realiter  teneatur.... 

Nulla  gracia  super  remissione  temporis  aut  non  com- 
plecionis  forme;  preterquam  in  forma  canonistarum,  cum 
quibus  dispensari  permittimus  ut  non  teneantur  iurare  se 
audiuisse  decretales  complete,  ac  eciam  decretorum  doctores 
non  teneantur  regere  in  decretis,  et  preterquam  in  forma 
graduandorum  in  medicina,  ut  ipsi  videlicet,  deficiente 
Doctore  regente  in  facultate  ilia,  possint  uti  gratiis  conce- 
dendis  iisdem  super  non  complecione  forme  in  hoc  casu  alias 
requisite,  dum  tamen  fraus  aut  dolus  non  interueniat  in  hac 
parte ;  qualitercunque  ipsis  concessa,  quomodolibet  valitura 
iisdem :  qua,  etsi  forsan  ad  instanciam,  supplicacionem  vel 
peticionem,  quarumcunque  personarum,  seu  alias  gratuita,  sibi 
concessa,  nullo  modo  gaudeant  vel  uti  presumant. ... 

Statuentes,  insuper,  quod  quilibet  Magister  in  artibus, 
postquam  in  eadem  facultate  in  dicta  Uniuersitate  tribus  annis 
integris  rexerit,  anno  incepcionis  sue,  si  post  festum  Pasche 
inceperit,  minime  computato,  ad  facultatem  theologie  vel 
astronomic  seu  medicine  illico  se  conuertere  debeat  et  eciam 
teneatur,  proficiatque  et  gradus  assumat  in  eadem,  prout 
superius  est  expressum. 

R.  52.     De  disposicione  camerarum. 

...Volentes,  preterea,  quod  in  superioribus  cameris  dicti 
collegii  tres  socii  vel  scolares  ad  minus  inuicem  collocentur, 
quatenus  numerus  sociorum  et  scolarium  collegii  sufficit  et 
extendit.  In  inferioribus  autem  cameris  dicti  collegii,  quatuor 
fenestras  et  quatuor  studiorum  loca  habentibus,  sint  semper 
(juatuor  scolares  vel  socii  collocati ;  preterquam  in  ilia  inferiori 
camera  iuxta  cameram  in  orientali  angulo  collegii  situata,  in 

Statutes  of  New  College,   Oxford         3  7 1 

other  acts  proper  to  the  bachelor  in  the  same  science  according 
to  its  course  ;  and  shall  immediately  after  he  has  completed 
the  course  decreed  and  laid  down  in  the  said  University  in 
whatever  shall  be  his  faculty  or  science,  and  one  year  beyond 
the  course  prescribed,  be  ready  to  receive  and  take  the  degree 
of  master  or  doctor  in  the  same  science  or  faculty,  and  shall 
be  bound  actually  to  incept  in  the  same  science  or  faculty 

No  grace  whatsoever  for  remission  of  time  or  non-com- 
pletion of  the  course  shall  be  granted  which  shall  in  any 
way  be  valid  for  them  ;  except  in  the  course  of  canonists, 
whom  we  permit  to  have  dispensation  from  being  bound  to 
swear  that  they  have  heard  lectures  on  the  whole  Decretals, 
while  doctors  of  decrees  shall  not  be  bound  to  lecture  on 
decrees ;  except  also  in  the  course  for  graduates  in  medicine, 
that  they  in  the  absence  of  a  regent  doctor  in  that  faculty  may 
use  graces  granted  them  for  not  completing  the  course  other- 
wise required,  provided  that  no  fraud  or  deceit  be  used  in  the 
matter.  For  the  rest,  even  if  a  grace  be  granted  at  the 
instance,  prayer  or  petition  of  any  person  whatsoever,  or  be 
granted  without  asking,  they  shall  no  way  enjoy  the  same  or 
venture  to  make  use  of  it 

We  decree,  further,  that  every  master  of  arts,  after  he  has 
taught  in  the  same  faculty  in  the  said  University  for  three  whole 
years,  not  counting  the  year  of  his  inception,  if  he  incepted 
after  Easter,  ought  and  shall  be  bound  to  devote  himself  to  the 
faculty  of  theology  or  astronomy  or  medicine,  and  to  become 
proficient  and  take  degrees  in  the  same,  as  before- mentioned. 

Rubric  52.     Of  the  disposal  of  chambers. 

...Willing,  too,  that  in  the  upper  chambers  of  the  said 
college  three  fellows  or  scholars  at  most  shall  be  placed  to- 
gether, as  far  as  the  number  of  fellows  and  scholars  of  the 
college  suffices  and  extends.  In  the  lower  chambers,  however, 
of  the  said  college,  having  four  windows  and  four  places  for 
study,  there  shall  always  be  four  scholars  or  fellows  placed 
together ;  except  in  the  lower  chamber  next  the  chamber 
situate    in    the    east    corner    of   the    college,    in    which    three 


372  A  Ducal  School 

qua  tres  tantummodo  scolares  vel  socii  habitabunt.  Quorum 
omnium  sociorum  et  scolarium  dicti  collegii  nostri  quilibet 
suum  lectum  habeat  separatim,  ac  solus  sine  socio  iaceat 
omnimodo — 

Ordinantes,  preterea,  quod  canonistc  seu  ciuiliste  mixtim 
cum  aliis  studentibus  in  facultatibus  aliis  in  prefatis  singulis 
cameris,  quatenus  ipsorum  numerus  sufficit  et  extendit,  iuxta 
disposicionem  custodis  debite  collocentur,  ad  nutriendum  et 
conseruandum  maiorem  dileccionem,  amiciciam  et  caritatem, 
inter  eosdem.  Quodque  in  singulis  cameris  supradictis  sit 
unus  socius  ceteris  maturitate,  discrecione  ac  sciencia,  pro- 
uectior,  qui  aliis  suis  sociis  cameralibus  studentibus  super- 
intendat,  et  de  ipsorum  moribus  et  conuersacione,  studiique 
profectu,  custodem,  vicecustodem  et  decanos,  de  tempore 
in  tempus,  quoties  causa  seu  opus  fuerit,  veraciter  certificet  et 
informet, ...ut  huiusmodi  socii  et  scolares  defectum  in  moribus 
patientes,  negligentes  seu  in  studiis  suis  desides,  castigacionem,. 
correccionem  et  punicionem,  recipiant  competentes. 

Appointment  to  Higham  Ferrers  Grammar  School 
by  the  King  in  right  of  Duchy  of  Lancaster, 
1 400. 

[A.   F.   Leach,    V.   C.  H.  Northants,   il.   218,   from   P.    R.  O.    Duchy 
Lane.  Misc.  liooks,  xv.  27.] 

Henry  par  le  grace  de  Dieu  etc.  a  tous  etc.  Sachez  nous 
de  notre  grace  especiale  et  pur  la  grande  abilite  et  suffisante 
discrecion  de  (iramoir  que  nous  est  tcsmoignez  de  la  pcrsone 
de  notre  bien  aime  Maistre  Robert  Orcheorerd  de  Burton,  et 
pur  le  bon  esploite  et  profit  qil  ferra  de  iour  en  autre  as  escolers 

A  Ducal  School  ^tlZ 

scholars  or  fellows  only  shall  live.  All  the  fellows  and  scholars 
of  our  said  college  shall  have  each  his  own  bed  separately,  and 
lie  alone  without  a  companion  always 

Ordaining,  moreover,  that  canonists  or  civilians  shall  be 
duly  placed  mixed  up  with  the  other  students  in  other  faculties 
in  each  of  the  said  chambers,  as  far  as  their  number  suffices  and 
goes,  at  the  disposition  of  the  warden,  so  as  to  nourish  and  pre- 
serve greater  affection,  friendship  and  kindness  between  them. 
And  that  in  each  of  the  said  chambers  there  shall  be  one  fellow- 
more  advanced  in  age,  wisdom  and  learning  than  the  rest,  who 
shall  superintend  his  chamber-fellows  in  their  studies,  and 
shall  truly  certify  and  inform  the  warden,  sub-warden  and  deans 
from  time  to  time,  as  often  as  may  be  necessary,  of  their  conduct 
and  behaviour  and  the  progress  of  their  studies... so  that  such 
fellows  and  scholars,  if  failing  in  conduct,  negligent  or  idle  in 
their  studies,  shall  receive  competent  castigation,  correction 
and  ])unishment. 

[The  rest  of  the  68  lengthy  statutes  are  taken  up  with 
directions  as  to  chapel  services  (Rubrics  41-46),  the  manage- 
ment of  property  (Rubrics  47-51,  53-8),  college  scrutiny 
(Rubric  60)  as  in  the  Merton  statutes,  the  library  (Rubric 
61-2)  etc.  The  last  rubric,  entitled  'End  and  Conclusion  of 
all  the  Statutes,'  is  a  somewhat  pathetic  attempt  to  secure 
permanence,  by  the  most  stringent  oaths  and  penalties  on  any 
one  altering  them.] 

Appointment  to  Highani  Ferrej^s  Grammar  School 
by  the  King  in  right  of  Duchy  of  Lancaster. 

Henry  by  the  grace  of  God  etc.  to  all  etc.  Know  ye  that 
we  of  our  special  grace,  and  for  the  great  ability  and  sufficient 
knowledge  of  grammar,  evidence  of  which  has  been  given  us, 
in  the  person  of  our  well  beloved  Master  Robert  Orchard  of 
Burton  and  for  the  good  achievement  and  profit  that  he  will 
make  from  day  to  day  with  tlie  scholars  and  children  wishing  to 

374     Lollards  to  be  burnt  for  keeping  Schools 

et  enfantz  vueillant  hanter  la  faculte  de  gramoir  de  soubz  sa 
discipline,  a  lui  avoir  octroies  les  escoiles  de  gramoir  de  notre 
vile  de  Higham  ferrers  a  avoir  et  tenir  en  maniere  qil  ad  este 
usez  devant  ces  hueres  a  terme  de  sa  vie,  issint  quil  governe 
bien  et  duement  en  loffice  surdit.  Pour  quoy  nous  mandons 
a  tous  nos  leges  as  queux  il  appurtient  qu  au  dit  Robert 
en  faisante  bien  et  dument  le  susdit  office  ils  soient  aidants 
favorants  et  conselantz  a  tous  les  foies  solanc  ce  quil  leur 
requerura  ou  ferra  assauoir  resonablement  de  nostre  parti. 
En  tesmoignance  etc.   Don  etc. 

The  Lollm^ds  to  be  burnt  for  keeping  Schools 
and  Conventicles.      1400. 

[2  Hen.  IV,  c.  15.     Stat,  of  the  Realm,  ed.  1816,  li.  127.]  de  hujusmodi  secta  nephandisque  doctrinis  et 
opinionibus  conventiculas  aliquas  faciat  vel  scolas  teneat 
vel  exerceat  quovismodo  ;  ac  eciam  quod  nullus  imposterum 
alicui  sic  predicanti  aut  tales  vel  consimiles  conventiculas 
facienti,  seu  scolas  tenenti  vel  exercenti,  aut  talem  librum 
facienti  seu  scribenti,  vel  populum  sic  docenti  informanti 
vel  excitanti  quomodolibet  faveat  nec  ipsorum  aliquem  manu- 

teneat  aliqualiter  vel  sustentet Et  si  aliqua  persona  infra 

dicta  Regnum  et  Dominia,  super  dictis  nephandis  pre- 
dicacionibus  doctrinis  opinionibus  scolis  et  informacionibus 
hereticis  et  erroneis  vel  aliqua  eorundem,  sentencialiter  coram 
loci  Diocesano  vel  Commissariis  suis  convicta  fuerit,  et  hujus- 
modi nephandas  sectam  predicaciones  doctrinas  opiniones 
scolas  et  informaciones  debite  abjurare  recusaverit,  aut  per  loci 
Diocesanum    vel    Commissarios    suos    post   abjuracioneni  per 

eandem  personam  factam  pronunciata  fuerit  relapsa tunc 

Vicecomes  illius  loci,  et  Major  et  Vicecomites  seu  Vicecomes 
aut  Major  et  Ballivi  Civitatis  Ville  vel  Burgi  ejusdem  comitatus, 

Lollards  to  be  burnt  for  keeping  Schools     375 

haunt  the  faculty  of  grammar  under  his  teaching,  have  granted 
him  the  Grammar  School  of  our  town  of  Higham  Ferrers  to 
have  and  to  hold  as  has  been  usual  before  this  time  for  the 
term  of  his  life,  so  long  as  he  governs  it  well  and  perfectly  in 
the  office  aforesaid.  Wherefore  we  command  all  our  lieges  to 
whom  it  appertains  that  they  will  give  aid  favour  and  counsel 
to  the  said  Robert  in  fulfilling  well  and  duly  the  said  office  as 
often  as  he  shall  require  them  or  give  reasonable  notice  thereof 
on  our  behalf     In  witness  etc.     Dated  etc. 

The  Lollards  to  be  btcrnt  for  keeping  Schools 
and  Conventicles.      1400. 

[The  translation  and  alternative  readings  are  those  given 
in  the  Statutes  of  the  Reabni\ 

...None  of  such  sect  and  wicked  doctrines  and  opinions 
shall  make  any  conventicles,  or  in  any  wise  hold  or  exercise 
schools  ;  and  also  that  none  from  henceforth  in  any  wise  favour 
such  preacher,  or  maker  of  any  such  or  like  conventicles,  or 
[person]  holding  or  exercising  schools,  or  making  or  writing 
such  books,  or  so  teaching,  informing,  or  exciting  the  people, 

nor  any  of  them  maintain  or  any  wise  sustain And  if  any 

person  within  the  said  realm  and  dominions,  upon  the  said 
wicked  preachings,  doctrines,  opinions,  schools,  and  heretical 
and  erroneous  informations,  or  any  of  them,  be  before  the 
Diocesan  of  the  same  place  or  his  Commissaries  [sententially 
convict]  convict  by  sentence,  and  the  same  wicked  sect,  preach- 
ings, doctrines  and  opinions,  schools  and  informations,  do 
refuse  duly  to  abjure,  or  by  the  Diocesan  of  the  same  place 
or  his  Commissaries  after  abjuration  made  by  the  same  person 

be  [pronounced  fall  into  relapse] then  the  Sheriff  of  the 

county  of  the  same  place,  and  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  or  Sheriff, 
or  Mayor  and  Bailiffs  of  the  city,  town  and  borough  of  the 
same  county  next  to  the  same  Diocesan  or  the  said  Commis- 

3/6  Shakcspea7'e s  School 

dicto  Diocesano  seu  dictis  Commissariis  magis  propinqui,  in 
sentenciis  per  dictum  Diocesanum  aut  Commissarios  suos 
contra  personas  hujusmodi  et  ipsarum  quamlibet  preferendis 
cum  ad  hoc  per  dictum  Diocesanum  aut  Commissarios  ejusdem 
fuerint  requisiti,  personaliter  sint  presentes,  et  personas  illas 
et  quamlibet  earundem  post  hujusmodi  sentencias  prelatas 
recipiant,  et  casdem  coram  populo  in  eminenti  loco  comburi 

Stratford-on-Avon  G7'arninar  School  171  the  Holy 
Cross  Gild  Muniments.      1 402-8 2 . * 

[A.  Y.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Wai-wicks.  w.  329,  from  Stratford-on-Avon 
Shakespeare  Mun.] 

Compotus  Johannis  Brasyer  et  Thome  Smyth  procuratorum 
Gilde  Sancte  Crucis  Stratford-super-Avene  a  festo  Sancti 
Michaelis  Archangeli  anno  regni  Regis  Henrici  IV  post  con- 
questum  tercio,  usque  eundem  festum  Sancti  Michaelis  anno 
eiusdem  regis  Henrici  quarto  [1403]. 

In  primis  respondent  de  vj^.  v\\)d.  receptis  de 
Johanne  Scolmayster  pro  una  camera  per  annum.... 

Compotus. ..anno  quarto... quinto  [1403-4]. 
Allocaciones   de  xx^.   de   redditu  nove  camere  in 
aula  quam  Johannes  Scolemayster  tenuit  pro  j  termino. 

Cornpotus  Ricardi  Fretter  et  Willelmi  Brasier  procuratorum 
Gilde  Sancte  Crucis,  Beate  Marie  et  Sancti  Johannis  Baptiste 
de  Stratford-super-Avene  a  crastino  Convivii  dicte  Gilde  anno 
regni  regis  Henrici  quarti  quartodecimo  usque  in  crastinum 
alterius  convivii  eiusdem  Gilde  anno  regni  regis  Henrici  quinti 
[14 1 3]  post  conquestum  primo  per  unum  annum  integrum. 

Allocaciones  de  \\s.  de  redditu  domus  Sancte 
Marie  in  le  Oldetown,  quos  magister  et  aldermanni  Magistro 
Scolarum  pardonaverunt  annuatim  quamdiu  pueros  docere 
voluerit  et  scolam  in  eadem  tenere. 

Shakespeare  s  School  2>n 

saries,  shall  be  personally  present  in  preferring  of  such  sen- 
tences [by  the  same  Diocesan  or  his  Commissaries  against 
such  persons  and  every  of  them],  when  they  by  the  same 
Diocesan  or  his  Commissaries  shall  be  required ;  and  they 
the  same  persons  and  every  of  them,  after  such  sentence 
promulgate,  shall  receive,  and  them  before  the  people  in  an 
high  place  do  to  be  burnt. 

Stratford- on- Avon  Graimnar  School  in  the  Holy 
Cross  Gild  Mtmiinents.      1402-82. 

Account  of  John  the  Brazier  and  Thomas  the  Smith, 
proctors  of  the  Holy  Cross  Gild  of  Stratford-upon-Avon,  from 
Michaelmas  in  the  third  year  of  Henry  IV  after  the  Conquest 
[1402]  to  the  same  feast  of  Michaelmas  in  the  fourth  year  of 
the  same  king  Henry  [1403]. 

First  they  answer  for... and  for  ds.  Zd.  received  of  John  the 
Schoolmaster  for  a  chamber  for  the  year... 

Account... in  the  fourth  to  the  fifth  year  [1403-4]. 
Remissions  of. ..and  of  2od.  for  rent  of  the  new  chamber  in 
the  hall  which  John  the  Schoolmaster  held  for  one  term. 

Account  of  Richard  the  Fretter  and  ^\'illiam  the  Brazier, 
proctors  of  the  Gild  of  the  Holy  Cross,  Blessed  Mary  and 
St  John  the  Baptist  of  Stratford-upon-Avon,  from  the  day  after 
the  dinner  of  the  said  Gild  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  Henry  IV, 
to  the  day  after  another  dinner  of  the  same  Gild  in  the  first 
year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  the  fifth  after  the  Conquest, 
for  a  whole  year. 

Remissions  of  rents... and  of  \s.  for  rent  of  St  Mary's  house 
in  the  Oldtown,  which  the  Master  and  Aldermen  forgave  the 
Schoolmaster  every  year  so  long  as  he  will  teach  boys  and  will 
keep  school  in  it. 

178     Strat ford-on- Avon  Latin  School  building 

[14 1 6-1 7.]  de  iv^.  de  tenemento  Beate  Marie 
in  le  Church  Stret,  quia  conceditur  Magistro  Scolarum  per 
Magistrum  et  Aldermannos  quamdiu  scolas  in  eadem  docere 

Building  of  Stratford-on-Avon  Grammar  School.     1426. 
[Stratford-on-Avon  Mun.  Gild  Accounts.] 

Computus  Hugonis  Safford  Magistri  Gilde  Sancte  Crucis 
de  Stratford,  5-6  Henry  VI  [1426-27]. 

Custus  de  Scolehows. 

In  meremio  empto  pro  j  Scolehows  cum  j  camera 

desuper  inde  facienda  .....     xxxivi'. 

In  stipendio  Johannis  Hesill,  magistri  carpentarii, 
existentis  ibidem  per  xxxv  dies  et  dimidiam, 
capientis  per  diem  •w]d.  ad  taxam  .         .     xvij^.  \]d. 

[2  other  carpenters  and  2  labourers,  i  tiler,  2  plas- 
terers and  I  mason  were  employed,  and  6  cart- 
loads of  stones,  15  cartloads  of  earth  and  clay  for 
flooring,  and  2  cartloads  of  [)laster  were  used.] 

Summa  x.    v.    \\]d.  ob. 

Schoolmasters  Members  of  Holy  Cross  Gild.      1453-78. 

[Gild  Register,  f.  Ixxiij.,  32  H.  VI.] 

Robertus  Wyncote,  scole  mayster  de  Stratford,  receptus  est  in 
fraternitatem  Gilde  et  fecit  finem  pro  vJ5'.  viij^.  et  x^.  de  lumine. 

[f.  xcix.,  12  ICdw.  IV.      1472-3.] 

Thomas  Caunton,  monitor  Scolarium,  et  Alicia  uxor  eius 
recepti  sunt  in  fraternitatem  Gilde;  et  fecit  finem  pro  i3i'.  ^d. 

[11,  12  Edw.  IV.      1471-2.] 

Et  de  fine  Thome  Cavnton  monitoris  Scolarium  et 

Alicie  uxoris  eius  .....     xiiji-.  iiij^. 

Idem  Magister  petit  allocari  de...solutis  ad  le  Scole- 
maister  pro  scriptione  unius  legende  date 
Capelle  Gilde  per  Johannem  Bosbury  Capel- 
lanum  Gilde  in  parte  solucionis  maioris  summe      viij.f.  \\d. 

St  rat  ford-on- A  von  Latin  School  buildiiig     379 

[14 1 6-1 7.]  Decays... and  for  \s.  for  the  tenement  of  the 
Blessed  Mary  in  Church  street,  because  it  is  granted  to  the 
Schoolmaster  by  the  Master  and  Aldermen  as  long  as  he  will 
keep  school  in  it. 

Building  of  Stratford-on-Avon  Grammar  School.      1426. 

Account  of  Hugh  Safford,  Master  of  the  Holy  Cross  Gild 
of  Stratford.      1426-7. 

Costs  of  the  Schoolhouse. 

In    timber   bought   to    make   a  Schoolhouse  and 

chamber  over  it    .         .         .         .         .         .         345'. 

In  wages  of  John  Hessle,  master  carpenter,  being 

there  for  35-^-  days  at  dd.  a  day  for  the  job      .  176 

Total  ^10       5     3| 

Schoolmasters  Members  of  Holy  Cross  Gild.      1453-78. 

Robert  Wyncote,  schoolmaster  of  Stratford,  was  received 
into  the  brotherhood  of  the  Gild  and  paid  a  fine  of  ds.  Sii.  with 
10^/.  for  the  light. 

Thomas  Caunton,  monitor  of  the  scholars,  and  Alice  his 
wife  were  received  into  the  brotherhood  of  the  Gild  and  paid 
a  fine  of  i;^s.  ^d. 

For  the  fine  of  Thomas  Caunton,  monitor  of  the  Scholars, 
and  Alice  his  wife,  ly.  ^d. 

The  same  master  seeks  allowance  for... paid  to  the  School- 
master for  writing  a  lesson-book  given  to  the  chapel  of  the 
Gild  by  John  Bosbury,  chaplain  of  the  Gild,  in  part  payment 
of  a  larger  sum,  Sjt.  4^. 

380       Stratford-on-Avoft  Grammar  School 

[f.  cvij.,  17  Edw.  IV.     1477-8.] 
Ricardus   Fox,  Gramatice  magister  ac  eciam  Baccularius, 
nunc  temporis  de  Stratford,  receptus  est  in  fraternitate  Gilde 
et  fecit  finem  pro  \']s.  \\\]d. 

The  Grammar  School  endowed  by  Master  Thomas  Jolyffe, 
Gild  Priest.      1482. 

Hec  indentura  quatripartita  facta  duodecimo  die  mensis 
Februarii  anno  regni  regis  Edwardi  IV  post  Conquestum 
vicesimo  primo  inter  Johannem  Stratford  capellanum  et 
rectorem  ecclesie  parochialis  de  Combarton  Magna  in 
Comitatu  Wigornie  et  Thomam  \Varde  de  Pyllardyngton 
in  comitatu  Warwici,  Feoffatos  Magistri  Thome  Jolyffe  ex 
prima  parte,  et  Dominum  Johannem  Alcoke  dei  gracia 
Wigorniensem  Episcopum  ex  parte  secunda,  ac  Magistrum 
Thomam  Balsale  clericum  ac  Gardianum  Ecclesie  Collegiate 
de  Stratford  super  Avonam  ex  parte  tercia,  et  Thomam 
Clopton  Armigerum  Magistrum  Gilde  Sancte  Crucis  de 
Stratford  predicta,  cum  assensu  et  concensu  Aldermannorum 
et  Procuratorum  eiusdem  Gilde  ex  parte  quarta,  testatur 

Quod  cum  predictus  Thomas  Jolyffe  ex  mera  deuocione 
et  ad  specialem  laudem  Dei  omnipotentis  ac  pro  salute  anime 
sue  et  parentum  suorum  Johannis  et  Johanne  ac  pro  animabus 
omnium  fratrum  et  sororum  et  benefactorum  dicte  Gilde  dederit 
€t  concesserit  prefate  Gilde  omnia  et  singula  terras  et  tenementa 
sua  cum  omnibus  eorum  pertinenciis  que  vel  quas  habet  in 
Stratford  predicta  et  Dodwell  in  comitatu  predicto  sub  forma 
et  condicionibus  subsequentibus  videlicet, 

Quod  predictus  Thomas  Clopton  magister  dicte  Gilde  et 
Aldermanni  ac  procuratores  eiusdem  et  successores  sui  invenient 
unum  Presbyterum  idoneum  et  abilem  in  sciencia  ad  docendum 
Gramaticam  libere  omnibus  scolaribus  ad  scolam  in  dicta  villa 
sibi  venientibus,  nichil  capiendo  de  scolaribus  pro  doctrina 
sua.     Et  predictus  Presbyter  erit  unus  de  quinque  presbyteris 

endowed  and  made  a  Free  School        381 


Richard  Fox,  master  in  grammar,  and  also  Bachelor  [of 
Arts],  now  of  Stratford,  was  received  into  the  brotherhood  of 
the  Gild  and  paid  a  fine  of  ds.  %d. 

The  Grammar  School    endowed  by  Master  Thomas  Jolyffe, 
Gild  Priest.     1482. 

This  Indenture  of  four  parts  made  12  Feb.  in  the  21st  year 
of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  Fourth  after  the  Conquest 
between  John  Stratford,  chaplain  and  rector  of  the  parish 
church  of  Great  Comberton  in  the  county  of  Worcester,  and 
Thomas  Ward  of  Pillerton  in  the  county  of  Warwick,  feoffees 
of  Master  Thomas  Jolyffe,  of  the  first  part,  and  Sir  John  Alcock, 
by  the  grace  of  God  bishop  of  Worcester,  of  the  second  part, 
and  Master  Thomas  Balsall  clerk  and  warden  of  the  collegiate 
church  of  Stratford-upon-Avon  of  the  third  part,  and  Thomas 
Clopton  esquire  master  of  the  Gild  of  the  Holy  Cross  of  Strat- 
ford aforesaid,  with  the  assent  and  consent  of  the  Aldermen 
and  Proctors  of  the  same  Gild  of  the  fourth  part,  witnesseth 

That  whereas  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Jolyffe  of  mere  devotion 
and  for  the  special  praise  of  God  Almighty  and  the  health  of 
his  soul  and  the  souls  of  his  parents  John  and  Jane  and  for  the 
souls  of  all  the  brethren  and  sisters  and  benefactors  of  the  said 
Gild  has  given  and  granted  to  the  said  Gild  all  and  singular 
his  lands  and  tenements  with  all  their  appurtenances  which 
he  has  in  Stratford  aforesaid  and  in  Dodwell  in  the  county 
aforesaid  in  the  manner  and  on  the  conditions  following, 

That  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Clopton,  master  of  the  said 
Gild,  and  the  Aldermen  and  proctors  of  the  same  and  their 
successors  shall  find  a  priest  fit  and  able  in  the  science 
to  teach  grammar  freely  to  all  scholars  coming  to  him  to 
school  in  the  said  town,  taking  nothing  of  the  scholars  for 
their  teaching ;    and  the  aforesaid  priest   shall  be  one  of  the 

382       Stratford-on-Avon  Grammar  School 

dicte  Gilde  ad  proximam  vacacionem  quando  contigerit  vacate, 
recipiendo  autem  pro  stipendio  suo  usque  ad  proximam 
vacacionem  octo  libras  monete  Anglic  soluendas  per  manus 
dictorum  Magistri,  Aldermannorum,  Procuratorum  et  succes- 
sorum  suorum  ad  quattuor  anni  terminos  videlicet  ad  festa 
S.  Michaelis,  Natalis  Domini,  Annunciacionis  Beate  Marie 
Virginis  et  Natiuitatis  Sancti  Johannis  Baptiste  per  equales 
portiones  ;  et  post  primam  vacacionem  capiendo  decern  libras 
legalis  monete  Anglie  ad  terminos  predictos  per  manus  supra- 
dictorum  Magistri  Aldermannorum  Procuratorum  et  succes- 
sorum  suorum  cum  camera  infra  dictam  Gildam  cum  omnibus 
et  singulis  dicte  camere  pertinenciis. 

Proviso  semper  quod  predictus  Presbyter  siue  Magister 
Gramaticalis  fuerit  abilis  et  in  sanitate  ad  docendum ;  sin 
autem  recipiat  annuatim  centum  solidos  et  alteros  vero  centum 
solidos  annuatim  soluendos  uni  alio  viro  abili  in  sciencia  subtus 
et  vice  dicti  magistri  tociens  quociens  in  posterum  contingat 
sic  fieri  per  superuisum  dictorum  magistri  Thome  Balsale 
Gardiani  et  Thome  Clopton  Magistri  dicte  Gildc  ac  successorum 

Et  predictus  Presbyter  Gramaticalis,  Deo  dante,  cum 
fuerit  dispositus  celebrabit  missam  in  capella  dicte  Gilde 
et  in  diebus  festiuis  celebrabit  missam  in  ecclesia  parochiali 
de  Stratford  predicta  ad  altare  Sancti  Johannis  Baptiste  pro 
bono  statu  Domini  Episcopi  Wygorniensis  qui  pro  tempore 
fuerit  et  pro  animabus  predicti  Magistri  Thome  Jolyffe  et 
parentum  Johannis  et  Johanne  ac  animabus  omnium  benefac- 
torum  dicte  Gilde  et  animabus  omnium  fidelium  defunctorum 
dicendo  ad  quamlibet  missam  pro  viuis  '  Deus  qui  caritatis ' 
et  pro  defunctis  '  Inclina  Domine '  reuertendo  se  ad  populum 
ante  lauatorium  misse  et  dicendo 

'  Ye  shall  pray  specially  for  the  sowles  of  Maister  Thomas 
Jolyffe  John  and  Johanne  his  fadur  and  modur  and  the  sowles 
of  all  brethern  and  sustern  of  the  seid  Gilde  and  all  cristen 
sowles  seyinge  of  your  charite  a  Paternoster  and  a  Ave.' 

Et    predictus    Magister    Gardianus    et   predictus   Thomas 

endowed  and  made  a  Free  School        383 

five  priests  of  the  said  Gild  at  the  next  vacancy  when  one  falls 
vacant,  receiving  meanwhile  for  his  salary  till  the  next  vacancy 
^8  of  money  of  England  to  be  paid  by  the  hands  of  the  said 
Master,  Aldermen,  Proctors  and  their  successors  at  four  terms 
of  the  year,  viz.  Michaelmas,  Christmas,  Lady  Day  and 
Midsummer  Day  by  equal  portions  ;  and  after  the  first  vacancy 
taking  ;^io  of  lawful  money  of  England  at  the  times  aforesaid 
by  the  hands  of  the  aforesaid  Master,  Aldermen,  Proctors  and 
their  successors  with  a  chamber  in  the  said  Gild  and  all  and 
singular  the  appurtenances  of  the  said  chamber. 

Provided  always  that  the  said  priest  or  grammar  master 
shall  be  able  and  of  health  to  teach ;  but  if  not  he  shall  receive 
^5  a  year  and  tlie  other  ^,^5  shall  be  yearly  paid  to  another 
man  able  in  learning  under  and  instead  of  the  said  master,  as 
often  as  it  shall  hereafter  happen  to  be  so  settled  under  the 
supervision  of  the  said  Master  Thomas  Balsall  warden  and 
Tliomas  Clopton  master  of  the  said  Gild  and  their  successors. 

And  the  grammar  priest  aforesaid  shall,  when  he  shall  by 
God's  grace  be  so  disposed,  celebrate  mass  in  the  chapel  of 
the  said  Gild,  and  on  feast  days  shall  celebrate  mass  in  the 
parish  church  of  Stratford  aforesaid  at  the  altar  of  St  John  the 
Baptist  for  the  good  estate  of  the  lord  bishop  of  Worcester  for 
the  time  being  and  the  souls  of  the  said  Master  Thomas  Jolyffe 
and  of  his  parents  John  and  Jane  and  the  souls  of  all  tlie  bene- 
factors of  the  said  Gild  and  the  souls  of  all  the  faithful  departed, 
saying  at  every  mass,  for  the  living  '  (iod  who  art  the  God  of 
love'  and  for  the  departed  'Bow  down,  O  Lord,'  turning  him- 
self to  the  people  before  the  lavatory  of  the  mass  and  saying, 

'  Ye  shall  pray  specially  for  the  souls  of  Master  Thomas 
Jolyffe,  John  and  Jane  his  father  and  mother,  and  the  souls  of 
all  brethren  and  sisters  of  the  said  Gild  and  all  Christian  souls 
saying  of  your  charity  a  Lord's  Prayer  and  a  Salutation  of  the 

And  the  aforesaid  Master  Warden  and  the  aforesaid  Thomas 

;84       Stratford-on- Avon  Graminar  School 

Clopton,  magister  Gilde,  et  successores  sui  nominabunt  unum 
presbiterum  ad  docendum  gramaticam  tociens  quociens  vaca- 

Et  predictus  Thomas  Clopton,  magister  dicte  Gilde  et 
Aldermanni  et  procuratores  eiusdem  Gilde  et  successores  sui 
imperpetuum  custodient,  seu  custodiri  imperpetuum  facient 
obitum  in  vigilia  Sancti  Bartholomei  Apostoli  in  ecclesia 
parochiali  de  Stratford  predicta  coram  altare  Sancti  Johannis 
Baptiste  cum  omnibus  presbiteris  collegii  predicti  pro  animabus 
predicti  magistri  Thome  Jolyffe,  Johannis  ac  Johanne  parentum 
suorum  et  pro  animabus  omnium  fidelium  defunctorum.  Et  in 
consimili  modo  predictus  Magister  Aldermanni  procuratores  ac 
successores  sui  custodient  seu  custodiri  imperpetuum  facient 
obitum  pro  animabus  predictis  et  pro  omnibus  animabus 
fidelibus  defunctis  in  vigilia  Sancti  Bartholomei  predicti  infra 
capellam  Gilde  predicte  cum  omnibus  presbiteris  dicte  Gilde. 

Et  si  predicti  Thomas  Clopton  Aldermanni  procuratores 
ac  successores  sui  defecerint  et  non  perimpleuerint  omnia  et 
singula  premissa  per  spacium  unius  anni  uno  post  alium 
immediate  sequente  tunc  bene  licebit  prefatis  Magistro 
Thome  Balsale  clerico  ac  Gardiano  et  successoribus  suis  in 
omnibus  predictis  terris  et  tenementis  intrare  et  ea  penes  se 
retinere  quousque  predicti  Thomas  Clopton  magister  gilde 
predicte  ac  Aldermanni  et  procuratores  et  successores  sui 
inuenient  sufficientem  securitatem  ad  omnia  premissa  per- 
implenda  et  si  sufificiens  securitas  huiusmodi  ex  parte  predicti 
Thome  Clopton  Magistri  Aldermannorum  et  procuratorum  ac 
successorum  suorum  inueniri  non  poterit  tunc  bene  licebit 
prefato  Magistro  Thome  Balsale  Gardiano  et  successoribus  suis 
Gardianis  qui  pro  tempore  erunt  in  omnibus  terris  et  tenementis 
supradictis  re-intrare  et  ea  gaudere  et  possidere  imperpetuum 
ad  sustentacionem  diuersorum  choristarum.  Et  predictus 
presbiter  gramaticalis  et  scolares  bis  in  septimana  videlicet  die 
Mercurii  et  in  die  Veneris  cantabunt  antiphonam  de  Sancta 
Maria,  et  post  dictam  antiphonam  deuote  dicendo  pro  animabus 
predictis  Magistri  Thome  Jolyffe  Johannis  et  Johanne  parentum 
suorum  et  pro  animabus  omnium  fidelium  defunctorum  De 

endowed  and  made  a  Free  School        385 

Clopton,  master  of  the  Gild,  and  their  successors  shall  name 
a  priest  to  teach  grammar  as  often  as  there  shall  be  a  vacancy. 

And  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Clopton,  master  of  the  said  Gild, 
and  the  aldermen  and  proctors  of  the  same  Gild  and  their 
successors  for  ever  shall  keep,  or  cause  to  be  kept  for  ever,  an 
obit  on  the  eve  of  24  August  in  the  parish  church  of  Stratford 
aforesaid  before  the  altar  of  St  John  the  Baptist  with  all  the 
priests  of  the  said  collegiate  church  for  the  souls  of  the  said 
master  Thomas  Jolyffe,  John  and  Jane  his  parents,  and  for  the 
souls  of  all  the  faithful  departed.  And  likewise  the  aforesaid 
master,  aldermen,  proctors  and  their  successors  shall  keep  or 
cause  to  be  kept  for  ever  an  obit  for  the  souls  aforesaid  and 
for  all  faithful  souls  departed  on  the  eve  of  24  August  aforesaid 
in  the  chapel  of  the  Gild  aforesaid  with  all  the  priests  of  the 
said  Gild. 

And  if  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Clopton,  aldermen,  proctors 
and  their  successors  shall  make  default  and  not  fulfil  all  and 
singular  the  premises  for  the  space  of  a  year,  one  immediately 
following  another,  then  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  said  Master 
Thomas  Balsall,  clerk  and  warden,  and  his  successors  to  enter 
on  all  the  aforesaid  lands  and  tenements  and  to  keep  them  for 
themselves  until  the  aforesaid  Thomas  Clopton,  master  of  the 
Gild  aforesaid,  and  the  aldermen  and  proctors  and  their  suc- 
cessors shall  find  sufficient  security  to  fulfil  all  the  premises,  and 
if  such  sufficient  security  shall  not  be  able  to  be  found  on  behalf 
of  the  said  Thomas  Clopton  master,  the  aldermen  and  proctors 
and  their  successors,  then  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  said  Master 
Thomas  Balsall,  warden,  and  his  successors  wardens  for  the 
time  being  to  re-enter  on  all  the  said  lands  and  tenements  and 
enjoy  and  possess  them  for  ever  for  the  maintenance  of  divers 
choristers.  And  the  aforesaid  grammar  priest  and  his  scholars 
shall  twice  a  week,  viz.  on  Wednesday  and  Friday,  sing  an 
anthem  of  St  Mary  and  after  the  said  anthem  say  devoutly 
for  the  aforesaid  souls  of  Master  Thomas  Jolyffe,  John  and 
Jane  his  parents,  and  for  the  souls  of  all  the  faithful  departed 
'  Out  of  the  deep.' 

L.  25 

386  Statutes  of  Apprentices  not  to 

In  cuius  rei  testimonium  uni  parti  istarum  Indenturarum 
penes  prefatum  Johannem  Stratford  capellanum  et  Thomam 
Warde  remanenti  sigillum  commune  dicte  Gilde  est  appensum. 
Dat.  apud  Stratford  predictam  in  aula  Gilde  die  Lune  proximo 
post  festum  Translacionis  Sancti  Thome  Martiris,  anno  regni 
Regis  Edwardi  quarti  post  conquestum  vicesimo  secundo. 

Children   may  be  sent  to  School  notwithsta7iding 
Statute  of  Labourers  and  Apprentices.      1405-6. 

[7  Hen.  IV,  c.  17,  Slat,  of  the  Realm,  ed.  1816,  11.   i-;7.] 

Nulle  homme  ou  femme  de  quele  estate  ou  condicion  qil 
soit,  mette  son  fitz  ou  file  de  quele  age  qil  soit  de  servir  come 
apprentice  a  nulle  mestere  nautre  laboure  dedeinz  Citee  or  Burgh 
dedeinz  le  Roialme,  sinon  qil  eit  terre  ou  rent  a  la  value  de 
20s.  per  an  a  meins,  mes  qil  soit  mys  de  servir  a  autiel  labour, 
soit  il  deinz  Citee  ou  Burgh  ou  dehors,  come  ses  ditz  piere 
ou  miere  usent,  ou  autres  labours  come  leurs  estates  requiergent, 
sur  peyn  denprisonement  dun  an  et  de  faire  fyn  et  raunceon 
a  la  volunte  du  Roy.  Purveux  toutesfoitz  que  chacun  homme 
ou  femme  de  quele  estate  ou  condicion  qil  soit,  soit  fraunc  de 
mettre  son  fitz  ou  file  dapprendre  lettereure,  a  quelconq  escole 
que  leur  plest  deinz  le  Roialme. 

The  Choristers  School  becomes  a  rival  Grammar 
School  at  Lincoln.      1407-9. 

[A.  F.  Leach,  V.  C.  H.  Lines,  ii.  426,  from  Line.  Chapter  Act  Book, 
A.  2,  30.] 

Item  viij°  die  Januarii  Anno  Domini  supradicto,  conuentum 
fuit  inter  canonicos  tunc  presentes  et  capitulum  facientes,  quod 
coriste  ecclesie  Lincoln,  et  eorum  conimensales  descenderent 
ad  scolas  gramaticales  generales,  prout  consuetum  fuerat 
temporibus  retroactis;  Precentorc  tunc  absente,  cuius  tunc 
notorium  vertebatur  interesse. 

prevent  Children  being  sent  to  School      387 

In  witness  whereof  to  one  part  of  these  Indentures  remaining 
with  the  said  John  Stratford  chaplain  and  Thomas  Ward  the 
common  seal  of  the  said  Gild  is  appended.  Given  at  Stratford 
aforesaid  in  the  Gild  Hall  on  Monday  next  after  7  July  in  the 
22nd  year  of  King  Edward  IV  after  the  Conquest  [1482]. 

Children   may  be  sent   to   School  notwithstanding 
Statute  of  Labourers  and  Apprentices,      1405-6. 

That  no  man  nor  woman,  of  what  estate  or  condition  they 
be,  shall  put  their  son  or  daughter,  of  whatsoever  age  he  or  she 
be,  to  serve  as  apprentice,  to  no  craft  nor  other  labour  within 
any  City  or  Borough  in  the  Realm,  except  he  have  land  or 
rent  to  the  value  of  20^-.  by  the  year  at  the  least,  but  they  shall 
be  put  to  other  labours  [to  service  to  such  labour  be  it 
withyn  Citie  Burgh  or  without  as  his  said  fader  or  moder  used, 
or]  as  their  Estates  doth  require,  upon  pain  of  one  year's 
imprisonment,  and  to  make  fine  and  ransom  at  the  king's  will. 
Provided  always,  that  every  man  or  woman,  of  what  estate  or 
condition  that  he  be,  shall  be  free  to  set  their  son  or  daughter 
to  take  learning  at  any  manner  school  that  pleaseth  them 
within  the  Realm. 

The  Choristers  School  becomes  a  rival  Grammar 
School  at  Lincoln.      1407-9. 

Also  on  8  January  in  the  year  of  the  Lord  above-mentioned 
[1406-7]  it  was  agreed  between  the  canons  then  present  and 
making  a  chapter,  that  the  choristers  of  the  church  of  Lincoln 
and  their  commoners  should  go  down  to  the  general  Grammar 
School  as  had  been  customary  in  times  past :  the  Precentor 
being  absent,  whose  interest  was  notoriously  concerned  in  the 

388         Lincoln  Choristers    School  becomes 

Item  XV"  die  eiusdem  mensis  Precentor  et  ceteri  canonici 
tunc  presentes  voluerunt  et  consenciebant  quod  Magister 
coristarum  et  corum  Petagogus  commensales  admittere  possit, 
consanguineos  et  pueros  canonicorum  libere  informare  valeat 
in  scolis  Collegii  predicti. 

Voluerunt  tamen  quod  extraneos  pueros  a  scolis  genera- 
libus  fugientes,  sive  fuerint  de  civitate  vel  partibus  adiacentibus, 
nullatenus  admittat  nee  informet,  set  \sic\  ad  scolas  generales 
destinet  et  remittat.  Coriste  tamen  et  eorum  commensales 
tempore  honesto,  et  quando  commode  poterunt  descendere, 
ad  hiiiusmodi  scolas  generales  declinabunt,  quociens  et  quando 
Domino  Precentori  et  eorum  Informatori  videbitur  expedire 

\^Ih.  and  City  Register,  f.   14.] 

[Composicio  inter  Capitulum  ecclesie  Lincoln,  et  Maiorem 
et  ciues  ciuitatis  Lincoln,  pro  scola  Gramaticali,  inuenta  per 
Thomam  Grantham.] 

[The  words  in  brackets  are  the  reading  of  the  City 

Ordinacio  de  Scolis  Gramaticalibus. 

Item  eodem  die,  prehibito  [aliquali]  tractatu  per  sub- 
decanum  et  capitulum  ecclesie  Lincoln.  [Decano  eiusdem 
absente]  inter  Magistrum  Johannem  Huntman[e],  ecclesie 
Lincoln,  cancellarium,  ac  Majorem  et  ciues  ciuitatis  Lincoln., 
ex  parte  una:  et  Magistrum  Johannem  Neuport[e],  eiusdem 
ecclesie  Precentorem,  ex  parte  altera  ;  de  et  super  regimine 
Scolarum  gramaticalium  Coristarum  infra  clausum  ecclesie 
Lincoln,  situatarum,  et  super  admissione  et  recepcione  [tarn] 
scolarium  extraneorum  et  aliorum  quam  coristarum  et  eorum 
commensalium  facta  per  Liformatorem  et  petegogum  \sic\ 
eorumdem,  in  derogacionem  iuris  et  regiminis  Scolarum 
Generalium  Gramaticalium  ciuitatis  predicte,  per  Magistrum 
Johannem  Bracebryg  [Brasbryge],  Magistrum  scolarum 
generalium  [gramaticalium]  predictarum  [coram  eisdem  sub- 
decano  et  capitulo]  propositam  et  pretensam; 

a  rival  Grammar  School  at  Lincoln     389 

Also  on  the  15  th  of  the  same  month  the  Precentor  and  the 
rest  of  the  canons  then  present  were  desirous  and  agreed  that 
the  master  of  the  choristers  and  their  tutor  might  admit 
commoners  and  teach  freely  the  relations  and  boys  of  the 
canons  in  the  school  of  the  said  college. 

They  would  not  however  let  him  by  any  means  admit  or 
teach  any  outside  boys  who  wished  to  leave  the  general  school, 
whether  they  came  from  the  city  or  from  the  neighbourhood, 
but  desired  that  he  should  order  them  back  to  the  general 
school.  The  choristers,  however,  and  the  boarders  with  them 
will  go  to  such  general  school  at  a  proper  time  and  when  they 
conveniently  can,  as  often  and  at  such  times  as  shall  seem 
good  to  the  Precentor  and  their  master  etc. 

[Agreement  between  the  Chapter  of  the  Church  of  Lincoln 
and  the  Mayor  and  citizens  of  the  city  of  Lincoln  for  the 
Grammar  School,  found  by  Thomas  Grantham.] 

Ordinance  for  the  Grammar  School. 

Also  the  same  day  [12  Feb.  1406—7]  after  some  treaty 
through  the  Subdean  and  Chapter  of  Lincoln  (the  Dean  of  the 
same  being  absent)  between  Master  John  Huntman,  chancellor 
of  the  church  of  Lincoln,  and  the  mayor  and  citizens  of  the 
city  of  Lincoln  on  the  one  part,  and  Master  John  Newport, 
precentor  of  the  same  church,  on  the  other  part,  on  and  about 
the  keeping  of  the  Grammar  School  of  the  choristers  situate 
in  the  close  of  the  church  of  Lincoln  and  on  the  admission 
and  reception  of  outside  scholars  and  others  than  the  choristers 
and  the  boarders  with  them  by  the  ALister  and  Usher  of  the 
same  in  derogation  of  the  rights  and  governance  of  the  (General 
Grammar  School  of  the  city  aforesaid,  put  forward  and  alleged 
by  Master  John  Bracebridge,  Master  of  the  said  General 
School  J 

390       Lincoln  Choristers    School  becomes 

Tandem  de  consensu  et  assensu  dictorum  Dominorum 
Cancellarii  et  Precentoris  ac  Subdecani  et  capituli,  necnon 
Maioris  et  ciuium  predictorum,  tractatus  antedictus  unanimiter 
finem  habuit,  et,  prout  alias  litis  huiusmodi  materia  inter  partes 
predictas  suscitata  sopita  extiterat,  in  hunc  modum  capitulariter 
conquieuit :  videlicet, 

Quod  coristarum  Petegogi  seu  Informatores,  vel  Magistri 
eorumdem  coristarum,  communiter  commensales,  necnon 
consanguineos  canonicorum  et  vicariorum  dicte  ecclesie, 
eorumue  sumptibus  et  elemosinis  degentes  vel  in  eorum 
familia  habitantes,  quibuscunque  diebus  et  horis  legibilibus, 
in  gramatica  absque  contradiccione  informare  valeant  libere 
et  quiete,  dum  tamen  predicti  Petegogi  seu  Magistri  cum 
eisdem  coristis,  eorumque  commensalibus  ac  canonicorum 
et  vicariorum  consanguineis,  vel  in  eorum  familia  et  sumptibus, 
eorumue  elemosinis  degentibus,  cuiuscjue  anni  [post]  datum 
presentis  composicionis  subsequentibus  terminis  S.  Michaelis, 
Natalis  Domini,  et  Pasche  semel  ad  scolas  generales  [grama- 
ticales]  ecclesie  Lincoln,  sub  regimine  proprii  Magistri,  bora 
ordinaria  et  consueta  descendere  teneantur.  Temporibus 
eciam  quibus  in  dictis  scolis  generalibus  extiterint  dicti  coriste 
et  alii  supradicti  erunt  sub  doctrina  et  castigacione  proprii 
Magistri,  nisi  aliud  de  illius  processerit  voluntate. 

Erunt  insuper  dicti  Informatores  seu  petegogi  coristarum, 
ac  ipsi  choriste  et  eorum  commensales  et  alii  supradicti 
[canonicorum  et  vicariorum  pueri]  exempti  ab  omni  punicione, 
exaccione,  et  coUecte  seu  salarii  solucione,  et  ceteris  oneribus 
[omnibus]  in  huiusmodi  scolis  fieri  consuetis,  et  a  compulsione 
veniendi  ad  easdem  scolas  generales  ecclesie  Lincoln,  priuilegiati, 
nisi  illis  tribus  quarteriis  annorum  singulorum  in  quibus  dicti 
coriste  et  omnes  eorum  commensales  cum  aliis  prenotatis,  bora 
ordinaria  ac  consueta,  ad  scolas  generales  prescriptas  venire 
tenebuntur,   sub  forma  superius  expressata. 

[Diffinitum  est  eciam  per  nos  Subdecanum  et  capitulum, 
et  parcium  predictarum  consensu  finaliter  ordinatum  et 
declaratum    quod    nulli    alii    a    supradictis  ;    scilicet,    coristis, 

a  rival  Grammar  School  at  Lincoln      391 

At  length  by  the  consent  and  assent  of  the  said  Chancellor 
and  Precentor  and  Subdean  and  Chapter,  as  well  as  of  the 
mayor  and  citizens  aforesaid,  the  discussion  before-mentioned 
was  finally  and  unanimously  settled,  and  as  the  like  controversy 
had  at  other  times  been  raised  and  dropped  between  the 
parties,  now  it  was  capitularly  ended:  thus. 

That  the  Ushers  or  Teachers  or  Masters  of  the  same 
choristers  might  freely  and  quietly  without  interference  teach 
grammar  to  the  commoners  boarding  with  them,  also  the  relations 
of  the  canons  and  vicars  [choral]  of  the  said  church  or  those 
living  at  their  expense  and  on  their  charity  or  on  their  families, 
on  any  lawful  school-days  and  school-hours,  provided  always 
that  the  said  Ushers  or  Masters  shall  be  bound  once  in 
every  year  after  the  date  of  these  presents  in  the  Michaelmas, 
Christmas  and  Easter  terms  following  to  go  down  with  the  same 
choristers,  their  commoners  and  the  relations  of  the  canons 
and  vicars  and  those  living  in  their  family  or  at  their  expense 
and  on  their  charity,  to  the  General  [Clrammar]  School  of  the 
church  of  Lincoln  under  the  governance  of  their  own  master  at 
the  ordinary  and  usual  time.  At  the  time  moreover  when  the 
said  choristers  and  others  above-mentioned  shall  be  in  the  said 
general  schools  they  shall  be  under  the  teaching  and  chastise- 
ment of  the  master  of  that  school,  unless  it  shall  be  arranged 
otherwise  at  his  wish. 

The  said  Teachers  or  Ushers  of  the  choristers  too,  and  the 
choristers  themselves  and  their  commoners  and  other  above- 
mentioned  boys  of  the  canons  and  vicars  shall  be  exempt  from 
all  punishment,  exaction  and  payment  of  collections  or  fees, 
and  from  all  other  charges  customary  in  such  school  and 
privileged  from  the  obligation  to  go  to  the  said  general  school 
of  the  church  of  Lincoln,  except  in  the  three  quarters  of  each 
year  in  which  the  said  choristers  and  all  their  commoners  and 
others  l)eforc-mentioned,  shall  be  bound  at  the  ordinary  and 
customary  hour  to  go  to  the  said  general  school,  as  above- 

[It  is  also  laid  down  by  us  the  Subdean  and  chapter 
aforesaid  and  fmally  ordered  with  \\\v.  consent  of  the  parties 
aforesaid  and   declared,  that   none   others   than   those   above- 

392        Lincoln  Choristers    School  becomes 

eorum  commensalibus,  canonicorum  vel  vicariorum  consan- 
guineis,  vel  in  eorum  faniilia  seu  eorum  elemosinis  vel 
sumptibus  degentibus,  ad  informacionem  seu  doctrinam 
Magistrorum  vel  Petegorum  coristarum,  seu  inter  illos 
informandi  aliqualiter  admittantur;  set  omnes  alii  in  cantariis, 
vel  extra  clausum  Lincoln,  vel  infra,  aliquo  alio  loco  vel  modo 
quam  ut  premittitur  habitantes  et  adiscere  volentes,  sicut 
antiquitus  fieri  consueuit,  ad  scolas  generates  predictas 
descendere  teneantur;  nisi  aliud  ex  Cancellarii  ecclesie  Lincoln, 
et  Principalis  Magistri  earumdem  Scolarum  Generalium  pro- 
cesserit  voluntate.] 

Precedence  of  the  Schoolmaster  among  the  Vicars 
Choral.      1409. 

[Chapter  Act  Book,  A.  2,  30,  f.   15  h.] 

jQino  (Jig  inensis  Augusti  a.d,  1409  Decanus  et  capitulum 
ecclesie  Lincoln,  attendentes  quod  Henricus  Burwasshe, 
vicarius  de  maiori  forma,  et  sacrista  ecclesie  Lincoln.,  et 
Johannes  Bracebrig,  vicarius  eiusdem  forme,  Magister  Scolarum 
ciuitatis  Lincolnie,  propter  dignitatem  siue  superioritatem 
officiorum  suorum  huiusmodi  in  maiori  reuerencia  debeant 
anteferri  ceteris  vicariis  officia  non  habentibus,  unanimiter 
ordinarunt ; 

Quod  dictus  Henricus,  Sacrista,  et  Johannes,  Magister 
Scolarum  predictus,  in  omni  processione,  loco  capitulari,  lo- 
coue  alio,  ubi  chorus  est  presens,  habeant,  et  uterque  eorum, 
viz.  dictus  Henricus  Sacrista  habeat  locum  superiorem  iuxta 
Canonicos,  ex  parte  Boriali,  et  dictus  Johannes  Magister 
Scolarum  habeat  locum  superiorem  iuxta  Canonicos  ex  parte 
australi ;  nisi  forte  propter  paucitatem  siue  plenitudinem 
vicariorum  in  choro,  aut  propter  honorem  Sanctorum  eos  in 
cantu  versiculacionem  oporteat  intendere,  vel  eis  placuerit, 
in  medio  chori  iuxta  librum  cantus  cum  ceteris  consociis  suis 

Et  quod  non  intabulentur  pro  inuitatoriis  responsoriis  cum 
suis  versibus  cantandis,  ut  vicarii  inferiores  officia  non  habentes, 
nisi  paucitas  vicariorum  id  exposcat. 

a  rival  Grammar  School  at  Lincoln        393 

mentioned,  namely,  the  choristers,  the  commoners  with  them, 
the  relations  of  the  canons  and  vicars,  or  others  living  in